World Trade Organization

Introduction

World Trade Organization - Research Guide International Law

The birth of the World Trade Organization (WTO) marked the end of an era in which international trade was governed by the 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1947). With the refusal of the United States Congress to ratify the Charter of the International Trade Organization (Havana Charter) GATT 1947 was the only means left for the regulation of international trade relations. It was originally conceived as a provisional multilateral agreement for tariff reduction without any reference to a specific institutional umbrella. In spite of its many shortcomings, GATT 1947 gradually evolved into a de facto international organization which helped establish a strong and prosperous multilateral trading system through many rounds of trade negotiations. Although GATT 1947 is now reduced to its original status as a multilateral agreement, its history of decisions, procedures and customary practices still form an important element for the interpretation and understanding of the WTO and its provisions. The World Trade Organization is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on the World Trade Organization. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 140a. GATT/WTO and subject heading (keyword) World Trade Organization are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

Bibliography

Reference works

Books

Leading articles

Documents

 

Relevant Legal Texts:

Periodicals, serial publications

 

Bibliographies

New titles


1. La legitimidad social de las organizaciones internacionales
La legitimidad social de las organizaciones internacionales : estudio de las percepciones estatales y de la sociedad civil de la ONU, OMC y OIT / Ander Gutiérrez-Solana Journoud. - Madrid ; Barcelona ; Buenos Aires ; São Paulo : Marcial Pons, 2014. - 268 pages. ; 24 cm. - (Tribunal institucional ; 15) Also mentioned on titlepage: Fundación Centro de Estudios Internacionales. - Bibliography: page 241-258. - With notes. - 2014
Keywords: United Nations, World Trade Organization, International Labour Organization, International organizations, Legitimacy,

2. Dekonstitutionalisierung der WTO?
Dekonstitutionalisierung der WTO? : Gedanken zum Vorschlag eines "Horizontale Mechanismus" der Streitbeilegung / von Andreas von Arnauld. - Berlin : Duncker & Humblot. - Page 573-588 In: Aus Kiel in die Welt: Kiel's Contribution to International Law : Festschrift zum 100-jährigen Bestehen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht : Essays in Honour of the 100th Anniversary of the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law / herausgegeben von Jost Delbrück, Ursula Heinz, Kerstin Odendahl, Nele Matz-Lück und Andreas von Arnauld, ISBN 9783428144327: (2014), Page 573-588. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, WTO Appellate Body, Judicial settlement of international disputes, Constitutionalism, International trade,

3. Public Morals and WTO Law
Public Morals and WTO Law / by Christoph Hermes. - Berlin : Duncker & Humblot. - Page 589-606 In: Aus Kiel in die Welt: Kiel's Contribution to International Law : Festschrift zum 100-jährigen Bestehen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht : Essays in Honour of the 100th Anniversary of the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law / herausgegeben von Jost Delbrück, Ursula Heinz, Kerstin Odendahl, Nele Matz-Lück und Andreas von Arnauld, ISBN 9783428144327: (2014), Page 589-606. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, Ethics, International trade,

4. Standard of Review as a Procedural Issue in WTO Dispute Settlement: of Balancing Acts and Presumptions of Legality
Standard of Review as a Procedural Issue in WTO Dispute Settlement: of Balancing Acts and Presumptions of Legality / by Karsten Nowrot. - Berlin : Duncker & Humblot. - Page 607-633 In: Aus Kiel in die Welt: Kiel's Contribution to International Law : Festschrift zum 100-jährigen Bestehen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht : Essays in Honour of the 100th Anniversary of the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law / herausgegeben von Jost Delbrück, Ursula Heinz, Kerstin Odendahl, Nele Matz-Lück und Andreas von Arnauld, ISBN 9783428144327: (2014), Page 607-633. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, WTO Appellate Body, Judicial review, Judicial settlement of international disputes,

5. Commercio internazionale e tutela dei diritti fondamentali: recenti tendenze in tema di diritto all'alimentazione
Commercio internazionale e tutela dei diritti fondamentali: recenti tendenze in tema di diritto all'alimentazione / Claudio Di Turi. - Napoli : Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane. - Page 1145-1163 In: Costituzione, Economia, Globalizzazione : Liber amicorum in onore di Carlo Amirante, ISBN 9788849526080: (2013), Page 1145-1163. - 2013
Keywords: World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International trade, Trade policy, Food security, Right to food, Human rights,

6. Conflits et résolutions possibles entre le droit de l'OMC et le Protocole de Kyoto
Conflits et résolutions possibles entre le droit de l'OMC et le Protocole de Kyoto : perspectives sur le rôle de l'ORD de l'OMC / Yao-Ming Hsu. - Leiden [etc.] : Nijhoff In: La mise en oeuvre du droit international de l'environnement = Implementation of International Environmental Law / sous la dir. de Sandrine Maljean-Dubois et Lavanya Rajamani, ISBN 9789004208926: (2011) - 2011
Keywords: Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997), Tradable emission permits, World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Environmental protection, International trade, Judicial settlement of international disputes, Climate change, Multilateral environmental agreements, International obligations, Compliance,

7. La diversité culturelle à l'Unesco
La diversité culturelle à l'Unesco : ombres et lumières / Vittorio Mainetti. - Leiden [etc.] : Nijhoff In: Approches juridiques de la diversité culturelle / Académie de Droit International de la Haye = Legal approaches to cultural diversity / Hague Academy of International Law ; publ. sous la dir. de Marie-Claire Foblets, Nadjma Yassar, ISBN 9789004250154: (2013) - 2013
Keywords: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Cultural diversity, Multicultural society, Cultural co-operation, Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (20 October 2005), World Trade Organization,

8. Production des énergies renouvelables et droit de l'organisation mondiale du commerce
Production des énergies renouvelables et droit de l'organisation mondiale du commerce / Féline Marandet. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 131-148 In: Énergies renouvelables et marché intérieur / sous la direction de Claudie Boiteau ; préface de Patrice Geoffron, ISBN 9782802744528: (2014), Page 131-148. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, Energy, Renewable energy resources, Environmental protection, International environmental law,

9. La libéralisation des échanges empêtrée
La libéralisation des échanges empêtrée : les risques systémiques : le cycle de Doha : quelles solutions pour sortir de l'enlisement? / 43000. - Paris : Editions Pedone. - Page 115-125 In: Les dérèglements économiques internationaux : crise du droit ou droit des crises? : Colloque des 21 et 22 mars 2013 organisé par le Centre d'études et de recherches internationales et communautaires (CERIC CNRS-AMU UMR 7318), Faculté de droit et de science politique, Aix-Marseille Université / sous la direction de Habib Gherari, ISBN 9782233007179: (2014), Page 115-125. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International trade, Multilateral trade negotiations, International economic relations, Doha,

10. Du libre-échange au juste échange?
Du libre-échange au juste échange? : pour une "smart" conditionnalité sociale dans le droit du commerce international / Jean-Marc Thouvenin. - Paris : Editions Pedone. - Page 127-138 In: Les dérèglements économiques internationaux : crise du droit ou droit des crises? : Colloque des 21 et 22 mars 2013 organisé par le Centre d'études et de recherches internationales et communautaires (CERIC CNRS-AMU UMR 7318), Faculté de droit et de science politique, Aix-Marseille Université / sous la direction de Habib Gherari, ISBN 9782233007179: (2014), Page 127-138. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Free trade, Fair trade,

11. Les accords ADPIC+
Les accords ADPIC+ / Bernard Remiche. - Paris : Editions Pedone. - Page 139-156 In: Les dérèglements économiques internationaux : crise du droit ou droit des crises? : Colloque des 21 et 22 mars 2013 organisé par le Centre d'études et de recherches internationales et communautaires (CERIC CNRS-AMU UMR 7318), Faculté de droit et de science politique, Aix-Marseille Université / sous la direction de Habib Gherari, ISBN 9782233007179: (2014), Page 139-156. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, TRIPS Agreement (Marrakesh, 15 April 1994), International trade, Intellectual property,

12. Les résurgences du patriotisme économique
Les résurgences du patriotisme économique / Catherine Rosso. - Paris : Editions Pedone. - Page 157-179 In: Les dérèglements économiques internationaux : crise du droit ou droit des crises? : Colloque des 21 et 22 mars 2013 organisé par le Centre d'études et de recherches internationales et communautaires (CERIC CNRS-AMU UMR 7318), Faculté de droit et de science politique, Aix-Marseille Université / sous la direction de Habib Gherari, ISBN 9782233007179: (2014), Page 157-179. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International trade, Economy, Free trade,

13. Why Comply When Others Are Not Bound?
Why Comply When Others Are Not Bound? : Emissions Trading, Carbon Leakage and Trade Measures / Francesco Sindico. - Leiden [etc.] : Nijhoff In: La mise en oeuvre du droit international de l'environnement = Implementation of International Environmental Law / publ. sous la dir. de Sandrine Maljean-Dubois et Lavanya Rajamani, ISBN 9789004208926: (2011) - 2011
Keywords: Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997), Climate change, Environmental protection, Emissions, Tradable emission permits, Multilateral environmental agreements, International obligations, Compliance, Common but Differentiated Responsibility principle, World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, General exceptions, International trade, Trade barriers,

14. India's Experience with the Anti-Dumping Mechanism
India's Experience with the Anti-Dumping Mechanism / Dr Pallavi Kishore In: Revue de droit des affaires internationales = International Business Law Journal = ISSN 0295-5830: (2014), issue 4, page 317-330. - 2014
Keywords: DZ, India, World Trade Organization, Anti-dumping, International trade,

15. Public Participation and Legitimacy in the WTO
Public Participation and Legitimacy in the WTO / Yves Bonzon. - Cambridge, United Kingdom : Cambridge University Press, 2014. - XIII, 313 pages. ; 24 cm. - (Cambridge International Trade and Economic Law ; 15) Originally doctoral thesis Faculty of Law of the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, 2012. - Bibliography: page 278-298. - Includes index. - 2014
Keywords: World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International trade, Trade policy, Public participation, Decision-making,

Librarian's choice

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  • Struck, C., Product Regulations and Standards in WTO Law, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2014.

    Struck, C., Product Regulations and Standards in WTO Law, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2014.

    The interrelation of products, the human body, and the environment presents a fundamental challenge to the international trade regulatory system. In an ever more integrated global market, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and other increasingly prevalent methods of processing food and pharmaceuticals give rise not only to trade issues, but also to health, safety, and security concerns. Product-related cross-border issues such as the spread of disease, the use of riskrelevant substances or components, and safety-related construction issues are increasingly on the agenda for governments and international organizations. A promising response to this challenge – presented in this book – is offered by a harmonization of the multiplicity of rules, standards, guidelines, and recommendations that characterizes the current system of international trade regulation. Based primarily on the author’s thorough research on the rules on harmonization within the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement), this book sets forth a workable scheme for the harmonization of public and private regulations and standards – a scheme that, the author shows, is sure to be helpful in reducing non-tariff barriers and achieving further integration of international markets.

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  • Gantz, D.A., Liberalizing International Trade after Doha: Multilateral, Plurilateral, Regional and Unilateral Initiatives, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    Gantz, D.A., Liberalizing International Trade after Doha, Multilateral, Plurilateral, Regional and Unilateral Initiatives, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    After ten years the Doha Development Round is effectively dead. A broadly comprehensive round of trade negotiations reminiscent of the Doha agenda or the Uruguay Round will not likely be attempted again in the foreseeable future. Although some have suggested that Doha’s demise threatens the continued existence of the GATT/WTO system, even with some risks of increasing protectionism, the United States, the European Union, Japan, Brazil, China, and India, among others, have far too much to lose to make abandoning the WTO a rational option. If there is reason for cautious optimism post-Doha it is because there are alternatives to a comprehensive package of new or amended multilateral agreements. In addition to likely consensus on a few noncontroversial multilateral elements of Doha, the alternatives include existing and future “plurilateral” trade agreements, new or revised regional trade agreements covering both goods and services, and liberalized national trade laws and regulations in the WTO member nations. This book discusses the alternatives, which although less than ideal, may provide an impetus for continuing trade liberalization both among willing members and in some instances worldwide.

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  • VanGrasstek, C., The History and Future of the World Trade Organization, Geneva, World Trade Organization, 2013.

    Vangrasstek, C., The History and Future of the World Trade Organization, Geneva, World Trade Organization, 2013.

    This volume offers a comprehensive account of the establishment of the World Trade Organization. It focuses on those who shaped its creation as well as those who have influenced its evolution. The book examines trade negotiations, the WTO dispute settlement role, and the presence of coalitions and groupings within the WTO. It also examines the process of joining the organization, as well as many other topics including what lies ahead for the organization.

     

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  • Watson, J.K.R, The WTO and the Environment: Development of Competence beyond Trade, London, Routledge, 2013.

    Watson, J.K.R, The WTO and the Environment: Development of Competence beyond Trade, London, Routledge, 2013.

    This book is a review of the development of the WTO dispute resolution procedure and the power and influence it has gained over the practises of the member countries as well as in other international treaties. The book addresses the development of environmental competency in the WTO and examines the arguments of those who oppose WTO rule making with impacts on the environment. The WTO’s interactions with multilateral environmental agreements are considered and recent WTO cases including the 2011 US/Mexico tuna dispute and the US sea turtles decision are analysed in detail. In examining how an international organisation which was established with a specific purpose in mind has come to interact in fields beyond its original remit, James Watson demonstrates how the dispute resolution system at the WTO has come to work in a judicialised manner, operating with an informal system of precedent. This has led to the contracting parties placing more reliance on the decisions of the dispute panels and appeal body when considering policy options, with WTO rulings increasingly influencing the behaviour of national legislatures in regard to the environment. The book goes on to make concrete recommendations, based on existing practise in the WTO dispute resolution procedure, which could enhance decision making in environmental cases heard by the WTO. The book argues that this could be achieved with straightforward amendments to the WTO, based on existing practices endorsed under the WTO for other policy considerations. The WTO and the Environment will be of particular interest to academics and students of International and Environmental law.

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  • Wilkinson, R. and J. Scott (eds.), Trade, Poverty, Development: Getting beyond the WTO's Doha Deadlock, London, Routledge, 2013.

    Wilkinson, R. and J. Scott (eds.), Trade, Poverty, Development: Getting beyond the WTO's Doha Deadlock, London, Routledge, 2013.

    This work seeks to look beyond the seemingly endless deadlock in the WTO’s Doha round of trade negotiations that began in November 2001 and were first scheduled to conclude by January 1, 2005. As well as offering an incisive analysis of the ills of the round, with particular attention directed at the poorest and least developed countries, the book expands on how the round could be moved forward elaborating on the Statement on the Doha Development Agenda that was negotiated in Johannesburg. The work as a whole provides the reader with a critical analysis of the implications of the negotiations for development and poverty reduction as well as proposals for moving beyond the current impasse. The volume brings together contributions from serving and former ambassadors to the WTO, key practitioners, and civil society representatives along with those of leading scholars. Each chapter explores an area of critical importance to the round; and together they stand as an important contribution to debates not only about the Doha round but also about the role of trade in the amelioration of poverty in the poorest countries.

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  • Farrell, J.E., The Interface of International Trade Law and Taxation: Defining the Role of the WTO, Amsterdam, IBFD, 2013.

    Farrell, J.E., The Interface of International Trade Law and Taxation : Defining the Role of the WTO, Amsterdam, IBFD, 2013.
    This book explores the ill-defined and oft-underestimated relationship between the World Trade Organization (WTO) and taxation. By adopting a two-pronged approach, the relationship is examined in terms of the extent to which the WTO legal framework exerts influence upon domestic tax law and international tax policy, and whether it is appropriate for the WTO to play a regulatory role in the field of taxation.
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Database

Blogs

  • 400th Trade Dispute for World Trade Organization (WTO)

    On 1 January 2010 the World Trade Organization (WTO) will celebrate its 15th birthday. Shortly before the anniversary the 7th Session of the WTO Ministerial Conference will take place for the second time in Geneva, Switzerland, from 30 November to 2 December 2009. Trade ministers will be discussing the general theme “The WTO, the Multilateral Trading System and the Current Global Economic Environment”.

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  • WTO launches new database on regional trade agreements

    On 14 january 2009 the database was launched and can be accessed in English, French and Spanish. The database can be searched by country, region, legal provision, date of notification or entry into force of the RTA. Summary tables of all RTAs currently in force, containing various types of information, can be easily exported by users of the database.

    Read more

See also

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