Minorities

Introduction

Minorities - Research Guide International Law

A systematic approach of international protection of minority rights began after the First World War by the League of Nations. The minority protection system was meant to protect group rights of homogenous populations within States, to further the idea of self-determination. After the Second World War the United Nations the focus was on universal rights of individuals, rather than on minorities. The end of the Cold War, and the many conflicts with ethnic dimensions marked the revival of the protection of minority rights. The result was the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities by the UN General Assembly in 1992. The 21st Century faces the challenge to achieve a peaceful coexistence within the multicultural nations of the world.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for legal research on Minorities. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section.
Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 106. Minorities and subject heading (keyword) Minorities are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

Indigenous nations are at the forefront of the conflict with transnational corporate power

Don’t let tribes be turned into just another minority

Canada’s relationship with First nations is a failure

Minority rights protection remains a concern in Kosovo

It is Time to Recognize the National Sovereignty and Human Rights of Native Indians

 

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Bibliography

Reference works

Leading articles

Documents

Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

New titles


1. The "why" of minority protection
The "why" of minority protection / Ivan Skorvanek. - Nijmegen : WLP (Wolf Legal Publishers), 2014. - 130 pages. ; 24 cm Bibliography: page 129-130. - With notes. - 2014
Keywords: Europe, Minorities, Legal protection, Human rights,

2. El derecho a la consulta previa de los pueblos indigenas en Derecho Internacional
El derecho a la consulta previa de los pueblos indigenas en Derecho Internacional / Amelia Alva Arévalo. - Bilbao : Universidad de Deusto, 2014. - 114 pages. ; 23 cm. - (Derechos humanos ; núm. 76) With notes. - 2014
Keywords: Indigenous peoples, Consultation, Human rights, Public international law,

3. Conservación y pueblos indigenas: un análisis socio-jurídico
Conservación y pueblos indigenas: un análisis socio-jurídico / Ellen Desmet. - Bilbao : Universidad de Deusto, 2014. - 164 pages. : maps. ; 23 cm. - (Derechos humanos ; núm. 75) With notes. - 2014
Keywords: Peru, Indigenous peoples, Human rights, Conservation, Environmental protection,

4. Immigration Federalism: a Reappraisal
Immigration Federalism: a Reappraisal / Pratheepan Gulasekaram & S. Karthick Ramakrishnan In: New York University Law Review = ISSN 0028-7881: vol. 88, issue 6, page 2074-2145. - 2013
Keywords: United States of America, Arizona, Texas, Illegal immigrants, Immigration law, Federalism,

5. España y el Convenio Marco para la Protección de las Minorías Nacionales: una reflexión crítica
España y el Convenio Marco para la Protección de las Minorías Nacionales: una reflexión crítica / Eduardo J. Ruiz Vieytez In: Revista española de derecho internacional = ISSN 0034-9380: vol. 66, issue 1, page 55-80. - 2014
Keywords: Spain, Minorities, Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities [Strasbourg, 1 February 1995], Cultural diversity,

6. South Sudan Road to Independence: Broken Promises and Lost Opportunities
South Sudan Road to Independence: Broken Promises and Lost Opportunities / Salman M.A. Salman In: Pacific McGeorge Global Business and Development Law Journal = ISSN 1936-3931: vol. 26, issue 2, page 343-414. - 2013
Keywords: South Sudan, Civil wars, Right of self-determination, Peace treaties,

7. Between Secession and Federalism: the Independence of South Sudan and the Need for a Reconsidered Nigeria
Between Secession and Federalism: the Independence of South Sudan and the Need for a Reconsidered Nigeria / Obehi S. Okojie In: Pacific McGeorge Global Business and Development Law Journal = ISSN 1936-3931: vol. 26, issue 2, page 415-474. - 2013
Keywords: Sudan, South Sudan, Nigeria, Right of self-determination, Federalism, Secession, Comparative law,

8. The Unity of the Republic vs. Living together on the Same Land
The Unity of the Republic vs. Living together on the Same Land : New Caledonia from Colonization to Indigenousness: Law at the Center of a Major Culture Issue / Régis Lafargue In: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law = ISSN 0732-9113: vol. 46, issue 2, page 172-192. - 2014
Keywords: France, New Caledonia, Overseas territories, Indigenous peoples, Personal status, Customary law, Pluralism,

9. La evolución de la Libre Determinación de los Pueblos
La evolución de la Libre Determinación de los Pueblos / José Yépez Castro In: Política internacional : revista de la Academia Diplomática del Peru Javier Pérez de Cuéllar: issue 108, page 158-172. - 2013
Keywords: Right of self-determination, United Nations, Human rights,

10. Crimea and the International Legal Order
Crimea and the International Legal Order / William W. Burke-White In: Survival : Global Politics and Strategy = ISSN 0039-6338: vol. 56, issue 4, page 65-80. - 2014
Keywords: Russian Federation, Ukraine, Crimea, Annexation, Right of self-determination, Use of force, Public international law,

11. The Neglected Aspects of the International Court of Justice's Wall Opinion on the Consequences of Internationally Wrongful Acts
The Neglected Aspects of the International Court of Justice's Wall Opinion on the Consequences of Internationally Wrongful Acts / G.N. Barrie In: Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa = ISSN 0010-4051: vol. 47, issue 1, page 128-136. - 2014
Keywords: Israel, Palestine, Occupied Arab territories, Arab-Israeli conflict, International Court of Justice, Wall, Advisory opinions,

12. Les droits linguistiques en droit international
Les droits linguistiques en droit international / Perri Ravon et Justin Dubois. - Cowansville, Québec : Éditions Yvon Blais. - Page 149-177 In: Les droits linguistiques au Canada / sous la direction de Michel Bastarache et de Michel Doucet ; préface de Louise Arbour, ISBN 9782896359936: (2013), Page 149-177. - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Linguistic minorities, Languages, Human rights, Community law, Community law and municipal law, Community law and international law, Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities [Strasbourg, 1 February 1995], Council of Europe,

13. Les droits linguistiques des peuples autochtones
Les droits linguistiques des peuples autochtones / Naiomi Metallic. - Cowansville, Québec : Éditions Yvon Blais. - Page 891-992 In: Les droits linguistiques au Canada / sous la direction de Michel Bastarache et de Michel Doucet ; préface de Louise Arbour, ISBN 9782896359936: (2013), Page 891-992. - 2013
Keywords: Canada, Linguistic minorities, Languages, Human rights, Constitutions, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Indigenous peoples, Indians, Aboriginal peoples,

14. Indigenous Peoples' Rights to Sacred Sites and Traditional Cultural Properties and the Role of Consultation and Free, Prior and Informed Consent
Indigenous Peoples' Rights to Sacred Sites and Traditional Cultural Properties and the Role of Consultation and Free, Prior and Informed Consent / Stuart R. Butzier, Sarah M. Stevenson In: Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law = ISSN 0264-6811: vol. 32, issue 3, page 297-334. - 2014
Keywords: United States of America, Comparative law, Indigenous peoples, Holy Places, Cultural property, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (New York, 13 September 2007), Human rights, ILO Convention (No. 169) concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries [27 June 1989], International law and domestic law,

15. Muslims in France and Great Britain: Issues of Securitization, Identities and Loyalties Post 9/11
Muslims in France and Great Britain: Issues of Securitization, Identities and Loyalties Post 9/11 / Imène Ajala In: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs = ISSN 1360-2004: vol. 34, issue 2, page 123-133. - 2014
Keywords: France, Great Britain, Muslims, Islam, Religious minorities, Religious identity, Terrorism, Cultural diversity, Multicultural society,

16. Minderheiten und ihre Berücksichtigung im nationalen und internationalen Recht
Minderheiten und ihre Berücksichtigung im nationalen und internationalen Recht / Bernd#Baron# von Maydell. - Hamburg : Verlag Dr. Kovač. - Page 11-19 In: Unsichtbare Minderheiten = Invisible Minorities / Nada Bodiroga-Vukobrat, Gerald G. Sander & Sanja Barić (Hrsg./eds.), ISBN 9783830068563: (2013), Page 11-19. - 2013
Keywords: Europe, Sexual orientation, Sexual minorities, Human rights, Constitutional law, Equality, Minorities, Legal status,

17. Constitutional Principle of Equality in the Context of Same-Sex Convivial Forms
Constitutional Principle of Equality in the Context of Same-Sex Convivial Forms / Sanja Barić. - Hamburg : Verlag Dr. Kovač. - Page 21-56 In: Unsichtbare Minderheiten = Invisible Minorities / Nada Bodiroga-Vukobrat, Gerald G. Sander & Sanja Barić (Hrsg./eds.), ISBN 9783830068563: (2013), Page 21-56. - 2013
Keywords: Europe, Sexual orientation, Sexual minorities, Human rights, Constitutional law, Equality, Minorities, Legal status,

18. Invisible Minorities within Extramarital Unions - Comparison of Different Solutions Provided by the Family Laws
Invisible Minorities within Extramarital Unions - Comparison of Different Solutions Provided by the Family Laws / Romana Pacia and Sandra Winkler. - Hamburg : Verlag Dr. Kovač. - Page 57-93 In: Unsichtbare Minderheiten = Invisible Minorities / Nada Bodiroga-Vukobrat, Gerald G. Sander & Sanja Barić (Hrsg./eds.), ISBN 9783830068563: (2013), Page 57-93. - 2013
Keywords: Europe, Sexual orientation, Sexual minorities, Human rights, Registered partnership, Family law, Minorities, Legal status, Legal systems,

19. Legalidad internacional y derecho a decidir
Legalidad internacional y derecho a decidir / por Xavier Pons Rafols In: Revista electrónica de estudios internacionales = ISSN 1697-5197: (2014), issue 27 (jun). - 2014
Keywords: Spain, Catalonia, Right of self-determination, Human rights, Democracy, Rule of law,

20. Indigenous Communities: Analyzing their Right to Water under Different International Legal Regimes
Indigenous Communities: Analyzing their Right to Water under Different International Legal Regimes / Daphina Misiedjan, Joyeeta Gupta In: Utrecht Law Review = ISSN 1871-515X: vol. 10, issue 2, page 77-90. - 2014
Keywords: Indigenous peoples, Water, Human rights, Group rights,

Librarian's choice

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  • Robinson, R. (ed.), Minorities Studies in India, New Delhi (etc.), Oxford University Press, 2012.

    Robinson, R. (ed.), Minorities Studies in India, New Delhi (etc.] : Oxford University Press, 2012.

    This volume explores the issue of minorities in India and how they are identified, defined, and categorized by legal and institutional processes. It examines how modern law creates and conditions minority identity and also how groups manipulate the ground-level situation to project a certain identity at a particular point of time. When more than one category applies to a group, and such categorizations become the basis for the struggle for rights, the politics of identity become even more complex. The volume specifically focuses on ‘religious’ minorities, questioning the religious identification of groups and showing that the construction of minority groups in religious terms is difficult to achieve given the existence of several, and sometimes contradictory, loyalties and identities.

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  • Galbreath, D.J. and J. McEvoy, The European Minority Rights Regime: Towards a Theory of Regime Effectiveness, Basingstoke (etc.), Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

    Galbreath, D.J. and J. McEvoy, The European Minority Rights Regime: Towards a Theory of Regime Effectiveness, Basingstoke (etc.), Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

    The European Minority Rights Regime investigates the cooperation between the EU, OSCE and Council of Europe on minority rights in Europe. It tracks the formation and transformation of this international regime and questions its effectiveness in securing minority rights. The book demonstrates how the three organizations have formalized their linkages and managed their respective mandates in the context of EU enlargement. At the domestic level, the book focuses on three case studies – Latvia, Romania and Bulgaria – with an examination of the impact of inter-organizational cooperation on the status of their respective national minorities. Although cooperation has delivered largely positive change for accession countries, challenges remain for minorities in Europe and the regime’s future operation. This book links two key research areas – international regimes and EU integration – to determine why ethnic politics remain a source of contention for the European project.

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  • Khan, B.U. and M.M. Rahman, Protection of Minorities: Regimes, Norms and Issues in South Asia, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012.

    Khan, B.U. and M.M. Rahman, Protection of Minorities: Regimes, Norms and Issues in South Asia, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012.
    We live in a world that not only sets standards for, but also professes its commitment to promoting and protecting ‘rights’. Since ours is an age of heightened public interest in auditing the actual realisation of such standards and commitment, the first major focus of this book is a critical account of international standards aimed at the protection of minorities. To that end, it concentrates on four key dimensions. Firstly, it addresses the issue of the identification of minorities as understood by international law. Secondly, it outlines a brief history on the development of international law towards improving the protection of minorities. Thirdly, it gives an overview of international instruments and mechanisms on minorities. Finally, it analyses the rights of minorities under international standards. All these dimensions point to the fact that international minority rights lag behind the development of other branches of rights. The second major focus of this book is to relate international standards on minority protection to South Asian regimes. Concentrating on India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, the Maldives, and Afghanistan, an endeavor is made to examine the state of minorities and their protection under the domestic regimes. It emerges that the normative commitments of these states are more or less compatible with international standards. Nevertheless, majority-minority syndrome persistently remains as one of the causes behind multidimensional deprivation and victimization of South Asian minorities. The present book also assesses the extent to which regional cooperation in South Asia has so far contributed to extending protection to minorities. This ends with an argument that SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) has the potential to play a far greater role in this regard.
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  • Arp, B., International Norms and Standards for the Protection of National Minorities: Bilateral and Multilateral Texts with Commentary, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2008.

    Arp, B., International Norms and Standards for the Protection of National Minorities: Bilateral and Multilateral Texts with Commentary, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2008.
    A broad network of bilateral treaties for the protection of national minorities has been set up during the past fifteen years. They complement and further develop the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and other multilateral instruments. Some texts are genuine international treaties, while others are non-binding political documents. The present book brings all these texts together in a reliable English translation, which offers practitioners and researchers easy access to and supplies knowledge on the present state of development of the conventional and customary sources of law in this field. The introductory study helps further understanding of the legal character of the texts and explains how to work with these often complex and interrelated sources of law.
     
     
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  • Weller, M. (ed.), Universal Minority Rights: a Commentary on the Jurisprudence of International Courts and Treaty Bodies, Oxford (etc.), Oxford University Press, 2007.

    Weller, M. (ed.), Universal Minority Rights: a Commentary on the Jurisprudence of International Courts and Treaty Bodies, Oxford (etc.), Oxford University Press, 2007.

    The development of international standards for the protection of minorities has been slow and fragmented. In the absence of a comprehensive and universal binding set of rules, the development of minority protection has been left to regional agreements and judicial interpretation of wider human rights treaties. Universal Minority Rights brings together, for the first time, the full set of all regional and international jurisprudence from courts and treaty bodies concerned with issues of minority rights. The commentary is arranged around ten thematic areas of investigation, including religious rights, education, cultural rights, political participation and socio-economic opportunities. Each substantive chapter offers an introduction to the issue at hand and its special relevance to minority communities, a general survey of legal standards addressing the issue, and an examination of specific problems that are being tackled through legal standards and judicial review. Each chapter concludes with an evaluation of the contribution of the case-law reviewed to the development of universal standards of protection. Throughout, the commentary takes full account of international treaties and their associated bodies, including the ICCPR, the ICESCR, the UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. In addition, the commentary analyzes the regional standards that have developed through the Council of Europe and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights. Through an exhaustive, comparative analysis of principles and substantive rules, the commentary provides an invaluable reference point for the development of minority protection.

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  • Weller, M. (ed.), The Rights of Minorities in Europe: a Commentary on the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Oxford (etc.), Oxford University Press, 2005.

    Weller, M. (ed.), The Rights of Minorities in Europe: a Commentary on the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Oxford (etc.), Oxford University Press, 2005.
    This volume provides the first expert commentary on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, which is the principal international document establishing minority rights in a legally binding way. Many minority rights such as those to political participation, non-assimilation, and the use of native languages are not incorporated in other major Human Rights agreements. The Convention is therefore often taken to be the leading standard in this area of regulation. This commentary offers a detailed article-by-article analysis of the Convention, drawing upon its negotiating history and implementation practice, in addition to examining the pronouncements of the Advisory Committee, which is the implementation body attached to the treaty.
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Database

Blogs

  • “People must be able to look one another in the eye”. Plans of the Dutch Government to ban face-covering clothing.

    The Dutch Government chose to ignore the advice of the Council of State concerning the ban on face-covering clothing. The Council of State, the advisory organ of the Government, heavily criticised the legislative proposal. First, the Council of State does not consider the complete ban as necessary and useful. Second, the Council of State is of the opinion that a ban on face covering clothing is an infringement of the freedom of religion.

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  • Roma Rights in the European Union.

    In July 2010, The French government decided to begin to expel Roma’s, mainly from Romania and Bulgaria, as many of them were living in France illegally. This decision caused much controversy within the Institutions of the EU. This blog will briefly discuss in what way EU institutions have responded to recent Roma issues and what can be done to improve the position of this marginalized community in Europe.

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  • The Islamic veil, secularism and freedom of religion

    “The burqa is a massive attack on the rights of women. It is a mobile prison”, Silvana Koch-Merin stated. Silvana, a German representative of the European Parliament, called for a ban on face-covering veils throughout Europe [1].There are many kinds of islamic veils, such as the niqab, burqa, chador, and khimar (see picture below). The [...]

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  • Cultural Diversity

    On Monday the 17th of August 2009 the Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations of the Hague Academy of International Law started. The Centre takes place annually at the Academy and Library building of the Peace Palace. The purpose of the Centre is to bring together advanced young scholars of [...]

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  • Australian Key Ruling on Indigenous Fishing Rights

    On Wednesday, 30 July, the Australian High Court in Canberra in a key ruling (Northern Territory of Australia v Arnhem Land Aboriginal Land Trust [2008] HCA 29, judgement here) upheld a decision by the Federal Court earlier this year granting Aboriginal people rights of ownership over a large part of the Northern Territory’s (NT) coastline.

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