European Union

Introduction

Europe unie construit la paix

In 2012, the European Union (EU) received the Nobel Peace Prize for its decades-long contribution to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe. When the first steps towards supranational cooperation were made in the aftermath of World War II, primarily targeted at preventing the rearmament of Germany, the Founding Fathers of the European integration could never have imagined this outcome in their wildest dreams. Over the years, the supranational cooperation would widen – from the original European Communities and deepen – from the originally almost purely economically inspired Communities to the current Union with a say in almost all areas of national competence. At the same time, problems with the Euro have plunged the EU in one of the biggest crises since its inception. This challenges lawmakers to tackle difficult questions about the continued existence of the Euro and the future direction of the European integration project.
Promotion of peace is one the objective of the European integration project but also the well-being of the peoples, and the promotion of certain common values: respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. The EU also aims to offer European citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers, and an economically healthy and sustainable internal market. The EU also developed a common foreign and security policy. In its relations with the wider world, the EU proclaims to uphold and promote its values and interests and contribute to the protection of its citizens. The EU has an institutional framework at its disposal, which has the task to promote the EU ‘s values, advance the EU’s objectives, and serve the interests of the EU citizens and Member States, both within and outside Europe. The EU’s legislative organs are the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. The executive organ is the European Council. The European Commission oversees the application of Union law by Member States, and the Court of Justice of the European Union, being the EU’s judicial organ, ensures that Member States correctly apply EU law.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on the European Union. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code European Union in General and subject heading (keyword) European Union are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

Online publications released during January 2015 or forthcoming

 

Eijken, H. van, EU Citizenship & the Constitutionalisation of the European Union, Europa Law Publishing, 2015.

Abstract:  It has been 20 years since Union citizenship was introduced under the Treaty of Maastricht, yet it remains a topical and contemporary issue. The main research question underlying this study is whether and how European citizenship affects the constitutionalisation of the European Union. The present study connects European citizenship with European constitutional processes, in order to grasp the constitutional relevance of EU citizenship. To this end, the different aspects of European citizenship are specifically linked to features that are, commonly, found in constitutions. The effect of and relation between European citizenship and four of these constitutional ‘building blocks’ are assessed. First of all, the effect of European citizenship to the vertical division of powers between the Member States and the European Union is analysed. Second, the way European citizenship relates to a common ideology, existing of fundamental rights protection and democracy, is discussed. Moreover, the effect of European citizenship on judicial review and the hierarchy of norms in the European Union is addressed. Finally the question is posed how and to what extend European citizenship affects the constitutionalisation of the European Union and how European citizenship can be placed within the European constitutional context.

Jans, J.H., Prechal, S.,Widdershoven, R.J.G.M. (eds.), Europeanisation of Public Law (2nd edition), Europa Law Publishing, 2015.

Abstract: Europeanisation of Public Law is a study about the relation between European and national public law. Familiar EU doctrines on ‘procedural autonomy’, ‘direct effect’, ‘consistent interpretation’, ‘ex officio application of European law’ and ‘state liability’ are used as a starting point for examining the effects of these doctrines in the various Member States. Consideration is also given to important questions concerning the enforcement of European law in the national legal order, the organisation of the judiciary and the influence of European law on fundament principles of (public) law such as legal certainty, non-discrimination and proportionality.The book has in particular been written for advanced bachelors and masters courses on the relation between national and European law. Because of the many examples of national case law, the book should be most welcome to any practitioner dealing with European law in a national context.

Bartl, M., The Way We Do Europe: Subsidiarity and the Substantive Democratic Deficit, European Law Journal, Volume 21 (2015), No 1, pp. 23–43.

Abstract: The new institutional framework of subsidiarity is expected to lower the EU democratic deficit. In contrast to this optimistic scenario, I argue that the success of subsidiarity depends on its capacity to unravel the EU’s ‘substantive’ democratic deficit. Linked to the Union’s functionalist institutional design, this dimension of the democratic deficit has developed due to two limitations of EU-level politics. First, the EU functionalist design has narrowed the range of topics open to democratic debate (horizontal substantive democratic deficit). Second, the proportion of the debate which we could genuinely describe as being political is declining as a result of the de-politicisation of EU goals, underpinned by a massive accumulation of allegedly apolitical expert knowledge (vertical substantive democratic deficit). Against this background, I contend that by involving actors relatively alien to the EU functionalist thinking, subsidiarity could offer an opportune ground for the re-politicisation of democratic ‘blind spots’ in EU policy making.

Kochenov, D. and Basheska, E., Introduction: Good Neighbourliness Inside and Outside the Union (January 11, 2015). Forthcoming in D Kochenov and E Basheska (eds) Good Neighbourly Relations in the European Legal Context (Brill Nijhoff, 2015).

Abstract: This text provides an introduction to the volume on Good Neighbourly Relations in the European Legal Context, offering a brief sketch of the essence of the principle and a description of the structural organisation of the book. The focus is on the particular issues where good neighbourliness considerations could be applicable, aiming to provide a rich outline of the potential usefulness and importance of the principle of good neighbourly relations in the European legal context.

Colangelo, M. and Zeno-Zencovich, V., Introduction to European Union Transport Law (January 8, 2015). Introduction to European Union Transport Law Collana “Consumatori e Mercato” – n. 2 Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza Università degli studi Roma Tre.

Abstract: A primer for courses on European Union Transport Law, a field of increasing complexity marked by a very strong inter-relation between full competition, State aid, services of general economic interest, regulation of network industries, consumer protection. The volume, after an Introduction to the relevant EU provisions, is divided in three modules: I. Air transport; II. Rail transport; III. Passengers’ rights. It includes also the most important decisions by EU courts and by the European Commission which have opened and shaped the market for trans-European transport services.

Bibliography

Reference works

Books

Articles

Documents

 Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

 

Add comments -for instance if you think we missed something, or just to express your thoughts- about the bibliography in this research guide:

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1. Europarecht
Europarecht / von Matthias Herdegen. - 15., überarb. und erw. Aufl. - München : Beck, 2013. - XXVII, 509 p. : ill. ; 20 cm. - (Grundrisse des Rechts) 1e dr.: 1997. - Met lit. opg. en index. - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Community law, Institutional law, Community law and municipal law, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Rome, 4 November 1950),

2. L'Union européenne et le droit international de l'aviation civile
L'Union européenne et le droit international de l'aviation civile / Vincent Correia ; préface de Loïc Grard ; avant-propos de Pablo Mendes de Leon. - [Brussel] : Bruylant, 2014. - 970 pages. ; 24 cm. - (Collection droit de l'Union européenne, ISSN 1782-7841. Thèses ; 37) Based on a doctoral thesis at l'Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV, 2012. - Bibliography: page 853-947. - Includes bibliographical references and index. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Civil aviation, International air law, Theses,

3. Die Europäische Bürgerinitiative
Die Europäische Bürgerinitiative / von Dr. Clemens Lintschinger. - Wien : NWV, Neuer Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2012. - 128 pages. ; 22 cm. - (Recht : Praxis) Includes bibliographical references and index. - 2012
Keywords: European Union, Citizenship, Public participation,

4. Europarecht
Europarecht / von Dr. Matthias Herdegen. - 16., überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage 2014. - München : C.H. Beck, 2014. - XXVII, 520 pages. : illustrations. ; 20 cm. - (Grundrisse des Rechts) First edition: 1997. - Bibliography: page XXV-XXVII. - With notes and index. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Community law, Institutional law, Community law and municipal law, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Rome, 4 November 1950),

5. Insider dealing in takeovers
Insider dealing in takeovers : developments in Swiss and EU regulation and legislation / Dr. iur. Karin Lorez. - Zürich ; Basel ; Genf : Schulthess, 2013. - XXXVIII, 209 pages. ; 23 cm. - (Schweizer Schriften zum Finanzmarktrecht ; Band 105) Bibliography: page XIII-XXIV. - With references. - 2013
Keywords: Switzerland, European Union, Company acquisitions, Insider trading, Financial markets, Theses,

6. Internationaal privaatrecht
Internationaal privaatrecht / Ilse Couwenberg, Alexander Hansebout, Lotte Vanfraechem. - Brussel : Larcier, 2014. - I, 813 pages. ; 24 cm. - (Duiding) Alle wetteksten zijn gecoördineerd tot 1 september 2014 (publicatiedatum Belgisch Staatsblad en publicatieblad van de EU). - 2014
Keywords: Belgium, European Union, Private international law, Commentaries, Documents,

7. Parlamentos Regionales Europeos y principio de subsidiariedad
Parlamentos Regionales Europeos y principio de subsidiariedad / J.I. Navarro Méndez (director). - Primera edición. - Cizur Menor : Aranzadi, Thomson Reuters, 2014. - 402 pages. ; 24 cm Aranzadi is an imprint of Thomson Reuters. - Published under the auspices of Parlamento de Canarias. - Includes bibliographical references. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Member states, Parliaments, Subsidiarity, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007), Community law and municipal law,

8. The European Stability Mechanism before the Court of Justice of the European Union
The European Stability Mechanism before the Court of Justice of the European Union : comments on the Pringle case / Etienne de Lhoneux, Christos A. Vassilopoulos. - Cham ; Heidelberg ; New York ; Dordrecht ; London : Springer, 2014. - VIII, 74 pages. ; 24 cm. - (Springer briefs in law, ISSN 2192-855X) Includes bibliographical references and notes. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, European stability mechanism, European Economic and Monetary Union, Cases,

9. Interest group coalitions in the European Union
Interest group coalitions in the European Union : an analysis of (in)formal initiatives to influence European energy policy / Maren Kreutler. - 1. edition. - Baden-Baden : Nomos ; [London] : Bloomsbury, 2014. - 211 pages. : illustrations. ; 23 cm. - (Studies on the European Union ; volume 10) Originally presented as doctoral dissertation at Universität Bochum, 2012 under the title: The formation of coalitions in the European Union - an analysis of (in)formal initiatives to influence European. - Bibliography: page 189-211. - With notes. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Energy policy, Decision-making, Lobby, Theses,

10. La formule des compétences retenues des états membres devant la Cour de justice de l'Union europ'eenne
La formule des compétences retenues des états membres devant la Cour de justice de l'Union europ'eenne / par Loïc Azoulai. - Bruxelles : Bruylant In: Objectifs et compétences dans l'Union européenne / sous la dir. de Eleftheria Neframi, ISBN 9782802735380: (2012) - 2012
Keywords: European Union, Member states, Court of Justice of the European Communities, European integration, Directives, Community law and municipal law,

11. L'objectif de protection des droits fondamentaux et la réparation des compétences dans l'Union europ'eenne
L'objectif de protection des droits fondamentaux et la réparation des compétences dans l'Union europ'eenne : la confrontation des logiques constitutionnelles / par Edouard Dubout. - Bruxelles : Bruylant In: Objectifs et compétences dans l'Union européenne / sous la dir. de Eleftheria Neframi, ISBN 9782802735380: (2012) - 2012
Keywords: European Union, Member states, Protection, Human rights, Constitutional law, Community law and municipal law, Competence, European Court of Human Rights, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Rome, 4 November 1950), Community law and international law,

12. Gli strumenti di cooperazione internazionale in materia antitrust e i rapporti intercorrenti tra l'Union europea e la Svizzera
Gli strumenti di cooperazione internazionale in materia antitrust e i rapporti intercorrenti tra l'Union europea e la Svizzera / Stefano Bastianon, Patrick Marco Ferrari. - Milano : Giuffrè In: Unione europea e Svizzera tra cooperazione e integrazione / a cura di Massimo Condinanzi ; [contrib.] J. Alberti ... [et al.], ISBN 9788814176319: (2012) - 2012
Keywords: Switzerland, European Union, International co-operation, Common foreign and security policy, Bilateralism, Multilateralism,

13. L'evoluzione delle relazioni tra l'Unione europea e la Svizzera in materia di trasporti
L'evoluzione delle relazioni tra l'Unione europea e la Svizzera in materia di trasporti / Francesco Rossi Dal Pozzo. - Milano : Giuffrè In: Unione europea e Svizzera tra cooperazione e integrazione / a cura di Massimo Condinanzi ; [contrib.] J. Alberti ... [et al.], ISBN 9788814176319: (2012) - 2012
Keywords: Switzerland, European Union, International co-operation, Transport, European Aviation Safety Agency, Bilateral agreements, Community law, Community law and municipal law,

14. Profili fiscali svizzeri e diritto dell'Unione europea
Profili fiscali svizzeri e diritto dell'Unione europea / Camilla Paolini. - Milano : Giuffrè In: Unione europea e Svizzera tra cooperazione e integrazione / a cura di Massimo Condinanzi ; [contrib.] J. Alberti ... [et al.], ISBN 9788814176319: (2012) - 2012
Keywords: Switzerland, European Union, International co-operation, Fiscal policy, Taxes, Negotiations, Community law, Community law and municipal law,

15. Accordo bilaterale Svizzera - Unione europea in materia di appalti pubblici
Accordo bilaterale Svizzera - Unione europea in materia di appalti pubblici : applicazione in Italia e in Svizzera e profili critici / Greta Demartini. - Milano : Giuffrè In: Unione europea e Svizzera tra cooperazione e integrazione / a cura di Massimo Condinanzi ; [contrib.] J. Alberti ... [et al.], ISBN 9788814176319: (2012) - 2012
Keywords: Switzerland, Italy, European Union, Bilateralism, Bilateral agreements, Government procurement, International co-operation,

16. Il processo di liberalizzazione del mercato postale: Unione europea e Svizzera a confronto
Il processo di liberalizzazione del mercato postale: Unione europea e Svizzera a confronto / Mariacristina Bottino. - Milano : Giuffrè In: Unione europea e Svizzera tra cooperazione e integrazione / a cura di Massimo Condinanzi ; [contrib.] J. Alberti ... [et al.], ISBN 9788814176319: (2012) - 2012
Keywords: Switzerland, European Union, Post, Liberalization, Postal services, Community law and municipal law, International co-operation,

17. Integration without Representation?
Integration without Representation? : The European Parliament and the Reform of Economic Governance in the EU / Berthold Rittberger In: Journal of Common Market Studies = ISSN 0021-9886: vol. 52, issue 6, page 1174-1183. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, European Parliament, Economic policy,

18. Reluctant Donors?
Reluctant Donors? : The Europeanization of International Development Policies in the New Member States / Simon Lightfoot, Balázs Szent-Iványi In: Journal of Common Market Studies = ISSN 0021-9886: vol. 52, issue 6, page 1257-1272. - 2014
Keywords: Eastern Europe, Central Europe, European Union, Member states, New members, Economic development, Social policy, European integration,

19. The Cultivation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union: a Necessary Trade-Off?
The Cultivation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union: a Necessary Trade-Off? / François Randour, Cédric Janssens, Tom Delreux In: Journal of Common Market Studies = ISSN 0021-9886: vol. 52, issue 6, page 1307-1323. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, European Commission, Genetically modified organisms, Environmental protection, International trade, Community law,

20. European Regulatory Framework of Money Market Funds
European Regulatory Framework of Money Market Funds / Iain MacNeil and Aurelien Portuese. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - Page 57-81 In: Money market funds in the EU and the US : regulation and practice / edited by Viktoria Baklanova, Joseph Tanega, ISBN 9780199687251: (2014), Page 57-81. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Financial markets, Financial services, Securities, Monitoring, Economic crisis,

21. Karlsruhe-Luxembourg
Karlsruhe-Luxembourg : a New Distance after the 2009 "Lisbon Treaty" Ruling / Francesca Astengo In: Revue québécoise de droit international = ISSN 0828-9999: vol. 25, issue 1, page 155-174. - 2012
Keywords: Germany, European Union, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007), Court of Justice of the European Communities, Constitutional Court, European integration,

22. El principio de subsidiariedad: introducción a su regulación comunitaria y en el derecho interno español
El principio de subsidiariedad: introducción a su regulación comunitaria y en el derecho interno español / Antonio Domínguez Vila. - Cizur Menor : Aranzadi, Thomson Reuters. - Page 15-30 In: Parlamentos Regionales Europeos y principio de subsidiariedad / J.I. Navarro Méndez (director), ISBN 9788490590140: (2014), Page 15-30. - 2014
Keywords: Spain, European Union, Subsidiarity, Community law and municipal law,

23. El principio de subsidiariedad en la Unión Europea: cuestiones generales
El principio de subsidiariedad en la Unión Europea: cuestiones generales / María del Carmen González Pérez. - Cizur Menor : Aranzadi, Thomson Reuters. - Page 31-107 In: Parlamentos Regionales Europeos y principio de subsidiariedad / J.I. Navarro Méndez (director), ISBN 9788490590140: (2014), Page 31-107. - 2014
Keywords: Spain, European Union, Subsidiarity, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007), Community law and municipal law,

24. El papel de la CALRE en defensa del principio de subsidiariedad: cooperación interparlamentaria más intensa y diálogo político directo con la UE
El papel de la CALRE en defensa del principio de subsidiariedad: cooperación interparlamentaria más intensa y diálogo político directo con la UE / José Ignacio Navarro Méndez. - Cizur Menor : Aranzadi, Thomson Reuters. - Page 217-252 In: Parlamentos Regionales Europeos y principio de subsidiariedad / J.I. Navarro Méndez (director), ISBN 9788490590140: (2014), Page 217-252. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Member states, Parliaments, Subsidiarity, Co-operation, Community law and municipal law,

25. El control de la subsidiariedad en la práctica: el informe sobre los cuestionarios de autoevaluación relativos a la aplicación del mecanismo de alerta temprana por los Parlamentos de CALRE
El control de la subsidiariedad en la práctica: el informe sobre los cuestionarios de autoevaluación relativos a la aplicación del mecanismo de alerta temprana por los Parlamentos de CALRE / Gerardo Pérez Sánchez. - Cizur Menor : Aranzadi, Thomson Reuters. - Page 253-272 In: Parlamentos Regionales Europeos y principio de subsidiariedad / J.I. Navarro Méndez (director), ISBN 9788490590140: (2014), Page 253-272. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Member states, Parliaments, Subsidiarity, Co-operation, Community law and municipal law,

26. Depuis l'arrêt "Algera", retour sur une utilisation "discrète" du droit comparé par la Cour de justice de L'Union européenne
Depuis l'arrêt "Algera", retour sur une utilisation "discrète" du droit comparé par la Cour de justice de L'Union européenne / par Michaël Bardin. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 97-108 In: Le recours au droit comparé par le juge / sous la direction de Thierry Di Manno, ISBN 9782802745105: (2014), Page 97-108. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Community law and municipal law, Comparative law, Cases,

27. Normative und empirische Begründungsansätze der EU-Kriminalpolitik
Normative und empirische Begründungsansätze der EU-Kriminalpolitik / Frank Meyer. - Bern : Stämpfli Verlag. - Page 607-618 In: Kriminologie, Kriminalpolitik und Strafrecht aus internationaler Perspektive : Festschrift für Martin Killias zum 65. Geburtstag = Criminologie, politique criminelle et droit pénal dans une perspective internationale : Mélanges en l'honneur de Martin Killias à l'occasion de son 65e anniversaire = Criminology, Criminal Policy and Criminal Law in an International Perspective : Essays in honour of Martin Killias on the occasion of his 65th birthday / Herausgeber = éditeurs = editors André Kuhn, Pierre Margot, Marcelo F. Aebi, Christian Schwarzenegger, Andreas Donatsch, Daniel Jositsch, ISBN 9783727229671: (2013), Page 607-618. - 2013
Keywords: European Union, European criminal law,

28. Strafrechtliche Sanktionen zur Durchsetzung des Europarechts
Strafrechtliche Sanktionen zur Durchsetzung des Europarechts / Roland Bieber. - Bern : Stämpfli Verlag. - Page 823-837 In: Kriminologie, Kriminalpolitik und Strafrecht aus internationaler Perspektive : Festschrift für Martin Killias zum 65. Geburtstag = Criminologie, politique criminelle et droit pénal dans une perspective internationale : Mélanges en l'honneur de Martin Killias à l'occasion de son 65e anniversaire = Criminology, Criminal Policy and Criminal Law in an International Perspective : Essays in honour of Martin Killias on the occasion of his 65th birthday / Herausgeber = éditeurs = editors André Kuhn, Pierre Margot, Marcelo F. Aebi, Christian Schwarzenegger, Andreas Donatsch, Daniel Jositsch, ISBN 9783727229671: (2013), Page 823-837. - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007), Justice and home affairs, Criminality, Penalty, European criminal law, Community law and municipal law,

29. La liberté de circulation des citoyens européens sédentaires à l'aune de la Charte post-Lisbonne
La liberté de circulation des citoyens européens sédentaires à l'aune de la Charte post-Lisbonne / Hél̀ne Pongérard-Payet In: Revue de l'Union européenne = ISSN 0035-2616: (2014), issue 583 (dec), page 596-611. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007), Citizenship, Free movement, Right of residence, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Case-law,

30. Quelle(s) place(s) pour la directive "droit à information dans les procédures pénales"?
Quelle(s) place(s) pour la directive "droit à information dans les procédures pénales"? / Marie-Eve Morin In: Revue de l'Union européenne = ISSN 0035-2616: (2014), issue 583 (dec), page 612-620. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Criminal procedure, Information, European criminal law, Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments,

31. Quelle protection par le biais des directives
Quelle protection par le biais des directives : le droit national protégé contre la protection du droit des personnes / Elena Pacea In: Revue de l'Union européenne = ISSN 0035-2616: (2014), issue 583 (dec), page 621-625. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Victims, Human rights, European criminal law, Criminality, Community law and municipal law,

32. The Role of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Energy Market Liberalization
The Role of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Energy Market Liberalization / Sirja-Leena Penttinen. - Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA, USA : Edward Elgar. - Page 241-271 In: Research Handbook on International Energy Law / edited by Kim Talus, ISBN 9781781002193: (2014), Page 241-271. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Energy, Oil, Gas, Electricity, Community law, Court of Justice of the European Communities,

33. Regulation 5129/2013
Regulation 5129/2013 : the Protection it offers Intellectual Property Right Holders / Séamus David Long In: European Intellectual Property Review = ISSN 0142-0461: vol. 36, issue 12, page 785-789. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Counterfeit, Copyright infringement, Exportation and importation, Customs law, Intellectual property,

34. Most Favoured Nation Clauses revisited
Most Favoured Nation Clauses revisited / Ingrid Vandenborre, Michael J. Frese In: European Competition Law Review = ISSN 0144-3054: vol. 35, issue 12, page 588-593. - 2014
Keywords: Germany, European Union, Most-favoured-nation clause, Cartels and monopolies, Unfair competition, Competition, Community law,

35. Parent liability and claims for recovery between joint and several debtors according to EU antitrust law
Parent liability and claims for recovery between joint and several debtors according to EU antitrust law / Sebastian Felix Janka In: European Competition Law Review = ISSN 0144-3054: vol. 35, issue 12, page 594-600. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Holding companies, Companies, Cartels and monopolies, Unfair competition, Fines, Community law,

36. The European Union and Minorities in 2012
The European Union and Minorities in 2012 / Zora Popova, Marianne Zeh In: European Yearbook of Minority Issues = ISSN 1570-7865: vol. 11 (2012), page 263-287. - 2012
Keywords: European Union, Minorities,

37. The European Debt Crisis: How Did We Get into This Mess?
The European Debt Crisis: How Did We Get into This Mess? : How Can We Get out of it? / Professor Dr. Michael C. Burda. - München : C.H. Beck. - Page 21-34 In: A Debt Restructuring Mechanism for Sovereigns : Do We Need a Legal Procedure? / edited by Dr. Christoph G. Paulus, ISBN 9783406662584: (2014), Page 21-34. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Economic crisis, Government debts,

38. A Legal Analysis of the Eurozone Crisis
A Legal Analysis of the Eurozone Crisis / Dr. Christian Hofmann. - München : C.H. Beck. - Page 43-73 In: A Debt Restructuring Mechanism for Sovereigns : Do We Need a Legal Procedure? / edited by Dr. Christoph G. Paulus, ISBN 9783406662584: (2014), Page 43-73. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, European Central Bank, European stability mechanism, Economic crisis, Government debts, Bonds,

39. Disenfranchisement in Sovereign Bonds
Disenfranchisement in Sovereign Bonds / Keegan S. Drake. - München : C.H. Beck. - Page 141-161 In: A Debt Restructuring Mechanism for Sovereigns : Do We Need a Legal Procedure? / edited by Dr. Christoph G. Paulus, ISBN 9783406662584: (2014), Page 141-161. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Government debts, Bonds, Finances,

40. A Debt Restructuring Mechanism for European Sovereigns: an Emerging Idea
A Debt Restructuring Mechanism for European Sovereigns: an Emerging Idea / Professor Mathias Audit. - München : C.H. Beck. - Page 213-222 In: A Debt Restructuring Mechanism for Sovereigns : Do We Need a Legal Procedure? / edited by Dr. Christoph G. Paulus, ISBN 9783406662584: (2014), Page 213-222. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, European stability mechanism, Economic crisis, Government debts, Bonds, Finances,

41. EU Law after Lisbon
EU Law after Lisbon / ed. by Andrea Biondi and Piet Eeckhout ; with Stefanie Ripley. - Oxford [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 2012. - XXXIII, 436 pages Includes bibliographical references and index. - 2012
Keywords: European Union, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007), Community law, Community law and municipal law, Implementation, Common foreign and security policy, Administrative law, Constitutional law, E-books,

42. New trends in emission control in the European Union
New trends in emission control in the European Union / Jerzy Merkisz, Jacek Pielecha, Stanislaw Radzimirski. - Cham : Springer, 2014. - viii, 170 pages. : illustrations. - (Springer Tracts on Transportation and Traffic, ISSN 2194-8119 ; 4) Structure and applicability of regulations -- Type approval of light-duty vehicles in terms of emission of pollutants -- Type approval of heavy-duty vehicles for emission of pollutants -- Production and in-service conformity -- Measurements of exhaust emissions under actual conditions. - Includes bibliographical references. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Motor vehicles, Emissions, European environmental law, Community law, Air pollution, Environmental protection, E-books,

43. Normative Standards and Global Law-Making
Normative Standards and Global Law-Making / Vanessa Mak In: Tilburg Law Review = ISSN 2211-2545: vol. 17, issue 2, page 241-249. - 2012
Keywords: European Union, Private law, European private law, Community law, Community law and municipal law, Norms, Globalization,

44. In Pursuit of the Global within: A Structure for the Global Law Project
In Pursuit of the Global within: A Structure for the Global Law Project / Han Somsen In: Tilburg Law Review = ISSN 2211-2545: vol. 17, issue 2, page 250-255. - 2012
Keywords: European Union, International law, Globalization, Community law, Autonomy, Law of procedure, Hierarchy,

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  • Steiner, J., L. Woods and P. Watson, Steiner and Woods EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014. Showcase item

    Steiner, J., L. Woods and P. Watson, Steiner and Woods EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Steiner & Woods EU law is fully updated and revised to reflect the latest case law and debates in EU law including new discussion of Pringle and the Eurozone crisis and the accession of Croatia to the EU. The book features extensively revised and restructured coverage of competition law and enforcement, includes substantially revised chapters on citizenship and discrimination, taking account of the fast-moving case law in these areas. The book features additional case detail and improved presentation of key facts and judgments. Now in its twelfth edition, Steiner & Woods EU Law is rightfully regarded as one of the best and most trusted EU law textbooks available. The book includes a well-balanced range of topics for students taking an EU law course at any level. It offers a careful blend of institutional and substantive coverage and focuses on explaining the law clearly for student readers, as well as raising areas of debate to inform class discussion and essays.The case detail is clearly sign-posted throughout the text, including excerpts from leading judgements, while diagrams distil complex tests and procedures to visually represent the workings of the EU. End of chapter reading suggestions plus a detailed bibliography provide a helpful starting point for essay preparation and independent research. The book is accompanied by a free Online Resource Centre (www.oxfordtextbooks.co.uk/orc/steiner_woods12e/).

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  • Klamert, M., The Principle of Loyalty in EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Klamert, M., The Principle of Loyalty in EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Despite its seemingly innocuous wording, in what is now Article 4 (3) TEU, the principle of loyalty has had a significant impact in deepening the reach of EU law within the Member States. The duty of sincere cooperation has been interpreted strongly by the European Courts as imposing serious duties on States to give strong effect to European legal acts. The principle has been central to the development of Union law since the 1960s, and is still being relied on by the European Court of Justice to often-controversial effect. Providing a thorough discussion of the principle of loyalty in EU law, this book introduces a novel classification of the very diverse roles loyalty plays in the EU. It distinguishes between the effects loyalty prescribes for interlocking the legal orders of the Member States with Union law, its application in preventing and resolving conflicts between the Union and the Member States, and the loyalty principle’s role in the shaping of EU law. It addresses important and yet unresolved questions pertaining to loyalty, such as its relation to the principles of solidarity, pre-emption, the Union interest, institutional balance, and the unity of international representation. The book explains why loyalty has been neglected in the prevailing narratives about the foundational case law of the European Court of Justice, and highlights its central importance to understanding EU public law.

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  • Glencross, A., The Politics of European Integration : Political Union or a House Divided?, Chichester, Wiley Blackwell, 2014.

    Glencross, A., The Politics of European Integration : Political Union or a House Divided?, Chichester, Wiley Blackwell, 2014.

    This book is a systematic, up-to-date exploration of the politics of European integration that includes balanced coverage of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Union. The book examines European integration as a contested political process that continues to divide and inspire nations, citizens, and politicians.  The book also provides students with the analytical tools to consider why the EU functions as it currently does, whether the EU is sufficiently democratic, the politics behind EU legislation, debates over foreign policy, proposals for institutional reform, and the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis. Finally the book brings together the latest scholarly research from comparative politics, international relations, law, and democratic theory.

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  • Lenaerts, K., Maselis, I., Gutman, K., EU Procedural law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Lenaerts, K., Maselis, I., Gutman, K., EU Procedural law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    The European Union is unique amongst international organisations in that it has a highly developed and coherent system of judicial protection. The rights derived from Union law can be enforced in court, as opposed to other international organisations whereby enforceability is often far less certain. At the heart of the system of judicial protection in the European Union is the core principle of upholding the rule of law. As such, the stakes are high in the sense that the system of the judicial protection in the European Union must live up to its promise in which ndividuals, Member States and Union institutions are all guaranteed a route by which to enforce Union law rights. This book provides a rigorously structured analysis of the EU system of judicial protection and procedure before the Union courts. It examines the role and the competences of the Union courts and the types of actions that may be brought before them, such as the actions for infringement, annulment, and failure to act, as well as special forms of procedure, for example interim relief, appeals, and staff cases. In doing so, special attention is given to the fields of EU competition law and State aid. In addition it evaluates the relationship between the Court of Justice and the national courts through the preliminary ruling procedure and the interplay between EU law and the national procedural frameworks generally. Throughout, it takes account of significant institutional developments, including the relevant changes brought by the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments to the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice and the General Court.

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  • Jacob, M., Precedents and Case-based Reasoning in the European Court of Justice : Unfinished Business, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.

    Jacob, M., Precedents and Case-based Reasoning in the European Court of Justice : unfinished Business, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.

    Past cases are the European Court of Justice’s most prominent tool in making and justifying the rulings and decisions which affect the everyday lives of more than half a billion people. Marc Jacob’s detailed analysis of the use of precedents and case-based reasoning in the Court uses methods such as doctrinal scholarship, empirical research, institutional analysis, comparative law and legal theory in order to unravel and critique the how and why of the court’s precedent technique. In doing so, he moves the wider debate beyond received ‘common law’ versus ‘civil law’ figments and ‘Eurosceptic’ versus ‘Euromantic’ battle lines, and also provides a useful blueprint for assessing and comparing the case law practices of other dispute resolution bodies.

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  • Hobolt, S.B., Tilley, J., Blaming Europe? : Responsibility without Accountability in the European Union, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Hobolt, S.B., Tilley, J., Blaming Europe? : Responsibility without Accountability in the European Union, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    A key component of democratic accountability is that citizens understand ‘who is to blame’. Nonetheless, little is known about how citizens attribute responsibility in the European Union or how those perceptions of responsibility matter. This book presents the first comprehensive account of how citizens assign blame to the EU, how politicians and the media attempt to shift blame and finally, how it matters for electoral democracy. Based on rich and unique data sources, Blaming Europe? sheds light on all three aspects of responsibility in the EU. First, it shows that while institutional differences between countries shape citizen judgements of EU responsibility, those judgements are also highly determined by pre-existing attitudes towards the EU. Second, it demonstrates that neither politicians nor the media assign much blame to the EU. Third, it establishes that regardless of whether voters are capable of accurately assigning responsibility, they are not able to hold their EU representatives to account via the ballot box in European elections due to the lack of an identifiable ‘European government’ to reward or punish. As a consequence, when citizens hold the EU responsible for poor performance, but are unable to sanction an EU incumbent, they lose trust in the EU as a whole instead. In conclusion, it argues that this ‘accountability deficit’ has significant implications for the future of the European Union.

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  • Peers, S., Harvey, T. Kenner, J. and A. Ward (eds), The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights : a Commentary, Oxford and Portland, Oregon, Hart Publishing, 2014.

    Peers, S., Harvey, T. Kenner, J. and A. Ward (eds), The Eu charter of fundamental rights : a commentary, Oxford and Portland, Oregon, Hart Publishing, 2014.

    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines the key political, social and economic rights of EU citizens and residents in EU law. In its present form it was approved in 2000 by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission. However its legal status remained uncertain until the entry into
    force of the Treaty of Lisbon in December 2009. The Charter obliges the EU to act and legislate consistently with the Charter, and enables the EU’s courts to strike down EU legislation which contravenes it. The Charter applies to EU Member States when they are implementing EU law but does not extend the competences of the EU beyond the competences given to it in the treaties. This Commentary on the Charter, the first in English, written by experts from several EU Member States, provides an authoritative but succinct statement of how the Charter impacts upon EU, domestic and international law. Following the conventional article-by-article approach, each commentator offers an expert view of how each article is either already being interpreted in the courts, or is likely to be interpreted. Each commentary is referenced to the case law and is augmented with extensive references to further reading. Six cross-cutting introductory chapters explain the Charter’s institutional anchorage, its relationship to the Fundamental Rights Agency, its interaction with other parts of international human rights law, the enforcement mechanisms, extraterritorial scope, and the all-important ‘Explanations’.

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  • Dörr, O. (Hrsg.), Staatshaftung in Europa : nationales und Unionsrecht, Berlin, De Gruyter, 2014.

    Dörr, O. (Hrsg.), Staatshaftung in Europa : nationales und Unionsrecht, Berlin, De Gruyter, 2014.

    This reference work provides a systematic presentation of the liability systems in EU member states for the first time. Similarities and differences between EU states’ various legal systems are presented and also explained in terms of Union Law. In addition, approaches to establishing a uniform state liability law in the future are outlined. This work includes, on the one hand, more than twenty reports about the state liability systems in the individual member states; on the other hand, comprehensive specialized report explain the entire European context and present comparative conclusions on the individual specialized topics. Based on the synopsis of the state liability systems together with the current state of Union liability as developed in case law, the law on state liability in the EU is extensively analyzed and its capability to develop based on general legal principles is defined.

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Database

EUR-Lex provides free access to European Union law and other documents considered to be public. The collection  include  treaties, international agreements, legislation in force, preparatory acts, case-law and parliamentary questions.

The European e-Justice Portal implemented by the Commission in very close cooperation with EU countries, provides a wealth of information and links on laws and practices in all EU countries. The resources range from information on legal aid, judicial training, European small claims and videoconferencing to links to legal databases, online insolvency and land registers. It also includes user-friendly forms for various judicial proceedings, such as the European order for payment. The portal benefits citizens, businesses, lawyers and judges with cross-border legal questions and boosts mutual understanding of different legal systems by contributing to the creation of a single European area of justice.

Blogs

  • The Eurasian Economic Union as a Geopolitical and Economic Counterweight to the European Union: the Case of Armenia

    The Eurasian Economic Union is the next step in Eurasian economic integration. It will function as a common market with a customs union and has the aim of providing the free movement of goods, services, capital and workforce and conducting common policies in key economic sectors, such as energy and agriculture. The EEU was established in 2014 between Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. A the treaty to enlarge the EEU by including Armenia was signed in October. In this blog we’ll discuss the main reasons for Armenia to join the EEU instead of choosing the path of closer cooperation with the European Union.

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  • The Identity of the European Union

    The question concerning the nature of the EU has been one of the most contested political and academic issues of the last fifty years. From the outset, the debate about European integration has been dominated by the dilemma as to whether the project should result in the emergence of a sovereign state of Europe or in the formation of a Europe of sovereign states. This line of thought leads to the suggestion that, anno 2014, the identity of the EU may be described with the following words: the EU is a Union of citizens and member states which functions as a common democracy.

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  • European Court of Justice Clarification of the Research and Private Study Exception to Copyright Infringement for Libraries

    On Thursday 11 September 2014, the European Court of Justice ruled on the meaning of the research and private study exception to copyright infringement for libraries, educational establishments, museums and archives. The Court decided that libraries are allowed to digitise books and make them available to the public at e-reading points within its vicinity, without the author’s permission. The judgment was issued in Case C-117/13, Technische Universität Darmstadt v Eugen Ulmer KG.

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  • Connecting Habermas with International Law

    The financial crisis has intensified the debate about the feasibility of the European Union as a new phenomenon in international law. In his essay ‘On Europe’s Constitution’, philosopher Jürgen Habermas underlines that he regards the EU as a step in the direction of a politically constituted world order. In an 2012 interview Habermas focuses on the conceptual challenges of the EU by asking the quintessential question: How should we imagine a for closer co-operation necessary, supranational association which complies with stringent demands of democratic legitimacy without assuming the shape of a state?

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  • ECJ Judgment: Private Copying Levy Cannot Include Copies Made from Unlawful Sources!

    The European Court of Justice has been pretty busy the past weeks. On Tuesday, April 8th 2014, the Court has declared the Data Retention Directive invalid from the date on which the directive entered into force. On Thursday, April 10th 2014, the Court has given its verdict on a complicated Dutch case involving the home-copying exception of European copyright legislation, and the associated use of copyright levies on blank media.

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  • The Origins of EU and EMU: Towards a Post-Westphalian Paradigm

    The theoretical hallmark of the European Union is its flexible approach to sovereignty. According to the Westphalian system of international relations which forms the prevailing paradigm in international law and lies at the heart of the organisation of the United Nations, sovereignty is one and indivisible. States are sovereign and without sovereignty there is no State. Guest blog by Jaap Hoeksma, Philosopher of Law, Director of Euroknow and Creator of the Boardgame Eurocracy.

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  • Exit Data Retention Directive: a Victory for Privacy in Europe!

    Last Tuesday, April 8, the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg has declared the Data Retention Directive (Directive 2006/24/EC, 15 March 2006) invalid from the date on which the directive entered into force. In the view of the Court, the requirement in the Data Retention Directive for mobile operators and internet service providers to retain data interfered in a “particularly serious manner with the fundamental rights to respect for private life and to the protection of personal data”.

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  • Europe: Backwards or Forwards?

    In an apocalyptic essay, written at the height of the euro-crisis in 2012, Joseph Weiler predicted that the European Union will turn on its member-states in a similar way as the Golem of Prague persecuted its creators in the 16th century. The author paves the way for this conclusion by attributing a dimension of ‘political messianism’ to the statements of the founding fathers, which turns the Schuman-declaration into a roadmap to ‘the Promised Land’. As messianic narratives are doomed to collapse, the European project is set to disappoint and alienate the populace as well. Consequently, the EU creates the conditions for its own destruction.

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  • Beyond the Westphalian Paradigm

    For decades, the process of European integration has been hampered by the predominance of the Westphalian system of international relations. According to this system, which owes its name to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the process of European integration had to result either in the creation of a federal European state or in the establishment of a confederal union of states. Founded in 1992, the EU defied the Westphalian paradigm from the outset.

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  • Ukraine, Moving East or West?

    Although Yanukovych has claimed many times to seek good ties with Russia and the EU simultaneously, it seems that by refusing to sign the Association Agreement (AA) and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with the EU last November, the power balance is tipping towards Russia. As an alternative to further EU integration, Russia has been actively promoting Ukraine to join the Russian-led Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, which in the future could progress towards a further integrated Eurasian Union.

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  • Back to or Beyond Westphalia?

    The Italian banker and politician Padoa-Schioppa used to describe Great-Britain as the Venice of Europe. Drawing a comparison between the Italian unification in the 19th century and the present process of European integration, Padoa-Schioppa suggested that the UK is and will remain as reluctant to give up the pound in favour of euro as Venice has been to join the Italian lira. The implication of the comparison is, of course, that, however grudgingly, in the end the UK will accept the common European currency as well.

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  • The European Union as a Common Democracy

    As a young democracy the EU urgently needs to strengthen its legitimacy and accountability. The transition from a traditional union of nation states to a polity of citizens and member states requires a fundamental adjustment of governance structures. The primordial challenge for the coming decades is therefore to address the democratic deficit and to turn the EU into a living democracy.

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  • A Union of States and Citizens: The Emergence of a New Term in International Law

    On June 28th 2011 Peter Kooijmans participated in a conference about the place of the EU in international law, which was held in the Academy Hall of the Peace Palace under the auspices of the T.M.C. Asser Instituut and the Carnegie Foundation. According to a blog on this website, one of the participants started the debate on the presumption that ‘the EU is a thing for which lawyers have no name’.

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  • Cameron and the Intricacies of the Westphalian System of International Relations

    In his long-awaited speech on Europe British Prime Minister David Cameron criticised the EU for its lack of democracy. PM Cameron is right insofar as the citizens of the EU can’t elect their own European government and miss the power to vote their leaders out of office. However, Cameron’s criticism would only be justified if the EU were to be considered as a sovereign state like the UK, France or Germany.

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  • The EU and the Nobel Peace Prize: Who will say thank you?

    European Council President Herman Van Rompuy or Jose-Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission or Martin Schulz, President of the European Parliament? Together they will fly to Oslo on December 10 to represent the main institutions of the EU at the acceptance ceremony for the Nobel Peace Prize 2012.

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  • The Novelty of the EU

    For decades, the debate about the future of the European Union has been dominated by the dilemma whether the EU was to become a federal state or should establish itself as a union of states. After the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, however, it may be suggested that the deadlock in the debate about the finalité politique has been broken. The gist of this blog is to argue that the Lisbon Treaty construes the EU as a democracy without turning the Union into a state. This conclusion can be underpinned as follows.

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  • Internet governance 2012: Who should control the Internet?

    In the last twenty years, the Internet has had a tremendous impact on society and the term “Internet governance” was introduced. At first it was mainly used to describe the technical management of the Internet such as domain names and internet protocols. Nowadays governance refers to questions like “Do we all accept our responsibilities to safeguard the continued development of the Internet as a global, open and safe virtual environment? and Who sets the rules? In this blog I will give a few highlights of the current developments of internet governance on an International and (as well as on) an European level.

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  • The EU as a democratic polity in international law

    On June 28, 2011 a conference was held about The European Union (hereafter EU) as a Polity in International Law at the Academy Hall of the Peace Palace, The Hague, The Netherlands. The conference was held at the initiative of Mr. Jaap Hoeksma, Director of Euroknow. This initiative was supported by Dr P. H. Kooijmans, Prof Dr L-J Brinkhorst, Dr W.F. van Eekelen, Dr W.van Gerven and Dr Th. van Boven.

    The theme of the conference was the legal status of the European Union and its relationship with international law.From its inception, the main goal of the European Union and its integration in the legal as well as political systems of the Member states has been faced with conceptual problems regarding the final goal of the establishment of the European Union. The purpose of the conference was to discuss whether the Lisbon Treaty has overcome the problems by constructing the EU as a democratic polity without turning the Union into a state. If so, what are the consequences for the place of the EU as a polity in international law and for its role in international relations?

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  • European nuclear safety after the Japanese Fukushima disaster

    On Friday 11 March 2011, Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake and tsunami, also known as the Tōhoku earthquake. Japan’s nuclear crisis that was caused by the earthquake and tsunami has so far evoked many questions and worries about the safety of nuclear energy just like the Chernobyl disaster evoked responses in the 1980s. It raises questions about the possible impact of nuclear energy industry on safety and health. Several European countries have discussed the use of nuclear energy and safety measures or have temporarily shut down nuclear reactors since the Japanese earthquake of 11 March 2011.

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  • International and European criminal measures on intellectual property rights

    On October 2, 2010, the 11th and final round of the negotiations for the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) was concluded successfully in Tokyo, Japan. The Government of Japan hosted the negotiations. Participants in the negotiations included Australia, Canada, the European Union (EU) – represented by the European Commission and the EU Presidency (Belgium) and the [...]

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  • Roma Rights in the European Union.

    In July 2010, The French government decided to begin to expel Roma’s, mainly from Romania and Bulgaria, as many of them were living in France illegally. This decision caused much controversy within the Institutions of the EU. This blog will briefly discuss in what way EU institutions have responded to recent Roma issues and what can be done to improve the position of this marginalized community in Europe.

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  • EU Enlargement Strategy and Progress Reports 2009

    On 14 October 2009 the European Commission adopted its annual strategy document explaining its policy on EU enlargement. The document includes also a summary of the progress made over the last twelve months by each candidate and potential candidate: Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, as well as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, [...]

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  • The European Union’s ‘ContraFake’ policy

    Counterfeiting, which represents 5 to 7% of world trade, has implications on the competitiveness of EU companies, on jobs and on the health and security of EU citizens. László Kovác, European Commissioner in charge of Taxation and Customs Union, states his vision on the fight against counterfeiting as follows. ‘Customs have a vital role [...]

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