FOR THE CURRENT REFUGEE CRISIS SEE THE SEE ALSO SECTION!
The United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951 and its 1967 Protocol defines a refugee as someone who, ‘owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country’. The definition of a refugee was expanded by regional conventions in Africa and Latin America to include persons who had fled war or other violence in their home country. It is important to note that article 33 of the Convention provides for the principle of non-refoulement which means that no contracting state shall expel or return (refouler) a refugee in any manner whatsoever to territories where his or her life or freedom would be threatened. Those who seek refugee status are referred to as "asylum seekers"; the conditions under which a person is granted refugee status is left to the discretion of States. The office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the principal UN organ that protects and supports refugees. Over time, UNHCR's mandate has been expanded to cover other persons of concern, including some internally displaced persons. The UNHCR assists refugees in their resettlement or return and finds other solutions to their plight. On an international level, debates continue regarding the nature of the protection that refugees should be granted, the obligations of receiving countries and the role of the international community towards refugees.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Refugees. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. See the Librarians Choice for the latest important publications on refugees and internally displaced persons. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's classification index code (systematic code) 160c. Other Administrative, Social and Humanitarian Questions (Refugees, etc.) and keywords Refugees or Displaced Persons are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Other systematic codes which may be helpful are 53a6a. (European Union immigration issues), 100 (Emigration and immigration in general), 101. (Emigration and immigration in the various states), 103. (Expulsion) and 253. (Asylum). Other keywords which may be helpful: Emigration and Immigration, Asylum, Right of Asylum, Irregular migrants, Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, UNHCR, Expulsion and Non-Refoulement. Special attention in the Research Guide is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
News (last ten days)
Donor conference, Supporting Syria & The Region, 4 February 2016.
Civil Society at Donor conference, ‘Now turn pledges into actions’, 4 February 2016.
Danish Refugee Council, Going to Europe: A Syrian perspective, 4 February 2016.
UN, Humanitarian Response Plan 2016-2016, 4 February 2016
Online publications (open access), november 2015-february 2016.
- Angenendt, S., A. Koch and A. Meier, "2020 – How Germany and the EU Overcame the Great Refugee Crisis", in L. Brozus, Unexpected, Unforeseen, Unplanned, Scenarios of International Foreign and Security Policy, Foresight Contributions 2015, SWP Research Paper 2016/RP 01, pp. 38-43.
- Ayre, K-L., Values-added: Social norms and the granting of asylum, The Migrationist, 20-11-2015.
- Beduschi, A., "The Contribution of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to the Protection of Irregular Immigrants’ Rights: Opportunities and Challenges", Refugee Survey Quarterly, 34 (2015), No. 4, pp. 45-74.
- Berger, M. and F. Heinemann, Why and How There Should Be More Europe in Asylum Policies, Centre for European Economic Research, No. 1, January 2016.
- Chetail, V. and G. Ruiz, "Asile et Immigration", Journal européen des droits de l'homme, 2015, No. 5, pp. 651-670. La présente chronique retrace les développements les plus marquants en matière d’asile et d’immigration intervenus entre septembre 2014 et septembre 2015.
- Crock, M. and K. Bones, "Australian Exceptionalism: Temporary Protection and the Rights of Refugees", Melbourne Journal of International Law, 16 (2015), no. 2, pp. 1-28.
- ECRE, Case Law Fact Sheet: Prevention of Dublin Transfers to Hungary, January 2016.
- EPRS, Unaccompanied migrant children in the EU (this keysource brings together a selection of information materials describing the situation of unaccompanied children within the EU), 20-01-2016.
- European Parliament, Study: Fit for Purpose? The Facilitation Directive and the Criminalisation of Humanitarian Assistance to Irregular Migrants, 28-01-2016.
- Fargues, P., 2015 : The Year We Mistook Refugees for Invaders, Migration Policy Centre, Policy Brief, 2015/12
- Faure,R., M. Gavas and A. Knoll (ODI), Challenges to a Comprehensive EU Migration and Asylum Policy, December 2015.
- Fichel de Andrade, J.H., Aspectos Históricos, Jurídicos e Políticos da Proteção de Refugiados no Brasil (1951-1997), Anuário Brasileiro de Direito Internacional, Volume X, pp. 132-168.
- Garcés-Mascareñas,B., Why Dublin "Doesn't Work", notes internacionals, 135, november 2015.
- García Andrade, P., Who is in charge? The external representation of the EU on dialogues on immigration and asylum with third countries, EU Migration Law Blog, 13-01-2016.
- Kegels, M., Getting the Balance Right: Strengthening Asylum Reception Capacity at National and EU Levels, Migration Policy Institute, February 2016.
- Ramji-Nogales, J., Prohibiting Collective Expulsion of Aliens at the European Court of Human Rights, ASIL Insights, 04-01-2016.
- Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UN Doc. no. A/70/12 (UN General Assembly, 2015).
- Seufert, G., Turkey as Partner of the EU in the Refugee Crisis: Ankara’s Problems and Interests, SWP Comments, 2016/C 01.
- Siddiqui, F.R., The Current Refugee Crisis and the Arab States, Indian Council of World Affairs, Issue Brief, 11 december 2015.
- UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Addressing Security Concerns Without Undermining Refugee Protection - UNHCR's Perspective, 17 December 2015, Rev.2
- Vicini, G., "The Dublin Regulation Between Strasbourg and Luxembourg: Reshaping Non-Refoulement in the Name of Mutual Trust?", European Journal of Legal Studies, 8 (2015), No.2.
- Weyembergh, A.,(et al), The Paris Terrorist Attacks: Failure of the EU’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice?, EU Migration Law Blog, 06-01-2016.
- Yeo, C., Court of Appeal considers EU deportation, public revulsion and “imperative grounds”, Free Movement, 06-01-2016.
- Ziebarth, A., Broken systems: the 2014 humanitarian crisis in the US and policy insights for Europe, European View, 14 (December 2015),No. 2, pp. 191-200.
- Abou-El-Wafa, A., The Right to Asylum between Islamic Shari'ah and International Refugee Law: A Comparative Study, Riyadh, Naif Arab University, 2009.
- Alland, D. et C. Teitgen-Colly, Traité du droit de l'asile, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2002.
- Boeles, P.(et al.)(eds.), European Migration Law, Cambridge/Antwerp/Portland, Intersentia, 2014.
- Boswell, R.A., J. Moore, and K. Musalo, Refugee Law and Policy: A Comparative and International Approach, Durham, Carolina Academic Press, 2011.
- Carlier, J-Y. , Droit de l'Asile et des Refugiés: de la Protection aux Droits, Recueil des Cours, Vol. 332, 2007.
- Clayton, G., Textbook on Immigration and Asylum Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.
- Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E. (et al.) (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.
- Fitzpatrick, J.F.(ed.) , Human Rights Protection for Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Internally Displaced Persons: A Guide to International Mechanisms and Procedures, Ardsley, New York, Transnational Publishers, 2002.
- Germano Cortese, E.(et al.), Lo straniero e il guidice civile: Aspetti sostanziali e processuali di diritto dell'immigrazione, Torino, UTET Giuridica, 2014.
- Gibney, M. Global Refugee Crisis: a Reference Handbook, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2010.
- Goodwin-Gill, G.S. and J. McAdam, The Refugee in International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007.
- Grahl-Madsen, A., The Status of Refugees in International Law, Leyden, Sijthoff, 1966.
- Hathaway, J.C. (ed.), Human Rights and Refugee Law, Cheltenham/Northampton, Edward Elgar, 2013.
- Hathaway, J.C. and M. Foster, The Law of Refugee Status, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.
- Loescher, G., Beyond Charity: International Cooperation and the Global Refugee Crisis, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993.
- Odello, M., Il Diritto dei Rifugiati, Milano, FrancoAngeli, 2013.
- Ahsan Ullah, A.K.M., Refugee Politics in the Middle East and North Africa: Human Rights, Safety, and Identity, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2014.
- Akram, S.M. and T. Syring, Still Waiting for Tomorrow: The Law and Politics of Unresolved Refugee Crises, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Publishing, 2014.
- Amrith, M., Ambiguities in the Categories of Migration, Barcelona, United Nations University Institute on Globalization, Culture and Mobility (UNU-GCM), Policy Report No. 02/06, 2013.
- Beyani, C., Protection of the Right to Seek and Obtain Asylum under African Human Rights System, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013.
- Bradley, M., Refugee Repatriation: Justice, Responsibility and Redress, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
- Chassin, C-A. (ed.), Les Migrations Contraintes, Paris, Pedone, 2014.
- Chetail, V. and C. laly-Chevalier (eds.), Asile et extradition: Théorie et pratique de l'exclusion du statut de réfugié, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2014.
- Dastyari, A., United States Migrant Interdiction and the Detention of Refugees in Guantánamo Bay, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015.
- Fabado, I.R. (ed.), Libertad de circulación, asilo y refugio en la Unión Europea, Valencia, Tirant lo Blanch, 2014.
- Gatrell, P., The Making of The Modern Refugee, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.
- Islam, R. and J.H. Bhuiyan (eds.), An Introduction to International Refugee Law, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013.
- Jacques, M., Armed conflict and Displacement : The Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persons under International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2012.
- Juss, S.S. and C. Harvey (eds.), Contemporary Issues in Refugee Law, Cheltenham, Elgar, 2013.
- Juss, S.S (ed.), The Ashgate Research Companion to Migration Law, Theory and Policy, Farnham, Ashgate, 2013.
- Kneebone, S. D. Stevens and L. Baldassar (eds.), Refugee Protection and the Role of Law: Conflicting Identities, London, Routledge, 2014.
- Lewis, C., UNHCR and International Refugee Law: From Treaties to Innovation, London, Routledge, 2012.
- Loescher, G., A. Betts and J. Milner, The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR): The Politics and Practice of Refugee Protection, London, Routledge, 2012.
- Markard, N., Kriegsflüchtlinge : Gewalt gegen Zivilpersonen in bewaffneten Konflikten als Herausforderung für das Flüchtlingsrecht und den subsidiären Schutz, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2012.
- McAdam, J., Climate Change, Forced Migration and International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.
- Nykänen, E., Fragmented State Power and Forced Migration : A Study on Non-State Actors in Refugee Law, Leiden, Brill, 2012.
- O'Nions, H., Asylum: A Right Denied, Farnham, Ashgate, 2014.
- Ortiz Ahlf, L., Derechos Humanos de los Indocumentados, Valencia, Tirant lo Blanch, 2013.
- Reed-Hurtado, M.,The Cartagena Declaration on Refugees and the Protection of People Fleeing
Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence in Latin America, Legal and Protection Policy Paper Research Series, UNHCR, 2013, No. 32.
- Reneman, M., EU Asylum Procedures and the Right to An Effective Remedy, Oxford/Portland, Hart Publishing, 2014.
- Simeon, J.C. (ed.), The UNHCR and the Supervision of International Refugee Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
- Smit, A., The Property Rights of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Beyond Restitution, Abingdon, Routledge, 2012.
- Smyth, C.M., European Asylum Law and the Rights of the Child, London, Routledge, 2014.
- Thakur, R.C., International Human Rights of Refugees: A Factual Analysis, New Delhi, Cyber Tech Publications, 2013.
- Bank, R., "The Potential and Limitations of the Court of Justice of the European Union in Shaping International Refugee Law", International Journal of Refugee Law, 27 (2015), No.2, pp. 213-244.
- Barichello, S.E., "Refugee Protection and Responsibility Sharing in Latin America: Solidarity Programmes and the Mexico Plan of Action", The International Journal of Human Rights, published online 30 september 2015.
- De Boer, T. and M. Zieck, ICC Witnesses and Acquitted Suspects Seeking Asylum in the Netherlands: An Overview of the Jurisdictional Battles between the ICC and Its Host State, International Journal of Refugee Law, 27 (2015), No. 4, pp. 573-606.
- Campbell, J., "Asylum vs Sovereignty in the 21st Century: How Nation-State's Breach International Law to Block Access to Asylum.' International Journal of Migration and Border Studies, Forthcoming 2016.
- Durieux, J-F., "Temporary Protection: Hovering at the Edges of Refugee Law", Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 2014, 45 (published may 2015), pp. 221-253.
- Fijnhout, C., “The Refugee Crisis: The End of Schengen?” (editorial), European journal of crime, Criminal law and criminal justice, 23 (2015), No. 4, pp. 313-332.
- Heisbourg, F., “The Strategic Implications of the Syrian Refugee Crisis”, Survival, 57 (2015), No. 6, pp. 7-20.
- Morgades-Gil, S., "The Discretion of States in the Dublin III System for Determining Responsibility for Examining Applications for Asylum: What Remains of the Sovereignty and Humanitarian Clauses After the Interpretations of the ECtHR and the CJEU?", International Journal of Refugee Law, 27 (2015), No.3, pp. 433-456.
- Nicolosi, S.F., "Re-Conceptualizing the Right to Seek and Obtain Asylum in International Law ", International Human Rights Law Review, 4 (2015), No. 2, pp. 303-332.
- Sy, M., "UNHCR and Preventing Indirect Refoulement in Europe", International Journal of Refugee Law, 27 (2015), No.3, pp. 457-480.
- Valenta,M., D. Zuparic-Iljic and T.Vidovic, “Reluctant Asylum-Seekers: Migrants at the Southeastern Frontiers of the European Migration System”, Refugee survey quarterly, 34 (2015), No. 3, pp. 95-113
- Cartagena Declaration on Refugees (see also this interpretation of the extended refugee definition)
- Compendium of International Legal Instruments on Human Migration
- Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees
- Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa
- Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration
- History of diplomatic asylum in Latin America, see this UNHCR historical
- Michigan Guidelines (guidelines produced by academic experts for confronting a cutting-edge problem in refugee protection. Michigan Guidelines on the Internal Protection Alternative (1999); Michigan Guidelines on Nexus to a Convention Ground (2001); Michigan Guidelines on Well-Founded Fear (2004); Michigan Guidelines on Protection Elsewhere (2006); Michigan Guidelines on the Right to Work (2009);Michigan Guidelines on the Exclusion of International Criminals (2013);Michigan Guidelines on Risk for Reasons of Political Opinion (2015).
- UNHCR Guidelines on International Protection
Periodicals, serial publications
- AWR Bulletin (no longer published)
- European Database of Asylum Law Journal (free access)
- European Journal of Migration and Law
- Forced Migration Review (free access)
- Georgetown Immigration Law Journal
- International Journal of Border and Migration Studies
- International Journal of Refugee Law
- International Review of the Red Cross (free access)
- ISIL Yearbook of International Humanitarian and Refugee Law (free access, 2011 latest)
- Journal of Immigration Asylum and Nationality Law (not available in the ppl)
- Journal of Refugee Studies
- Migration Policy Practice Journal (free access)
- Migration Studies
- Oxford Monitor of Forced Migration (free access)
- Refuge (Canada's Journal on Refugees)
- Refugee Studies Centre Working Papers (free access)
- Refugee Survey Quarterly
- Refugee Watch (a South Asian Journal on Forced Migration)
- Refugees and Human Rights (click related)
- The Researcher (free access)
- Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales
- UNHCR Legal and Protection Policy Research Series
- UNHCR Refugees Magazine (no longer published)
- UNHCR Working Papers New Issues in Refugee Research
Refugee Law Course
1. The cultural defense of nations
Keywords: Emigration and immigration, Integration, Human rights, Liberalism, National identity, Cultural rights, Norms,
2. Saharawi refugees
Keywords: Western Sahara, Africa, United Nations, African Union, Decolonization, National liberation wars, Occupation, Refugees, Women,
Westra, L., S. Juss and T. Scovazzi, Towards a Refugee Oriented Right of Asylum, Farnham, Ashgate, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This volume explores the factors that give rise to the number of people seeking asylum and examines the barriers they currently and will continue to face. Divided into three parts, the authors first explore the causality that generates displacement, examining climate change, illegal conflicts and the deprivation of natural resources. They argue that all of these problems either originate from human agency directly, or are strongly influenced by human activities, particularly those of wealthy countries in the North West. The study goes on to discuss how migrants are received and the problems they face on arrival, and concludes with confronting the fate and the status of asylum seekers after arrival, and the walls, both virtual and material, that they encounter. The authors propose ways of approaching the situation, beyond the present language and the limited interpretations of the Convention on the Status of Refugees.
Cantor, D.J., L.F. Freier and J-P. Gauci (ed.), A Liberal Tide? Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy in Latin America, London, Institute of Latin American Studies, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Over the past decade, a paradigm shift in migration and asylum law and policymaking appears to have taken place in Latin America. Does this apparent “liberal tide” of new laws and policies suggest a new approach to the hot topics of migration and refugees in Latin America distinct from the regressive and restrictive attitudes on display in other parts of the world? The question is urgent not only for our understanding of contemporary Latin America but also as a means of reorienting the debate in the migration studies field toward the important developments currently taking place in the region and in other parts of the global south. This book brings together eight varied and vibrant new analyses by scholars from Latin America and beyond to form the first collection that describes and critically examines the new liberalism in Latin American law and policy on migration and refugees.
Freedman, J., Gendering the International Asylum and Refugee Debate, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Women make up at least half of the world's refugees, but only a minority of asylum seekers who reach the West are female. International conventions as well as national laws and policies on asylum have frequently overlooked or ignored the gendered nature of asylum issues. Indeed, despite policies to counter gender-based violence, women in refugee camps are often victims of rape and sexual violence. This book redresses the lack of gender-specific analyses of asylum and refugee issues by providing a comprehensive account of women in global forced migration, and explaining the ways in which women's experiences are shaped by gendered relations and structures. The book provides a wide-ranging examination of all sides of the debate looking at causes of refugee flows, international laws and conventions and their application, responses to refugees and asylum seekers and the experiences of refugees and asylum seekers themselves. Drawing on interviews with refugees, asylum seekers, members of NGOs, voluntary organizations and policy makers, this book will be a valuable resource for students, academics and practitioners alike.
Gauci, J-P., M. Giuffré and E. Tsourdi (eds.), Exploring the Boundaries of Refugee Law: Current Protection Challenges, Leiden?Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
rotection challenges around the globe require innovative legal, policy and practical responses. Drawing primarily from a new generation of researchers in the field of refugee law, this volume explores the ‘boundaries’ of refugee law. On the one hand, it ascertains the scope of the legal provisions by highlighting new trends in State practice and analysing the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies, as well as national and international Courts. On the other hand, it marks the boundaries of refugee law as ‘legal frontiers’ whilst exploring new approaches and new frameworks that are necessary in order to address the emerging protection challenges.
Baxewanos, F., Defending Refugee Rights : International Law and Europe's Offshored Immigration Control, Wien ; Graz, NWV Neuer Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
European immigration control has been increasingly offshored in recent years. Various measures, such as the introduction of stricter visa requirements, carrier sanctions, and immigration liaison officers, effectively shifted immigration control away from the European border into third states' territories. As these extraterritorial controls are usually not accompanied by appropriate legal safeguards, they raise important questions from a human rights perspective. For refugees, in particular, they make access to protection increasingly unavailable.
This book is therefore concerned with the question of how refugee rights can be upheld in situations of offshored immigration control. It answers this question from an interdisciplinary perspective, dealing with
- theoretical concepts that need to be revisited in order to strengthen international law's effectiveness in these situations, such as ‘the border' and ‘sovereignty';
- the development, forms and rationales of offshored immigration control; and
- legal instruments to ensure human rights protection in these cases, especially regarding the principle of non-refoulement.
Peers, S. (et al)(eds.), EU Immigration and Asylum Law, Text and Commentary, Volume III: EU Asylum Law, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Since 1999, the EU has adopted legislation harmonizing many areas of immigration law, in particular rules on borders, visas, legal migration, and irregular migration. The much-enlarged and fully updated second edition of this book contains the text of and detailed commentary upon every significant measure in this field proposed or adopted up until 1 September 2011. It includes commentary on the EU visa code, the Schengen Borders Code, the Frontex Regulation, the Returns Directive, the Directives on family reunion, long-term residents and single permits for migrant workers, and many more besides.
This is the essential guide for any lawyers, academics, civil servants, NGOs and students interested in this area of law.
The authors of each commentary are academic and practitioner experts in the field of EU immigration law based in the UK, Ireland and the Netherlands.
Y. Jansen, R. Celikates and J. de Bloois (eds.), The Irregularization of Migration in Contemporary Europe : Detention, Deportation, Drowning, London ; New York, Rowman & Littlefield International, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Working from an interdisciplinary perspective that draws on the social sciences, legal studies, and the humanities, this book investigates the causes and effects of the extremities experienced by migrants. Firstly, the volume analyses the development and political-cultural conditions of current practices and discourses of “bordering,” “illegality,” and “irregularization.” Secondly, it focuses on the varieties of irregularization and on the diversity of the fields, techniques and effects involved in this variegation. Thirdly, the book examines examples of resistance that migrants and migratory cultures have developed in order to deal with the predicaments they face. The book uses the European Union as its case study, exploring practices and discourses of bordering, border control, and migration regulation. But the significance of this field extends well beyond the European context as the monitoring of Europe’s borders increasingly takes place on a global scale and reflects an internationally increasing trend.
Baldinger, D., Vertical Judicial Dialogues in Asylum Cases: Standards on Judicial Scrutiny and Evidence in International and European Law, Leiden/Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
What do international and EU law require from the national asylum judge with regard to the intensity of judicial scrutiny to be applied and evidentiary issues? To answer that question, an analysis is made of the provisions on national judicial proceedings contained in the Refugee Convention (RC), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the UN Convention against Torture (CAT), the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. In addition, the assessment as performed by the UN Human Rights Committee, the UN Committee against Torture and the European Court of Human Rights in cases concerning the expulsion of asylum seekers is analysed.
Cherubini, F., Asylum Law in the European Union, London; New York, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book examines the rules governing the right to asylum in the European Union. Drawing on the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, and the 1967 Protocol, Francesco Cherubini asks how asylum obligations under international refugee law have been incorporated into the European Union. The book draws from international law, EU law and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, and focuses on the prohibition of refoulement; the main obligation the EU law must confront. Cherubini explores the dual nature of this principle, examining both the obligation to provide a fair procedure that determines the conditions of risk in the country of origin or destination, and the obligation to respond to a possible expulsion. Through this study the book sheds light on EU competence in asylum when regarding the different positions of Member States. The book will be of great use and interest to researchers and students of asylum and immigration law, EU law, and public international law.
- African Human Rights Case Law Analyser (CLA). Collection of the human rights decisions of African supra-national mechanisms.
- Asylum Information Database. Asylum practice in EU Member States in particular with regard to asylum procedures, reception conditions and detention
- EISIL Database on Refugees, Asylum, Nationality, Displaced & Freedom of Movement. This section of the EISIL database includes sources and materials relating to the rights, treatment, and status of peoples whose identities vis-à-vis the state are indeterminate, resisted, or challenged. It also covers statelessness and rights of aliens.
- European Court of Human Rights (HUDOC). Access to the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (Grand Chamber, Chamber and Committee judgments, decisions, communicated cases, advisory opinions and legal summaries from the Case-Law Information Note), the European Commission of Human Rights (decisions and reports) and the Committee of Ministers (resolutions).
- European Database of Asylum Law. An online database containing case law from (at the moment) 17 EU Member States interpreting refugee and asylum law.
- European Migration Law. Information about the legal and jurisprudential developments taking place at EU level.
- Fullerton, M.(ed.), The Refugee Law Reader: : Cases, Documents and Materials, 6th edition, 2011, online. A comprehensive on-line model curriculum for the study of the complex and rapidly evolving field of international refugee law.
- Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Access to the case-law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
- IOM Migration Law Database. International, regional and national instrument concerning migration.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, International Refugee Organization, by Göran Melander.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Refugees, by Dieter Kugelmann.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Refugees, League of Nations Offices, by Dieter Kugelmann.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), by Erika Feller and Anja Klug.
- OHCHR jurisprudence database. This database provides easy access to jurisprudence emanating from the United Nations Treaty Bodies which receive and consider complaints from individuals: the Human Rights Committee (CCPR), the Committee against Torture (CAT), the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), the Committee on Enforced Disappearances (CED), the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), and the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC).
- Refworld. A vast collection of reports and information relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks with a searchable database of case-law of national and international jurisprudential decisions.
- United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law – Lecture Series, International Migration Law. The Lecture Series contains a permanent collection of lectures of enduring value on virtually every subject of international law given by leading international law scholars and practitioners from different regions, legal systems, cultures and sectors of the legal profession. Lectures on International Migration Law; Forced Migration - The Evolution of International Refugee Law and Organization; Expulsion in Public International Law, The Kampala Convention, The Sources of International Migration Law and The Principle of Non-refoulement in International Law)
The EU Migration Crisis and Moral Obligations
The European Union is currently coping with the world’s biggest migrant crisis since World War II. A record number of 107,500 migrants reached the EU’s borders last month.Large numbers of desparate migrants and refugees from the Middle East and Africa are trying to enter the European Union every day. Apart from this there are also many illegal immigrants who have entered the EU undetected. A conserable number of them have died during their attempt. According to a report of the UNHCR, around 2500 migrants who were trying to reach and enter the European Union have died or gone missing in the past year.Read more
Climate Change and Forced Migration : A Gap in Protection
The barely-above-sea-level, coral-dependent Maldives are sinking into the Indian Ocean. The apocalyptic fate is due to climate-change induced temperature increases, which have resulted in rising sea levels and dying coral reefs. In response, the state has built artificial islands—to accommodate the rising sea levels that may render previous places of residence inhabitable—and The Great Male Sea Wall—to protect Male from imposing storms. Many people have already been evacuated from their homes, temporarily housed in camps elsewhere in the Maldives. However, eventually the Maldives may become completely submerged and inhospitable. If the Maldives become a casualty of climate change, as has been predicted, people will be forced to flee from the islands altogether, potentially becoming stateless. They will have to seek protection elsewhere.Read more
Mixed Migration Flows Across the Mediterranean: The EU Agenda on Migration
Wars, conflict and persecution have forced more people than at any other time in history to flee their homes and seek refuge and safety elsewhere, according to UNHCR’s annual Global Trends Report: World at War, released on June 18, two days before world refugee day. One of the most recent and highly visible consequences of the world’s conflicts and the terrible suffering they cause has been the dramatic growth in the numbers of refugees seeking safety through dangerous sea journeys, including on the Mediterranean, in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, and in Southeast Asia.Read more
Borders Beyond Control?
In my previous blogpost “Feigning Immigration Control”, I argued that politicians are often busy with feigning immigration control while in reality they often can or want to do little about it. What do we actually know about the effects of immigration policies? In order to answer this question, I have conducted a research project on the ‘Determinants of International Migration’ (DEMIG) at the International Migration Institute at Oxford University. One of the main insights of the project is that while immigration restrictions often reduce immigration, these effects tend to be rather small. In addition, restrictions often have a four potential side-effects (‘substitution effects’) which further undermine their effectiveness or can even make them counter-productive.Read more
Border Controls and Human Rights: Migration in the Central Mediterranean
The Central Mediterranean has, in the last years, turned into the epicentre of human (migrant) disasters. The Central Mediterranean route refers to the migratory flow coming from Northern Africa towards Italy and Malta through the Mediterranean Sea. Here, Libya often acts as nexus point where migrants from the Horn of Africa and Western African routes meet before embarking on their journey towards the EU.Read more
First Global Forum on Statelessness - "New Directions in Statelessness Research and Policy"
From 15 to 17 September 2014, 3 institutions (the UNHCR, the agency mandated by the General Assembly to help states to address statelessness, and the Statelessness Programme of Tilburg University) co-hosted the first held Global Forum on Statelessness. The three-day event took place in the Academy building of the Peace Palace of The Hague, the Netherlands.Read more
International Refugee Law blog series I: Exclusion of Refugee Status: The Criminal Refugee
In the western world it is possible you live next to a war criminal, or your child might be playing with the daughter of a war criminal at school. It is also possible to live there without a real prospect of obtaining a form of legal status and without being held criminally responsible for the alleged crime. Who are these people living in legal limbo? why are they still here? The exclusion of refugee status (1F Refugee Convention) and its consequences will be dealt with in this blog.Read more
- International Association of Refugee Law Judges
- International Committee of the Red Cross: Refugees and IDPs
- IOM - International Organization for Migration
- Norwegian Refugee Council
- Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants)
- Refugees International
- UNHCR: Online Protection Manual (UNHCR's repository of protection policy and guidance)
- UNHCR | Refworld (Refugee Decision Support)
- Council of Europe (CoE)
- European Union (EU)
- European Migration Law ( information about the legal and jurisprudential developments taking place at EU level)
- European Council on Refugees and Exiles (a pan-European alliance of 81 NGOs protecting and advancing the rights of refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons)
Research and academia
- Border Crossing Observatory (research on border crossings and irregular migration)
- Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration
- Eurasylum (international research and consulting company that specialises solely in issues of immigration and asylum policy on behalf of public authorities worldwide)
- European Migration Network (provides information on migration and asylum topics to policy makers (at EU and Member State level) and the general public)
- ESIL Interest Group on Migration and Refugee Law
- Fahamu Legal Aid Newsletter
- Forced Migration Current Awareness
- Forced Migration Online
- The Graduate Institute: Global Migration Centre
- Guide to International Refugee Law Resources on the Web, by Elisa Mason - 2013
- Harvard Research Guide on Forced Migration and Refugee Protection, by Aslihan Bulut
- Inter-University Committee on International Migration
- International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
- The Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence on Migrant's Rights in the Mediterranean
- The Kaldor Center for International Refugee Law
- Migration Information Source (tools, data, and essential facts on the movement of people worldwide)
- Migration Policy Centre
- Migration Policy Centre on the migrant crisis
- Migration Policy Institute
- Migreurop ( un réseau européen et africain de militants et chercheurs dont l’objectif est de faire connaître et de lutter contre la généralisation de l’enfermement des étrangers et la multiplication des camps, dispositif au coeur de la politique d’externalisation de l’Union européenne)
- Oxford LibGuide to Refugee Studies by Sarah Rhodes
- Picum (Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants)
- Refugee Law Research Guide Berkeley Law Library
- Refugee Studies Centre
- Researching Forced Migration: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources, by Elisa Mason
- RSD Watch (a primary portal for discussing the challenges involved in UNHCR RSD)
- United Nations Office at Geneva Library research guide Refugees and Asylum Seekers
- United Nations University Migration Network (a research platform across Institutes of the UNU that shares expertise on Migration)
Blogs and commentary on immigration, refugees and asylum.
- The Asylumist (asylum in the USA)
- Brookings blogs (fill in keyword refugees in blog posts)
- Compas (blog on migration issues)
- ESIL Interest Group on Migration and Refugee Law Blogs and Publications
- EU Migration Law Blog (to provide a critical analysis of recent developments in the immigration and asylum law and policy of the European Union)
- Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network blog on migration and asylum
- Free Movement (updates and commentary on immigration and asylum law in Great Britain and the EU)
- The Migrationist (an international, collaborative academic/professional blog designed to promote public discourse informed by academics and professionals who focus on issues surrounding migration, refugees, and human trafficking)
- MPC Blog
- RefLaw (RefLaw.org is an online forum offering critical analysis on important new cases, legislation, and emerging issues in refugee law)
- Shares research project on shared responsibility in international law, section international refugee law
- UNHCR Global Views
- I-Map (Interactive Map on Migration)
- TheRefugeeProject (An interactive map of refugee migrations around the world in each year since 1975; UN data is complemented by original histories of the major refugee crises of the last four decades, situated in their individual contexts)
More Research guides on Individuals and Groups
- Guest Post: Too Much Information? (There has been an exponential expansion in the amount of information and analysis on refugee-related issues over the past 30 years. But has quantity outstripped quality? Jeff Crisp provides this commentary.)
In the Spotlight: REFUGEE 'CRISIS'
In response to the refugee crisis in Europe, Oxford University Press has made more than 30 book chapters, journal articles, and pieces of content from online resources freely accessible to assist those working with refugees on the ground, as well as anyone who would like to know more about the framework of rights and obligations concerning refugees. The materials are structured around four key questions: who is a refugee, what rights do they have, what are transit states’ obligations, and what are the duties of the state where a refugee applies for asylum. See http://opil.ouplaw.com/page/refugee-law. See also the Oxford Human Rights Hub Blog Series on Human Rights and the Refugee Crisis in Europe and this blog by James Hathaway
- Al-Jazeera interactive (follow the journeys of three refugees)
- European Agenda on Migration, legislative documents (see also the latest press release European Commission/State of Play: Measures to Address the Refugee Crisis, 04-01-2016)
- EU Border Deaths Database
- Gleeson, M., European Approaches to Irregular Migration, Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law
- Irin News Global Migrant & Refugee CrisisLecture Slides on the Mediterranean Migration Crisis
- Liquid Traces: The Left-to-Die Boat Case (directed by C. Heller and L. Pezzani, it offers a synthetic reconstruction of the events concerning what is known as the “left-to-die boat” case)
- Migration Flows in Europe, IOM, december 2015.
- Migreurop, a critical chronology of European Migration Policies through a time-framed comparison of the evolution of the legal framework, the public discourse and the facts.
- MPC website on the migrant crisis
- Refugee Republic: an online documentary about everyday life in Camp Domiz, a Syrian refugee camp in northern Iraq. Around 64 thousand predominantly Kurdish-Syrian refugees have sought shelter here. As the number of refugees grew, the camp gradually transformed from a temporary refuge to a makeshift town, where people live and work, go to school, start a business, get married, argue and have fun.Visual artist Jan Rothuizen, journalist Martijn van Tol, and photographer Dirk Jan Visser explored Camp Domiz from A to Z. They bring to life its inhabitants and places in a multidimensional mix of sound, drawings, photo and film.
- Statewatch Observatory EU Refugee Crisis: A Humanitarian Emergency (This observatory covers the arrival of refugees and migrants, the reactions and failures within the EU)
- Teaching with the News, Refugee Stories: Mapping a Crisis (it provides online curriculum materials and lessons to connect the content of your classroom to the headlines in the news, in this case refugees)
- The World’s Congested Human Migration Routes in 5 Maps.
- Undocumentary (a new teaching guide to educate about the realities undocumented migrants face across Europe)
- Podcasts of the Refugee Studies Centre (among others: three asylum paradigms by Jean-François Durieux; the child in international refugee law by Jason Pobjoy; see also the videos
- Podcasts of the School of Advanced Study at the University of London (see under Law and under Politics, Development and Human Rights)
- Videos, audio and webinars of the Migration Policy Institute with regards to different migration / refugees related subjects.
- Journal of East Asia and International Law videos on subjects from articles which appeared in the journal
Fact-check (in dutch, monitors on a monthly basis the factual accuracy of what is said by (left and right wing) politicians and the media in the Netherlands on the topic of refugees)
Deze week: Euro-commissaris Frans Timmermans (interview met de NOS, 25 januari 2016)
“Het gaat om 60 procent van alle vluchtelingen. Dat zijn mensen waarvan je kunt aannemen dat ze geen enkele reden hebben om een vluchtelingenstatus aan te vragen.”
Het zouden vooral migranten uit Marokko en Tunesië zijn, die via Turkije naar Europa proberen te komen. Timmermans baseert zich volgens een woordvoerder op nog niet gepubliceerde gegevens uit december van het Europese grensbewakingsagentschap Frontex. Bij Frontex kon een woordvoerder de exacte cijfers waarover Timmermans sprak niet bevestigen op maandag 25 januari 2016. Op 28 januari 2016 publiceerde Frontex het bericht dat 39% van de migranten die aankwamen in december 2015 op de Griekse eilanden stelden van Syrische nationaliteit te zijn. Terwijl het percentage Syriërs is gedaald is het percentage Iraki's gestegen tot 25 % in december. Het gemiddeld aandeel van Afghanen fluctueert tussen 25% en 33% van de aangekomen migranten.
Oordeel: Tenzij Iraki's en Afghanen economische vluchtelingen zijn (wat niet zo is), is deze bewering onjuist indien het gaat om de migranten die op de Griekse eilanden aankomen. Timmermans laat in een reactie weten dat hij het niet alleen had over de mensen die via Turkije reizen maar over alle grenspassages en niet specifiek die van Griekenland. Uit het fragment van de uitzending blijkt dat ook die bewering van Timmermans niet klopt. Er wordt door hem specifiek over Turkije en Griekenland gesproken en de “snelweg” die die route naar Europa vormt.
Een woordvoerder van Eurocommissaris Timmermans laat op 28 januari 2016 weten dat hij bij zijn woorden blijft. Alleen zou Timmermans zijn uitspraken nu ineens niet meer hebben gebaseerd op cijfers die Frontex deze week zou publiceren, maar op gegevens die ‘binnenkort’ naar buiten komen. Ook zouden die cijfers ‘alle irreguliere grensoverschrijdingen’ betreffen. Dat meldt de NRC.
Oordeel: De uitspraak van Frans Timmermans dat 60% van de vluchtelingen geen reden heeft om een vluchtelingenstatus aan te vragen is onjuist. Afgezien van het feit dat een ieder een aanvraag kan doen voor een vluchtelingenstatus, geven de wel bekende cijfers aan dat de overgrote meerderheid uit oorlogslanden komt (Syrië, Afghanistan, Irak). Ik kan geen oordeel geven over nog niet gepubliceerde gegevens.