From left to right: the first three images show the opening pages of the documents regarding the Vienna Congress treaties of 1814-1815 as collected in Treaties of accession and of subsidy, between Great Britain and other powers. Far right: Charles Webster, The Congress of Vienna.
This first period was dominated by a Christian-ethical stance, which originated in the religious backgrounds of the
prime movers of these initial stages, the Quakers in England and Scotland and the Presbyterians in America. Other aspects
that were important in the development of the peace movement during the 19th century were the rather more mundane
considerations on trade, politics, federation-thinking and the improvement of the social and economic circumstances
of the poor.
The first World Peace Conference, organized in London in 1843, marked a turning point in the way the advocates of peace were able to organize themselves and from around 1870 onwards the original Christian stance was supplemented with a quest for more fundamental human values. These were eventually to be collected under the heading Human Rights as formulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights accepted by the United Nations 10 January 1948.
From left to right: W.H. van der Linden's The international peace movement, Arthur Eyffinger's The 1899 Hague Peace Conference, Léon Bourgeois' assessment of the 1919 Versailles treaty and an anthology of alternative proposals, the Contrepropositions de l'Allemagne au project du traité de paix de Versailles. See also A.H. Fried's Der Weltprotest gegen den Versailler Frieden.
In the years up to and including the First World War there was a particular emphasis on the development of legislation that could be used to settle or prevent armed conflicts. This resulted in the establishment of bodies such as the International Court of Arbitration (the predecessor of the PCA), the Permanent Court of International Justice (after 1945: the International Court of Justice) and the League of Nations (predecessor of the UN). Three major figures in these years were William Stead, Bertha von Suttner and Alfred Hermann Fried. The Peace Palace Library has several letters from Fried to Von Suttner in its collection. His admiration for Von Suttner is further expressed in the commemmorative issue of Die Friedenswarte für zwischenstaatliche Organisation, dedicated to her.
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