Diplomacy can be regarded as an application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between the governments of independent States. Whereas the terms diplomacy and foreign policy are often used interchangeably, diplomacy is an instrument of foreign policy. Foreign policy is orientated towards settling goals, occasionally with mention to the strategies and tactics to be used. Diplomacy is used to its accomplishment. The purpose of diplomacy is to strengthen the State and to serve in its relations with others. One of the functions of diplomacy is to minimize frictions and conflicts with other states through negotiations.
Three kinds of diplomacy can be discerned: bilateral diplomacy or diplomacy between two states (i.e. diplomatic representation of the sending state in a receiving state), multilateral diplomacy which involves diplomacy regarding regional or global issues and is used with a plurality of States through an international organization or at international conferences, and ad hoc diplomacy which involves other forms of diplomacy than the two aforementioned types of diplomacy. For example one can think of special missions to which States resort in order to entrust a diplomatic officer with the task to carry out one or many diplomatic assignments in a foreign State even though this officer does not belong to a permanent mission accredited to a country. In Academia, diplomatic studies is regarded as a new discipline, a sub-area of international relations.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Diplomacy. It provides the basic materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's classification index code 455. Diplomacy and Diplomatic History of the Various States and subject heading (keyword) Diplomacy are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
1. American ambassadors
Keywords: United States of America, Ambassadors, International relations,
- Berridge, G.R. and L. Lloyd, The Palgrave Macmillan Dictionary of Diplomacy, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
- Cooper, A.F., J. Heine and R. Thakur (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.
- Kleiner, J., Diplomatic Practice: Between Tradition and Innovation, Singapore, World Scientific, 2010.
- Roberts, I. (eds.), Satow's Diplomatic Practice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009.
- Mezzabotta, C., La mediazione internazionale e il ruolo della diplomazia, Milano, Egea, 2012.
- Tassani, G., Diplomatico tra due guerre: vita di Giacomo Paulucci di Calboli Barone, Firenze, Le Lettere, 2012.
- Wetzel, D., A Duel of Nations: Germany, France, and the Diplomacy of the War of 1870-1871, Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press, 2012.
- Banai, H., "Diplomacy and Public Imagination", in Sustainable Diplomacies, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, pp. 46-66.
- Betsill, M.M. and E. Corell, "Introduction to NGO", in NGO Diplomacy: the Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Negotiations, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2008, pp. 1-17.
- Cooper, A.F., "Like-Minded Nations, NGO's and the Changing Pattern of Diplomacy with the UN System: an Introductory Perspective", in Enhancing Global Governance: Towards a New Diplomacy?, Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2002, pp. 1-18.
- Dugard, J., "Diplomatic Protection", in The Law of International Responsibility, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 1051-1071.
- Kissinger, H.A., "Force and Diplomacy in the Nuclear Age", in Ethics and International Relations, Farnham, Ashgate, 2009, pp. 313-330.
- Kleinschmidt, H., "War, Diplomacy and the Ethics of Self-Constraint in the Age of Grotius", in War, the State and the International Law in Seventeenth-Century Europe, Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2010, pp. 103-129.
- Kooijmans, P.H., "Is the Right to Diplomatic Protection a Human Right?", in Studi di diritto internazionale in onore di Gaetano Arangio-Ruiz, Vol. 3, Napoli, Ed. Scientifica, 2003, pp. 1975-1984.
- Muchlinski, P.T., "The Diplomatic Protection of Foreign Investors: a Tale of Judicial Caution", in International Investment Law for the 21st Century: Essays in Honour of Christoph Schreuer, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 341-362.
- Okano-Heijmans, M., "Changes in Consular Assistance and the Emergence of Consular Diplomacy", in Consular Affairs and Diplomacy, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2011, pp. 21-41.
- Pardy, G., "Consular and Diplomatic Protection in an Age of Terrorism: Filling the Gaps", in The Human Rights of Terrorism, Toronto, Irwin Law, 2008, pp. 233-260.
- Vermeer-Kunzli, A.M.H., "Restricting Discretion: Judicial Review of Diplomatic Protection", Nordic Journal of International Law, 75 (2006), No. 2, pp. 279-307.
- Robin, G. (ed.), 8th International Conference of Editors of Diplomatic Documents: About States and UNO, Bruxelles, Peter Lang, 2008.
Periodicals, serial publications
- Archives diplomatiques pour l'histoire du tems et des états
- British and Foreign State Papers
- Clingendael Diplomacy Papers
- DEP: diplomacia, estratégia, política
- Diplomacia Academia Diplomática de Chile
- Diplomatic Studies
- Discussion Papers in Diplomacy
- History of International Relations, Diplomacy, and Intelligence
- I documenti diplomatici italiani
- Studia Diplomatica
- The Green Bag
- The Hague Journal of Diplomacy
1. American ambassadors
Keywords: United States of America, Ambassadors, International relations,
Smolinska, A.M. (et al.) (eds.), Droit international des relations diplomatiques et consulaires, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Monographie simple et complète à usage des étudiants et des professionnels pour comprendre les règles qui régissent les relations diplomatiques et consulaires.
Stahn, C. and Melber, H. (eds.) Peace Diplomacy, Global Justice and International Agency: Rethinking Human Security and Ethics in the Spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
As UN Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjold shaped many of the fundamental principles and practices of international organisations, such as preventive diplomacy, the ethics of international civil service, impartiality and neutrality. He was also at the heart of the constitutional foundations and principles of the UN. This tribute and critical review of Hammarskjold's values and legacy examines his approach towards international civil service, agency and value-based leadership, investigates his vision of internationalism and explores his achievements and failures as Secretary-General. It draws on specific conflict situations and strategies such as Suez and the Congo for lessons that can benefit contemporary conflict resolution and modern concepts such as human security and R2P. It also reflects on ways in which actors such as international courts, tribunals and the EU can benefit from Hammarskjold's principles and experiences in the fields of peace and security and international justice.
Barston, R.P. , Modern Diplomacy, Harlow, Pearson, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Modern Diplomacy provides a comprehensive exploration of the evolution and concepts of the institution of diplomacy. This book equips students with a detailed analysis of important international issues that impact upon diplomacy and its relationship with international politics. The subject is bought ‘to life’ through the use of case studies and examples which highlight the working of contemporary diplomacy within the international political arena. Organised around five broad topic areas, including the nature of diplomacy, diplomatic methods and negotiation, the operation of diplomacy in specific areas and natural disasters and international conflict, the book covers all major topic areas of contemporary diplomacy.
Sofer, S., The Courtiers of Civilization, Albany, State University of New York Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The professional diplomat frequently takes a back seat in the public imagination to such figures as the great heads of state and leading military figures. In The Courtiers of Civilization, Sasson Sofer aims to restore the importance and reputation of the diplomat in Western civilization. Drawing on an exhaustive reading of the vast literature on diplomacy, from the late Renaissance forward, he fashions an engaging portrait of the diplomat’s milieu and lifestyle, his place in diplomatic rituals, and his role in international dialogue. Blending historical evidence, sociological analysis, and political thought, Sofer explores the vocational predicament faced by the diplomat, who must play many roles, including negotiator, honorable spy, horse trader, appeaser, and bureaucrat, while at the same time maneuvering in the world of rulers and warriors. Ultimately, the diplomat is a symbol of peace and a custodian of the virtues and norms of a civilized and functional international society—in sum a “courtier of civilization.”
Maar, R. van der, en J.F. Meijer, Herman van Roijen, 1905-1991: een diplomaat van klasse, Amsterdam, Boom, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Zelden is een Nederlandse diplomaat zo invloedrijk geweest als Herman van Roijen (1905-1991). Gedurende zijn veertigjarige loopbaan in de Buitenlandse Dienst heeft hij in diverse functies en op verschillende posten in de jaren 1930-1970 mede gestalte gegeven aan de Nederlandse buitenlandse politiek. Na een kortstondig ministerschap op Buitenlandse Zaken in het eerste naoorlogse kabinet Schermerhorn-Drees werd hij ambassadeur in Canada, de Verenigde Staten en Groot-Brittannië. Twee maal heeft hij een beslissende invloed gehad op de (inter)nationale geschiedenis. Hij vertegenwoordigde Nederland na de Tweede Politionele Actie in de Veiligheidsraad en leidde vervolgens de besprekingen met de Republiek Indonesië. Het mede naar hem genoemde Van Roijen-Roemakkoord van 7 mei 1949 vormde de doorbraak in het zo moeizame Indonesische dekolonisatieproces en was de opmaat naar de formele Indonesische onafhankelijkheid. Dertien jaar later beslechtte hij het Nieuw-Guineavraagstuk, waarbij hij zich keerde tegen het beleid van minister van Buitenlandse Zaken, Joseph Luns. Mede door zijn optreden als onderhandelaar in beide dekolonisatiekwesties, maar ook door zijn optreden als ambassadeur in de bilaterale betrekkingen met de landen waar hij geposteerd was, wordt Herman van Roijen wel beschouwd als een van de grote diplomaten die Nederland in de twintigste eeuw heeft gekend. De auteurs van deze biografie beschrijven, mede aan de hand van Van Roijens niet eerder gebruikte privéarchief, naast zijn activiteiten als diplomaat, ook uitvoerig zijn persoonlijk leven. Centraal in het boek staat de vraag waarom Van Roijen uitsteeg boven zijn Nederlandse vakgenoten en een sleutelrol kon vervullen in de vaderlandse en internationale geschiedenis.
Kerr, P. and G. Wiseman, Diplomacy in a Globalizing World, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
In Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and Practices, twenty-three respected scholars contribute to the debate about the changing nature of contemporary diplomacy and its future theoretical and practical directions. Filling a gap in the diplomacy textbook market, this unique volume balances breadth with depth and theory with practice, using cutting-edge comparisons to show that twenty-first century diplomacy is best understood as "complex diplomacy." The book analyzes diplomacy's historical and contemporary developments; Western and non-Western diplomatic theories and practices; sociological and political theories of diplomacy; and various diplomatic structures, processes, and instruments, such as the ministry of foreign affairs, public diplomacy, bilateral and multilateral diplomacy, and intelligence. Numerous pedagogical tools enhance the text.
Cooper, A.F., J. Heine and R. Thakur (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
At a time when diplomatic practices and the demands imposed on diplomats are changing quite radically, and many foreign ministries feel they are being left behind, there is a need to understand the various forces that are affecting the profession. Diplomacy remains a salient activity in today's world in which the basic authoritative actor is still the state. At the same time, in some respects the practice of diplomacy is undergoing significant, even radical, changes to the context, tools, actors and domain of the trade. These changes spring from the changing nature of the state, the changing nature of the world order, and the interplay between them. One way of describing this is to say that we are seeing increased interaction between two forms of diplomacy, "club diplomacy" and "network diplomacy". The former is based on a small number of players, a highly hierarchical structure, based largely on written communication and on low transparency; the latter is based on a much larger number of players (particularly of civil society), a flatter structure, a more significant oral component, and greater transparency. The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy is an authoritative reference tool for those studying and practicing modern diplomacy. It provides an up-to-date compendium of the latest developments in the field. Written by practitioners and scholars, the Handbook describes the elements of constancy and continuity and the changes that are affecting diplomacy. The Handbook goes further and gives insight to where the profession is headed in the future. Co-edited by three distinguished academics and former practitioners, the Handbook provides comprehensive analysis and description of the state of diplomacy in the 21st Century and is an essential resource for diplomats, practitioners and academics.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Asylum, Diplomatic, by Prakash Shah.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Démarche, Diplomatic, by Jean Salmon.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Diplomacy, by Eduardo Jara Roncati.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Diplomatic Communications, Forms of, by Paul Behrens.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Diplomatic Courier and Bag, by Eduardo Jean d'Aspremont.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Diplomatic Protection, by John Dugard.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Diplomatic Protocol, by Martina Wohlan.
Nuclear Deal, Sanctions, Nuclear Diplomacy
After nearly two years of arduous negotiations a comprehensive agreement on the nuclear program of Iran was signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015. In exchange for reducing Iran’s nuclear activities drastically, the United States and the European Union would lift their nuclear-related sanctions on the Iranian economy. Most countries and international organizations welcomed the agreement. Will U.S. President Obama be remembered as initiator of this ‘historic’ deal? The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is a nuclear agreement signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.Read more
The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 and the Roadmap to Israeli-Palestinian Permanent Peace!
Between 11 and 18 October the Youth Peace Initiative 2014 took place in The Hague, international City of Peace and Justice. The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 (YPI 2014) has been set up to get Israeli and Palestinian youth involved with the current peace negotiations between their nations. The YPI 2014 participants discussed and deliberated a whole week to achieve consensus on ideas and solutions for the peace process.Read more
Building a ‘Temple for Peace’: the 1899 Hague Peace Conference
This year, the Peace Palace, will celebrate its 100-year Anniversary. As official celebrations will commence in August, the Peace Palace Library starts with a series of library blogs in retrospect. The foundation of the Peace Palace in 1913 marked a pivotal point between two centuries. At the end of the 19th century, the idea of world peace was blooming as never before. At the dawn of the 20th century however, expectations had toned down considerably.Read more
The Peace of Christmas Eve
Peace is an elusive thing. For many, the attraction of the Christmas season is the momentary fulfillment of that dream, the wonderful moment of ‘Peace on Earth’. For one night, it seems possible. As Christmas approaches, we experience a sense of ‘Peace on Earth’. A few times in history, this sense of peace at Christmas had real impact on human affairs. A little known example is the the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1814, ending a war, the War of 1812, between the United States and the British Empire and their allies.Read more
Texas Executes Mexican National in Defiance of ICJ Rulings
Late Tuesday night, 5 August, the State of Texas executed José Ernesto Medellín, despite a call from the UN Secretary-General urging the United States (US) not to go ahead with the execution and to respect the judgements of the International Court of Justice (ICJ).Read more
Tsvangirai seeks diplomatic protection
Morgan Tsvangirai, Zimbabwe’s opposition leader, fearing for his safety, has taken refuge in the Dutch embassy in the capital Harare. Zimbabwean authorities said to respect the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations of 1961 [PDF]Read more
The embassy has diplomatic immunity and cannot be entered without permission of the ambassador.
Famous cases involving embassies are ; the Iran-US Hostage crisis in 1979, the Hungarian Cardinal József Mindszenty lived for 15 years in the American embassy in Budapest.
Keywords for more literature on diplomatic protection : Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations, Hostages, Iran, Diplomatic and consular protection