Refugees

Introduction

Refugees - Research Guide International Law

The United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951 and its 1967 Protocol defines a refugee as someone who, ‘owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country’. The definition of a refugee was expanded by regional conventions in Africa and Latin America to include persons who had fled war or other violence in their home country. It is important to note that article 33 of the Convention provides for the principle of non-refoulement which means that no contracting state shall expel or return (refouler) a refugee in any manner whatsoever to territories where his or her life or freedom would be threatened. Those who seek refugee status are referred to as “asylum seekers”; the conditions under which a person is granted refugee status is left to the discretion of States. The office of the United Nations High Commissioner  for Refugees (UNHCR) is the principal UN organ that protects and supports refugees. Over time, UNHCR’s mandate has been expanded to cover other persons of concern, including some internally displaced persons.  The UNHCR assists refugees in their resettlement or return and finds other solutions to their plight. On an international level, debates continue regarding the nature of the protection that refugees should be granted, the obligations of receiving countries and the role of the international community towards refugees.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Refugees. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. See the Librarians Choice for the latest important publications on refugees and internally displaced persons. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code (systematic code) 160c. Other Administrative, Social and Humanitarian Questions (Refugees, etc.) and subject headings (keywords) Refugees or Displaced Persons are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Other systematic codes which may be helpful are 53a6a. (European Union immigration issues),  100 (Emigration and immigration in general), 101. (Emigration and immigration in the various states), 103. (Expulsion) and 253. (Asylum). Other keywords which may be helpful: Emigration and Immigration, Asylum, Right of Asylum, Convention relating to the Status of RefugeesUNHCR, and Non-Refoulement. Special attention in the Research Guide is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

New titles


1. War, crime and refugees
War, crime and refugees / Anand Prakash. - First edition. - Jaipur : Aadi Publications, 2014. - 288 pages. : illustrations. ; 23 cm Title on cover and spine: War, crime & refugees. - Includes index. - 2014
Keywords: Refugees, Asylum, Internally displaced persons, Immigration,

2. Völkerrechtliche Quellen der Zwangsmigration nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Ungarn (1945-1948)
Völkerrechtliche Quellen der Zwangsmigration nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Ungarn (1945-1948) / Dóra Frey. - Baden-Baden : Nomos. - Page 147-163 In: Minderheitenfragen in Ungarn und in den Nachbarländern im 20. und 21. Jahrhundert / Enikő Dácz (Hrsg.), ISBN 9783848707799: (2013), Page 147-163. - 2013
Keywords: Eastern Europe, Hungary, Minorities, Forced migration, International instruments, World War II, History,

3. European Integration, Consensus Politics and Family Migration Policy in Belgium and the Netherlands
European Integration, Consensus Politics and Family Migration Policy in Belgium and the Netherlands / Maarten Vink, Saskia Bonjour and Ilke Adam. - London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 193-212 In: European Integration and Consensus Politics in the Low Countries / edited by Hans Vollaard, Jan Beyers and Patrick Dumont, ISBN 9780415659796: (2015), Page 193-212. - 2015
Keywords: Belgium, The Netherlands, European Union, Immigration, Family reunion, Government policy, European integration,

4. A Network Society Communicative Model for Optimizing the Refugee Status Determination (RSD) Procedures
A Network Society Communicative Model for Optimizing the Refugee Status Determination (RSD) Procedures = Um modelo comunicativo de sociedade em rede para aperfeiçoar os procedimentos para Determinaçāo do Status de Refugiado / Andrea Pacheco Pacífico In: Revista brasileira de política internacional = ISSN 0034-7329: vol. 56, issue 1, page 22-39. - 2013
Keywords: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugees, Legal status, Procedure, Co-operation,

5. Wanneer een staat een visum weigert namens een andere staat
Wanneer een staat een visum weigert namens een andere staat : vertegenwoordigingsafspraken in het EU-visumbeleid en het recht op effectieve rechtsbescherming / E.R. Brouwer In: SEW : tijdschrift voor Europees en economisch recht = ISSN 0165-098X: vol. 63, issue 4, page 160-172. - 2015
Keywords: European Union, The Netherlands, Member states, Visa, Immigration law, Regulation, Community law, Case-law,

6. Crimes of Migration
Crimes of Migration / Daniel I. Morales In: Wake Forest Law Review = ISSN 0043-003X: vol. 49, issue 5, page 1257-1324. - 2014
Keywords: United States of America, Illegal immigrants, Criminalization, Political theory, Criminal law, Immigration law, Infliction of punishment,

7. Die neuen Grenzen der Freizügigkeit für Nicht-EU-Bürger
Die neuen Grenzen der Freizügigkeit für Nicht-EU-Bürger / Dr. Simon Sieweke In: Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik = ISSN 0721-5746: vol. 35, issue 1, page 12-16. - 2015
Keywords: Germany, Right of residence, Third states, Freedom of movement, Immigration law,

8. Europäische Gerichte als Akteure einer individualrechtlich orientierten Asylpolitik
Europäische Gerichte als Akteure einer individualrechtlich orientierten Asylpolitik / Domenica Dreyer In: Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik = ISSN 0721-5746: vol. 34, issue 10, page 358-365. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, European Court of Human Rights, Convention Determining the State Responsible for Examining Applications for Asylum Lodged in one of the Member States of the European Communities (Dublin, 15 June 1990), Asylum, Refugees, Immigration,

9. Die Neuregelung der humanitären Aufenthaltstitel im Asylrecht
Die Neuregelung der humanitären Aufenthaltstitel im Asylrecht / Franziska Fouchs, Claudia Schweda In: MigraLex : Zeitschrift für Fremden- und Minderheitenrecht = ISSN 1727-057X: vol. 12, issue 3, page 58-66. - 2014
Keywords: Austria, Asylum, Right of residence, Family life, Immigration law, Refugees,

10. Gewaltanwendung und Asylunwürdigkeit am Beispiel der PKK
Gewaltanwendung und Asylunwürdigkeit am Beispiel der PKK / Fulvio Haefeli, Gert Winter In: Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik = ISSN 0721-5746: vol. 35, issue 3, page 97-104. - 2015
Keywords: Switzerland, Kurds, Terrorism, Asylum, Refugees, Immigration law, National security,

11. Direitos humanos e refúgio: uma análise sobre o momento pós-determinação do status de refugiado
Direitos humanos e refúgio: uma análise sobre o momento pós-determinação do status de refugiado = Human Rights and Refugees: an Analysis About the Moment Post-Refugee Status Determination / Thais Silva Menezes, Rossana Rocha Reis In: Revista brasileira de política internacional = ISSN 0034-7329: vol. 56, issue 1, page 144-162. - 2013
Keywords: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugees, Legal status, Protection, Human rights,

Khoser, K., Australia and the 1951 Refugee Convention, April 30, 2015

Bibliography

Reference works

 Recent books/papers

Recent articles

Documents

Periodicals, serial publications

See also: Special Issue The Interaction Between Refugee Law and International Criminal Justice, Journal of International Criminal Justice, 12 (2014), No. 5.

Volume 12 Issue 5 December 2014

Bibliography

 

New titles


1. War, crime and refugees
War, crime and refugees / Anand Prakash. - First edition. - Jaipur : Aadi Publications, 2014. - 288 pages. : illustrations. ; 23 cm Title on cover and spine: War, crime & refugees. - Includes index. - 2014
Keywords: Refugees, Asylum, Internally displaced persons, Immigration,

2. Völkerrechtliche Quellen der Zwangsmigration nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Ungarn (1945-1948)
Völkerrechtliche Quellen der Zwangsmigration nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Ungarn (1945-1948) / Dóra Frey. - Baden-Baden : Nomos. - Page 147-163 In: Minderheitenfragen in Ungarn und in den Nachbarländern im 20. und 21. Jahrhundert / Enikő Dácz (Hrsg.), ISBN 9783848707799: (2013), Page 147-163. - 2013
Keywords: Eastern Europe, Hungary, Minorities, Forced migration, International instruments, World War II, History,

3. European Integration, Consensus Politics and Family Migration Policy in Belgium and the Netherlands
European Integration, Consensus Politics and Family Migration Policy in Belgium and the Netherlands / Maarten Vink, Saskia Bonjour and Ilke Adam. - London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 193-212 In: European Integration and Consensus Politics in the Low Countries / edited by Hans Vollaard, Jan Beyers and Patrick Dumont, ISBN 9780415659796: (2015), Page 193-212. - 2015
Keywords: Belgium, The Netherlands, European Union, Immigration, Family reunion, Government policy, European integration,

4. A Network Society Communicative Model for Optimizing the Refugee Status Determination (RSD) Procedures
A Network Society Communicative Model for Optimizing the Refugee Status Determination (RSD) Procedures = Um modelo comunicativo de sociedade em rede para aperfeiçoar os procedimentos para Determinaçāo do Status de Refugiado / Andrea Pacheco Pacífico In: Revista brasileira de política internacional = ISSN 0034-7329: vol. 56, issue 1, page 22-39. - 2013
Keywords: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugees, Legal status, Procedure, Co-operation,

5. Wanneer een staat een visum weigert namens een andere staat
Wanneer een staat een visum weigert namens een andere staat : vertegenwoordigingsafspraken in het EU-visumbeleid en het recht op effectieve rechtsbescherming / E.R. Brouwer In: SEW : tijdschrift voor Europees en economisch recht = ISSN 0165-098X: vol. 63, issue 4, page 160-172. - 2015
Keywords: European Union, The Netherlands, Member states, Visa, Immigration law, Regulation, Community law, Case-law,

6. Crimes of Migration
Crimes of Migration / Daniel I. Morales In: Wake Forest Law Review = ISSN 0043-003X: vol. 49, issue 5, page 1257-1324. - 2014
Keywords: United States of America, Illegal immigrants, Criminalization, Political theory, Criminal law, Immigration law, Infliction of punishment,

7. Die neuen Grenzen der Freizügigkeit für Nicht-EU-Bürger
Die neuen Grenzen der Freizügigkeit für Nicht-EU-Bürger / Dr. Simon Sieweke In: Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik = ISSN 0721-5746: vol. 35, issue 1, page 12-16. - 2015
Keywords: Germany, Right of residence, Third states, Freedom of movement, Immigration law,

8. Europäische Gerichte als Akteure einer individualrechtlich orientierten Asylpolitik
Europäische Gerichte als Akteure einer individualrechtlich orientierten Asylpolitik / Domenica Dreyer In: Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik = ISSN 0721-5746: vol. 34, issue 10, page 358-365. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, European Court of Human Rights, Convention Determining the State Responsible for Examining Applications for Asylum Lodged in one of the Member States of the European Communities (Dublin, 15 June 1990), Asylum, Refugees, Immigration,

9. Die Neuregelung der humanitären Aufenthaltstitel im Asylrecht
Die Neuregelung der humanitären Aufenthaltstitel im Asylrecht / Franziska Fouchs, Claudia Schweda In: MigraLex : Zeitschrift für Fremden- und Minderheitenrecht = ISSN 1727-057X: vol. 12, issue 3, page 58-66. - 2014
Keywords: Austria, Asylum, Right of residence, Family life, Immigration law, Refugees,

10. Gewaltanwendung und Asylunwürdigkeit am Beispiel der PKK
Gewaltanwendung und Asylunwürdigkeit am Beispiel der PKK / Fulvio Haefeli, Gert Winter In: Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik = ISSN 0721-5746: vol. 35, issue 3, page 97-104. - 2015
Keywords: Switzerland, Kurds, Terrorism, Asylum, Refugees, Immigration law, National security,

11. Direitos humanos e refúgio: uma análise sobre o momento pós-determinação do status de refugiado
Direitos humanos e refúgio: uma análise sobre o momento pós-determinação do status de refugiado = Human Rights and Refugees: an Analysis About the Moment Post-Refugee Status Determination / Thais Silva Menezes, Rossana Rocha Reis In: Revista brasileira de política internacional = ISSN 0034-7329: vol. 56, issue 1, page 144-162. - 2013
Keywords: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugees, Legal status, Protection, Human rights,

Librarian's choice

These publications are selected for you by .

  • Baldinger, D., Vertical Judicial Dialogues in Asylum Cases: Standards on Judicial Scrutiny and Evidence in International and European Law, Leiden/Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2015.

    baldinger, d., vertical judicial dialogues in asylum cases

    What do international and EU law require from the national asylum judge with regard to the intensity of judicial scrutiny to be applied and evidentiary issues? To answer that question, an analysis is made of the provisions on national judicial proceedings contained in the Refugee Convention (RC), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the UN Convention against Torture (CAT), the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. In addition, the assessment as performed by the UN Human Rights Committee, the UN Committee against Torture and the European Court of Human Rights in cases concerning the expulsion of asylum seekers is analysed.

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  • Cherubini, F., Asylum Law in the European Union, London; New York, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2015.

    Cherubini, F., Asylum Law in the European Union, London ; New York Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015

    This book examines the rules governing the right to asylum in the European Union. Drawing on the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, and the 1967 Protocol, Francesco Cherubini asks how asylum obligations under international refugee law have been incorporated into the European Union. The book draws from international law, EU law and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, and focuses on the prohibition of refoulement; the main obligation the EU law must confront. Cherubini explores the dual nature of this principle, examining both the obligation to provide a fair procedure that determines the conditions of risk in the country of origin or destination, and the obligation to respond to a possible expulsion. Through this study the book sheds light on EU competence in asylum when regarding the different positions of Member States. The book will be of great use and interest to researchers and students of asylum and immigration law, EU law, and public international law.

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  • Chetail, V. and C. laly-Chevalier (eds.), Asile et extradition: Théorie et pratique de l'exclusion du statut de réfugié, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2014.

    Asile et extradition, théorie et pratique de l'exclusion du statut de réfugié  sous la direction de Vincent Chetail et Caroline Laly-Chevalier

    La présente étude a pour objet d’analyser les relations denses et complexes entre l’extradition et l’exclusion du statut de réfugié. Chacun de ces domaines spécifiques du droit a longtemps évolué de façon autonome sans égard aux nombreuses interactions qui les unissent. La recherche met en lumière les potentiels et les limites de leur articulation sur la base d’une méthodologie délibérément large, incluant autant des questions de droit international que de droit interne, doublée d’une approche comparative des législations et pratiques nationales les plus représentatives. L’objectif ultime est de dessiner un cadre juridique qui permette de concilier les obligations parfois contradictoires dérivant du droit de l’extradition et du droit des réfugiés.

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  • Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E. (et al.) (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E. (et al.) (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Refugee and Forced Migration Studies has grown from being a concern of a relatively small number of scholars and policy researchers in the 1980s to a global field of interest with thousands of students worldwide studying displacement either from traditional disciplinary perspectives or as a core component of newer programmes across the Humanities and Social and Political Sciences. Today the field encompasses both rigorous academic research which may or may not ultimately inform policy and practice, as well as action-research focused on advocating in favour of refugees’ needs and rights. This authoritative Handbook critically evaluates the birth and development of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, and analyses the key contemporary and future challenges faced by academics and practitioners working with and for forcibly displaced populations around the world. The 52 state-of-the-art chapters, written by leading academics, practitioners, and policymakers working in universities, research centres, think tanks, NGOs and international organizations, provide a comprehensive and cutting-edge overview of the key intellectual, political, social and institutional challenges arising from mass displacement in the world today. The chapters vividly illustrate the vibrant and engaging debates that characterize this rapidly expanding field of research and practice.

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  • Kneebone, S. D. Stevens and L. Baldassar (eds.), Refugee Protection and the Role of Law: Conflicting Identities, London, Routledge, 2014.

    Kneebone, S. D. Stevens and L. Baldassar (eds.), Refugee Protection and the Role of Law: Conflicting Identities, London, Routledge, 2014.

    Sixty years on from the signing of the Refugee Convention, forced migration and refugee movements continue to raise global concerns for hosting states and regions, for countries of origin, for humanitarian organisations on the ground, and, of course, for the refugee. This edited volume is framed around two themes which go to the core of contemporary ‘refugeehood’: protection and identity. It analyses how the issue of refugee identity is shaped by and responds to the legal regime of refugee protection in contemporary times. The book investigates the premise that there is a narrowing of protection space in many countries and many highly visible incidents of refoulement. It argues that ‘Protection’, which is a core focus of the Refugee Convention, appears to be under threat, as there are many gaps and inconsistencies in practice. Contributors to the volume, who include Erika Feller, Elspeth Guild, Hélène Lambert and Roger Zetter, look at the relevant issues from the perspective of a number of different disciplines including law, politics, sociology, and anthropology. The chapters examine the link between identity and protection as a basis for understanding how the Refugee Convention has been and is being applied in policy and practice. The situation in a number of jurisdictions and regions in Europe, North America, South East Asia, Africa and the Middle East is explored in order to ask the question does jurisprudence under the Refugee Convention need better coordination and how successful is oversight of the Convention?

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  • Smyth, C.M., European Asylum Law and the Rights of the Child, London, Routledge, 2014.

    Smyth, C.M., European Asylum Law and the Rights of the Child, London, Routledge, 2014.

    The child asylum seeker poses unique challenges for reception and refugee status determination systems, not least because the child is entitled to have his or her rights as a child respected as a matter of international and regional human rights law. In the last decade the European Union has increasingly engaged with children’s rights, with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in December 2009, and a new Article 3(3) of the Treaty on European Union that commits the Union to promoting the ‘protection of the rights of the child.’ This book addresses the question of whether the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) complies with the rights of the child. It contrasts the normative standards of international child rights law with the treatment of child asylum seekers and refugees in the CEAS. Ciara Smyth identifies the attributes of the rights of the child that are most relevant to the asylum context and systematically examines whether and to what extent those attributes are reflected in the CEAS legislation. The book goes on to assess whether the CEAS instruments direct Member States to comply with the rights of the child, offering a comprehensive examination of the place of the child within European asylum law and policy. The book will be of great use and interest to scholars and students of international law, immigration and children’s rights studies.

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  • O'Nions, H., Asylum: A Right Denied, Farnham, Ashgate, 2014.

    O'Nions, H., Asylum: A Right Denied, Farnham, Ashgate, 2014.

    In recent decades, asylum has emerged as a highly politicized European issue. The term ‘asylum seeker’ has suffered a negative perception and has been associated with notions of illegality and criminality in mainstream media. These misconceptions have been supported by politicians as a distraction from economic and political uncertainties with the result that asylum seekers have been deprived of significant rights. This book examines the effect of recent attempts of harmonization on the identification and protection of refugees. It considers the extent of obligations on the state to admit and protect refugees and examines the 1951 Refugee Convention. The motivations of European legislators and legislation concerning asylum procedures and reception conditions are also analysed. Proposals and initiatives for refugee movements and determinations are examined and assessed. The author makes suggestions for better protection of refugees while responding to the security concerns of States, and questions whether European law and policy is doing enough to uphold the fundamental right to seek and enjoy asylum as set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This book takes a bold look at a controversial issue and generates discussion for those involved in the fields of  human rights, migrational and transnational studies, law and society and international law.

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Database

Blogs

  • Mixed Migration Flows Across the Mediterranean: The EU Agenda on Migration

    Wars, conflict and persecution have forced more people than at any other time in history to flee their homes and seek refuge and safety elsewhere, according to UNHCR’s annual Global Trends Report: World at War, released on June 18, two days before world refugee day. One of the most recent and highly visible consequences of the world’s conflicts and the terrible suffering they cause has been the dramatic growth in the numbers of refugees seeking safety through dangerous sea journeys, including on the Mediterranean, in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, and in Southeast Asia.

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  • Borders Beyond Control?

    In my previous blogpost “Feigning Immigration Control”, I argued that politicians are often busy with feigning immigration control while in reality they often can or want to do little about it. What do we actually know about the effects of immigration policies? In order to answer this question, I have conducted a research project on the ‘Determinants of International Migration’ (DEMIG) at the International Migration Institute at Oxford University. One of the main insights of the project is that while immigration restrictions often reduce immigration, these effects tend to be rather small. In addition, restrictions often have a four potential side-effects (‘substitution effects’) which further undermine their effectiveness or can even make them counter-productive.

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  • Border Controls and Human Rights: Migration in the Central Mediterranean

    The Central Mediterranean has, in the last years, turned into the epicentre of human (migrant) disasters. The Central Mediterranean route refers to the migratory flow coming from Northern Africa towards Italy and Malta through the Mediterranean Sea. Here, Libya often acts as nexus point where migrants from the Horn of Africa and Western African routes meet before embarking on their journey towards the EU.

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  • First Global Forum on Statelessness - "New Directions in Statelessness Research and Policy"

    From 15 to 17 September 2014, 3 institutions (the UNHCR, the agency mandated by the General Assembly to help states to address statelessness, and the Statelessness Programme of Tilburg University) co-hosted the first held Global Forum on Statelessness. The three-day event took place in the Academy building of the Peace Palace of The Hague, the Netherlands.

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  • International Refugee Law blog series I: Exclusion of Refugee Status: The Criminal Refugee

    In the western world it is possible you live next to a war criminal, or your child might be playing with the daughter of a war criminal at school. It is also possible to live there without a real prospect of obtaining a form of legal status and without being held criminally responsible for the alleged crime. Who are these people living in legal limbo? why are they still here? The exclusion of refugee status (1F Refugee Convention) and its consequences will be dealt with in this blog.

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Multimedia:

 Statistics:

Report on the Situation of Asylum in the European Union 2013

UNHCR Asylum Trends 2014

UNHCR Statistical Yearbook 2013

Refugee Law Course

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