European Union

Introduction

Europe unie construit la paix

In 2012, the European Union (EU) received the Nobel Peace Prize for its decades-long contribution to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe. When the first steps towards supranational cooperation were made in the aftermath of World War II, primarily targeted at preventing the rearmament of Germany, the Founding Fathers of the European integration could never have imagined this outcome in their wildest dreams. Over the years, the supranational cooperation would widen – from the original European Communities and deepen – from the originally almost purely economically inspired Communities to the current Union with a say in almost all areas of national competence. At the same time, problems with the Euro have plunged the EU in one of the biggest crises since its inception. This challenges lawmakers to tackle difficult questions about the continued existence of the Euro and the future direction of the European integration project.
Promotion of peace is one the objective of the European integration project but also the well-being of the peoples, and the promotion of certain common values: respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. The EU also aims to offer European citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers, and an economically healthy and sustainable internal market. The EU also developed a common foreign and security policy. In its relations with the wider world, the EU proclaims to uphold and promote its values and interests and contribute to the protection of its citizens. The EU has an institutional framework at its disposal, which has the task to promote the EU ‘s values, advance the EU’s objectives, and serve the interests of the EU citizens and Member States, both within and outside Europe. The EU’s legislative organs are the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. The executive organ is the European Council. The European Commission oversees the application of Union law by Member States, and the Court of Justice of the European Union, being the EU’s judicial organ, ensures that Member States correctly apply EU law.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on the European Union. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code European Union in General and subject heading (keyword) European Union are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

Bibliography

Reference works

Books

Articles

Documents

 Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

 

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1. Droit européen du divorce
Droit européen du divorce = European divorce law / sous la direction de Sabine Corneloup. - Paris : LexisNexis, 2013. - XV, 773 pagina's. ; 24 cm. - (Travaux du Centre de Recherche sur le Droit des Marchés et des Investissements Internationaux) ISBN - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Community law, European private law, Divorce and judicial separation, Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility, repealing Regulation (EC) No 1347/2000 [Brussels, 27 November 2003], Regulation (EC) No 1259/2010 of the Council of 20 December 2010 implementing enhanced cooperation in the area of the law applicable to divorce and legal separation (Rome III), Regulation, Community law and municipal law,

2. The European Union as crisis manager
The European Union as crisis manager : patterns and prospects / Arjen Boin, Magnus Ekengren, Mark Rhinard. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2013. - X, 195 pagina's. ; 24 cm Literatuuropgave: pagina 170-192. - Index. - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Conflict management,

3. Referendums and the European Union
Referendums and the European Union : a comparative inquiry / Fernando Mendez, Mario Mendez and Vasiliki Triga. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Pres, 2014. - XIV, 267 p. : graf. ; 24 cm. - (Cambridge studies in European law and policy) Met lit.opg. en index. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Member states, Referendum, European integration,

4. European economic law
European economic law / Alberto Santa Maria. - Third edition revised. - Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2014. - XIV, 559 pages. ; 25 cm Originally published by Giuffre, Milano, 1990. - Includes bibliographical references and index. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Economic law, Competition, Company law, Free movement, Capital, Payments, International financial law, International economic law,

5. Does the Concept of Ecosystem Services Promote Synergies between European Strategies for Climate Change and Biodiversity?
Does the Concept of Ecosystem Services Promote Synergies between European Strategies for Climate Change and Biodiversity? / Nathalie Hervé-Fournereau and Alexandra Langlais. - Cheltenham [etc.] : Elgar In: Biodiversity and Climate Change : Linkages at International, National and Local Levels / ed. by Frank Maes ... [et al.], ISBN 9781782546887: (2013) - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Climate change, Biodiversity, Community law, European environmental law, Environmental protection, Environmental policy,

6. Climate Change, the EU Floods Directive and Biodiversity Protection: Lessons from the Scheldt on Land Use Planning as an Adaptive Measure
Climate Change, the EU Floods Directive and Biodiversity Protection: Lessons from the Scheldt on Land Use Planning as an Adaptive Measure / Katrien Debeuckelaere and Gretta Goldenman. - Cheltenham [etc.] : Elgar In: Biodiversity and Climate Change : Linkages at International, National and Local Levels / ed. by Frank Maes ... [et al.], ISBN 9781782546887: (2013) - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Scheldt River, Environmental protection, Climate change, Biodiversity, Floods, Water Framework Directive, European environmental law, Land use,

7. The Contribution of the EU Common Agricultural Policy to Protecting Biodiversity and Global Climate in Europe
The Contribution of the EU Common Agricultural Policy to Protecting Biodiversity and Global Climate in Europe / Eckard Rehbinder. - Cheltenham [etc.] : Elgar In: Biodiversity and Climate Change : Linkages at International, National and Local Levels / ed. by Frank Maes ... [et al.], ISBN 9781782546887: (2013) - 2013
Keywords: European Union, European environmental law, Environmental protection, Climate change, Biodiversity, Agriculture, Common Agricultural Policy, Directives,

8. Le TFUE et l'assistance financière à un État membre
Le TFUE et l'assistance financière à un État membre : réflexions liées à la mise en place du MES / Anne Meyer-Heine In: Revue de l'Union européenne = ISSN 0035-2616: (2014), issue 574 (jan), page 13-38. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Member states, Community law, Financial and technical aid, European stability mechanism, Economic crisis, Subsidies and countervailing measures, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007),

9. The Exclusive Jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice and its Effect on Other International Courts and Tribunals
The Exclusive Jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice and its Effect on Other International Courts and Tribunals / Tobias Thienel. - Wrocław : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. - Page 189-246 In: Jurisdictional Competition of International Courts and Tribunals / edited by Bartłomiej Krzan, ISBN 9788322932667: (2012), Page 189-246. - 2012
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, International courts, Jurisdiction, Judicial settlement of international disputes,

10. "Clash of Courts or Continued Cooperation?" - the Relationship between the ECJ and the German Constitutional Court
"Clash of Courts or Continued Cooperation?" - the Relationship between the ECJ and the German Constitutional Court / Clemens Hofmeister and Hannes Hofmeister. - Wrocław : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. - Page 285-301 In: Jurisdictional Competition of International Courts and Tribunals / edited by Bartłomiej Krzan, ISBN 9788322932667: (2012), Page 285-301. - 2012
Keywords: Germany, European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Constitutional Court, Judicial review of legislation, European integration, Case-law,

11. La création de droit par le juge de l'Union européenne
La création de droit par le juge de l'Union européenne / Savvas S. Papasavvas In: Revue européenne de droit public = ISSN 1105-1590: vol. 24, issue 1, page 167-181. - 2012
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Judicial activism,

12. European Citizenship, Labour Law and Social Rights in Times of Crisis
European Citizenship, Labour Law and Social Rights in Times of Crisis / Stefano Giubboni. - Brugge : Die Keure In: European Journal of Social Law = ISSN 2033-9755: (2013), issue 3, page 194-216. - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Community law, Citizenship, Labour law, Social rights, Free movement, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Welfare standards,

13. A Clash of Kings
A Clash of Kings : the European Committee of Social Rights on the "Lex Laval" ... and on the EU Framework for the Posting of Workers / Marco Rocca. - Brugge : Die Keure In: European Journal of Social Law = ISSN 2033-9755: (2013), issue 3, page 217-232. - 2013
Keywords: European Committee of Social Rights, Social rights, Labor rights, Labor, Employees, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Community law,

14. Explaining Low Turnout in European Elections: the Role of Issue Salience and Institutional Perceptions in Elections to the European Parliament
Explaining Low Turnout in European Elections: the Role of Issue Salience and Institutional Perceptions in Elections to the European Parliament / Nicholas Clark In: Journal of European Integration = ISSN 0703-6337: vol. 36, issue 4, page 339-356. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, European Parliament, Elections, Voting,

15. L'État tiers appréhendé par le droit de l'Union européenne
L'État tiers appréhendé par le droit de l'Union européenne / par Isabelle Bosse-Platière et Cécile Rapoport. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 9-39 In: L'État tiers en droit de l'Union européenne / sous la direction de Isabelle Bosse-Platière, Cécile Rapoport, ISBN 9782802739654: (2014), Page 9-39. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Third states, Community law,

16. Regard décalé de l'internationaliste: la notion internationale d'État tiers relativisée par le droit de l'Union européenne
Regard décalé de l'internationaliste: la notion internationale d'État tiers relativisée par le droit de l'Union européenne / par Marie-Clotilde Runavot. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 41-62 In: L'État tiers en droit de l'Union européenne / sous la direction de Isabelle Bosse-Platière, Cécile Rapoport, ISBN 9782802739654: (2014), Page 41-62. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Third states, Community law,

17. La protection juridictionnelle de l'État adhérent
La protection juridictionnelle de l'État adhérent / par Laurent Coutron. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 141-158 In: L'État tiers en droit de l'Union européenne / sous la direction de Isabelle Bosse-Platière, Cécile Rapoport, ISBN 9782802739654: (2014), Page 141-158. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Accession, Community law, Judicial protection, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Member states,

18. La participation des États tiers à l'espace de liberté, de sécurité et de justice
La participation des États tiers à l'espace de liberté, de sécurité et de justice / par Marie Gautier. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 239-253 In: L'État tiers en droit de l'Union européenne / sous la direction de Isabelle Bosse-Platière, Cécile Rapoport, ISBN 9782802739654: (2014), Page 239-253. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Third states, Community law, Justice and home affairs, Participation,

19. La participation des États tiers aux opérations de gestion de crise de l'Union européenne
La participation des États tiers aux opérations de gestion de crise de l'Union européenne / par Catherine Schneider. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 255-293 In: L'État tiers en droit de l'Union européenne / sous la direction de Isabelle Bosse-Platière, Cécile Rapoport, ISBN 9782802739654: (2014), Page 255-293. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Third states, Community law, Conflict management, Participation, Common foreign and security policy, North Atlantic Treaty Organization,

20. L'accord sur l'Espace économique européen, porteur d'un statut propre d'État tiers
L'accord sur l'Espace économique européen, porteur d'un statut propre d'État tiers / par Eleftheria Neframi. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 299-322 In: L'État tiers en droit de l'Union européenne / sous la direction de Isabelle Bosse-Platière, Cécile Rapoport, ISBN 9782802739654: (2014), Page 299-322. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Third states, Community law, European Economic Area, Agreements, European Free Trade Association,

21. La C.J.U.E. et le Tribunal fédéral suisse, "interprètes du droit de l'U.E.": quelles incidences dans l'intégration matérielle de la Suisse?
La C.J.U.E. et le Tribunal fédéral suisse, "interprètes du droit de l'U.E.": quelles incidences dans l'intégration matérielle de la Suisse? / par Clémentine Mazille. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 323-345 In: L'État tiers en droit de l'Union européenne / sous la direction de Isabelle Bosse-Platière, Cécile Rapoport, ISBN 9782802739654: (2014), Page 323-345. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Switzerland, Community law, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Federal courts, Third states, Integration, Free movement,

22. Le statut d'État tiers envisagé à travers la protection des droits de l'homme
Le statut d'État tiers envisagé à travers la protection des droits de l'homme / par Béatrice Delzangles. - Bruxelles : Bruylant. - Page 379-406 In: L'État tiers en droit de l'Union européenne / sous la direction de Isabelle Bosse-Platière, Cécile Rapoport, ISBN 9782802739654: (2014), Page 379-406. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Third states, Community law, Community law and international law, European Court of Human Rights, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Rome, 4 November 1950), Human rights, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

23. Data Protection in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice: Challenges for the Judiciary
Data Protection in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice: Challenges for the Judiciary / Giovanni Buttarelli. - Cambridge ; Antwerp ; Portland : Intersentia. - Page 49-65 In: Data Protection Anno 2014: How to Restore Trust? : Contributions in Honour of Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor (2004-2014) / editors, Hielke Hijmans, Herke Kranenborg, ISBN 9781780682136: (2014), Page 49-65. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Community law, Data protection, Surveillance operations, Privacy, Judicial organisation, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Justice and home affairs,

24. The Distinction between Privacy and Data Protection in the Jurisprudence of the CJEU and the ECtHR
The Distinction between Privacy and Data Protection in the Jurisprudence of the CJEU and the ECtHR / Juliane Kokott and Christoph Sobotta. - Cambridge ; Antwerp ; Portland : Intersentia. - Page 83-95 In: Data Protection Anno 2014: How to Restore Trust? : Contributions in Honour of Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor (2004-2014) / editors, Hielke Hijmans, Herke Kranenborg, ISBN 9781780682136: (2014), Page 83-95. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Privacy, Data protection, Community law and international law, Case-law, Human rights, European Court of Human Rights, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Rome, 4 November 1950), Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

25. The European Court of Justice and the Decade of Surveillance
The European Court of Justice and the Decade of Surveillance / Christopher Docksey. - Cambridge ; Antwerp ; Portland : Intersentia. - Page 97-111 In: Data Protection Anno 2014: How to Restore Trust? : Contributions in Honour of Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor (2004-2014) / editors, Hielke Hijmans, Herke Kranenborg, ISBN 9781780682136: (2014), Page 97-111. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Privacy, Data protection, Surveillance operations, Directives, Judicial organisation, European Court of Human Rights, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Rome, 4 November 1950), Human rights,

26. Uniform Protection by the EU - the EU Data Protection Regulation Salvages Informational Self-Determination
Uniform Protection by the EU - the EU Data Protection Regulation Salvages Informational Self-Determination / Jan Philipp Albrecht. - Cambridge ; Antwerp ; Portland : Intersentia. - Page 119-158 In: Data Protection Anno 2014: How to Restore Trust? : Contributions in Honour of Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor (2004-2014) / editors, Hielke Hijmans, Herke Kranenborg, ISBN 9781780682136: (2014), Page 119-158. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Privacy, Data protection, Directives, European Parliament, Community law and municipal law,

27. Swift Revisited - When Do the Directive and the Proposed Regulation Apply?
Swift Revisited - When Do the Directive and the Proposed Regulation Apply? / Lokke Moerel. - Cambridge ; Antwerp ; Portland : Intersentia. - Page 159-172 In: Data Protection Anno 2014: How to Restore Trust? : Contributions in Honour of Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor (2004-2014) / editors, Hielke Hijmans, Herke Kranenborg, ISBN 9781780682136: (2014), Page 159-172. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Privacy, Data protection, Directives, Community law and municipal law,

28. The Construction of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology: the Realisation of an Ambiguous Policy Idea
The Construction of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology: the Realisation of an Ambiguous Policy Idea / Jeroen Huisman & Dorrit de Jong In: Journal of European Integration = ISSN 0703-6337: vol. 36, issue 4, page 357-374. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Innovation, Government, Politics,

29. Bleak Prospects?
Bleak Prospects? : Varieties of Europessimism and their Application to the Eurozone Debt Crisis and the Future of Integration / Andrew Glencross In: Journal of European Integration = ISSN 0703-6337: vol. 36, issue 4, page 393-408. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Economic crisis, Democracy, European integration,

30. Greek Migration Policy in the 2010s: Europeanization Tensions at a Time of Crisis
Greek Migration Policy in the 2010s: Europeanization Tensions at a Time of Crisis / Anna Triandafyllidou In: Journal of European Integration = ISSN 0703-6337: vol. 36, issue 4, page 409-425. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Greece, Immigration, Refugees, Asylum, Citizenship,

31. The European Union and Investor-State Arbitration
The European Union and Investor-State Arbitration : a Work in Progress / Gabriela Mazzini In: The American Review of International Arbitration = ISSN 1050-4109: vol. 24, issue 4, page 611-648. - 2013
Keywords: European Union, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007), Energy Charter Treaty (Lisbon, 17 December 1994), Foreign direct investment, Bilateral investment treaties, Competence, International commercial arbitration,

32. The European Union at the UN Human Rights Council
The European Union at the UN Human Rights Council : Multilateral Human Rights Protection coming of Age? = L'Union européenne au Conseil des droits de l'homme de l'ONU : la protection multilatérale des droits de l'homme arrive-t-elle à maturité? / Jan Wouters. - Bruxelles : Larcier In: Journal européen des droits de l'homme = European Journal of Human Rights = ISSN 2294-9313: (2014), issue 2, page 135-172. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Human rights, United Nations Human Rights Council, Multilateralism, Globalization, Common foreign and security policy,

33. The EU Security Sector Reform Agenda
The EU Security Sector Reform Agenda : between Democratic Security Governance and Internal Security Interests / Ursula C. Schroeder In: S+F : Vierteljahreszeitschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden = ISSN 0175-274X: vol. 32, issue 2, page 102-109. - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Common foreign and security policy, Security sector reform, Security policy,

34. Handbuch des EU-Wirtschaftsrechts
Handbuch des EU-Wirtschaftsrechts / hrsg. von Manfred A. Dauses. - 35. Ergänzungslieferung, Stand: Februar 2014. - München : Beck, 2014. - 2 volumes (continuously updated) General characterization: text; computer; online resource - 2014
Keywords: European Union, Common market, European integration, Economic integration, Economic law, Community law, E-books,

Librarian's choice

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  • Klamert, M., The Principle of Loyalty in EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Klamert, M., The Principle of Loyalty in EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Despite its seemingly innocuous wording, in what is now Article 4 (3) TEU, the principle of loyalty has had a significant impact in deepening the reach of EU law within the Member States. The duty of sincere cooperation has been interpreted strongly by the European Courts as imposing serious duties on States to give strong effect to European legal acts. The principle has been central to the development of Union law since the 1960s, and is still being relied on by the European Court of Justice to often-controversial effect. Providing a thorough discussion of the principle of loyalty in EU law, this book introduces a novel classification of the very diverse roles loyalty plays in the EU. It distinguishes between the effects loyalty prescribes for interlocking the legal orders of the Member States with Union law, its application in preventing and resolving conflicts between the Union and the Member States, and the loyalty principle’s role in the shaping of EU law. It addresses important and yet unresolved questions pertaining to loyalty, such as its relation to the principles of solidarity, pre-emption, the Union interest, institutional balance, and the unity of international representation. The book explains why loyalty has been neglected in the prevailing narratives about the foundational case law of the European Court of Justice, and highlights its central importance to understanding EU public law.

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  • Glencross, A., The Politics of European Integration : Political Union or a House Divided?, Chichester, Wiley Blackwell, 2014.

    Glencross, A., The Politics of European Integration : Political Union or a House Divided?, Chichester, Wiley Blackwell, 2014.

    This book is a systematic, up-to-date exploration of the politics of European integration that includes balanced coverage of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Union. The book examines European integration as a contested political process that continues to divide and inspire nations, citizens, and politicians.  The book also provides students with the analytical tools to consider why the EU functions as it currently does, whether the EU is sufficiently democratic, the politics behind EU legislation, debates over foreign policy, proposals for institutional reform, and the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis. Finally the book brings together the latest scholarly research from comparative politics, international relations, law, and democratic theory.

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  • Lenaerts, K., Maselis, I., Gutman, K., EU Procedural law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Lenaerts, K., Maselis, I., Gutman, K., EU Procedural law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    The European Union is unique amongst international organisations in that it has a highly developed and coherent system of judicial protection. The rights derived from Union law can be enforced in court, as opposed to other international organisations whereby enforceability is often far less certain. At the heart of the system of judicial protection in the European Union is the core principle of upholding the rule of law. As such, the stakes are high in the sense that the system of the judicial protection in the European Union must live up to its promise in which ndividuals, Member States and Union institutions are all guaranteed a route by which to enforce Union law rights. This book provides a rigorously structured analysis of the EU system of judicial protection and procedure before the Union courts. It examines the role and the competences of the Union courts and the types of actions that may be brought before them, such as the actions for infringement, annulment, and failure to act, as well as special forms of procedure, for example interim relief, appeals, and staff cases. In doing so, special attention is given to the fields of EU competition law and State aid. In addition it evaluates the relationship between the Court of Justice and the national courts through the preliminary ruling procedure and the interplay between EU law and the national procedural frameworks generally. Throughout, it takes account of significant institutional developments, including the relevant changes brought by the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments to the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice and the General Court.

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  • Jacob, M., Precedents and Case-based Reasoning in the European Court of Justice : Unfinished Business, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.

    Jacob, M., Precedents and Case-based Reasoning in the European Court of Justice : unfinished Business, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.

    Past cases are the European Court of Justice’s most prominent tool in making and justifying the rulings and decisions which affect the everyday lives of more than half a billion people. Marc Jacob’s detailed analysis of the use of precedents and case-based reasoning in the Court uses methods such as doctrinal scholarship, empirical research, institutional analysis, comparative law and legal theory in order to unravel and critique the how and why of the court’s precedent technique. In doing so, he moves the wider debate beyond received ‘common law’ versus ‘civil law’ figments and ‘Eurosceptic’ versus ‘Euromantic’ battle lines, and also provides a useful blueprint for assessing and comparing the case law practices of other dispute resolution bodies.

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  • Hobolt, S.B., Tilley, J., Blaming Europe? : Responsibility without Accountability in the European Union, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Hobolt, S.B., Tilley, J., Blaming Europe? : Responsibility without Accountability in the European Union, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    A key component of democratic accountability is that citizens understand ‘who is to blame’. Nonetheless, little is known about how citizens attribute responsibility in the European Union or how those perceptions of responsibility matter. This book presents the first comprehensive account of how citizens assign blame to the EU, how politicians and the media attempt to shift blame and finally, how it matters for electoral democracy. Based on rich and unique data sources, Blaming Europe? sheds light on all three aspects of responsibility in the EU. First, it shows that while institutional differences between countries shape citizen judgements of EU responsibility, those judgements are also highly determined by pre-existing attitudes towards the EU. Second, it demonstrates that neither politicians nor the media assign much blame to the EU. Third, it establishes that regardless of whether voters are capable of accurately assigning responsibility, they are not able to hold their EU representatives to account via the ballot box in European elections due to the lack of an identifiable ‘European government’ to reward or punish. As a consequence, when citizens hold the EU responsible for poor performance, but are unable to sanction an EU incumbent, they lose trust in the EU as a whole instead. In conclusion, it argues that this ‘accountability deficit’ has significant implications for the future of the European Union.

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  • Peers, S., Harvey, T. Kenner, J. and A. Ward (eds), The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights : a Commentary, Oxford and Portland, Oregon, Hart Publishing, 2014.

    Peers, S., Harvey, T. Kenner, J. and A. Ward (eds), The Eu charter of fundamental rights : a commentary, Oxford and Portland, Oregon, Hart Publishing, 2014.

    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines the key political, social and economic rights of EU citizens and residents in EU law. In its present form it was approved in 2000 by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission. However its legal status remained uncertain until the entry into
    force of the Treaty of Lisbon in December 2009. The Charter obliges the EU to act and legislate consistently with the Charter, and enables the EU’s courts to strike down EU legislation which contravenes it. The Charter applies to EU Member States when they are implementing EU law but does not extend the competences of the EU beyond the competences given to it in the treaties. This Commentary on the Charter, the first in English, written by experts from several EU Member States, provides an authoritative but succinct statement of how the Charter impacts upon EU, domestic and international law. Following the conventional article-by-article approach, each commentator offers an expert view of how each article is either already being interpreted in the courts, or is likely to be interpreted. Each commentary is referenced to the case law and is augmented with extensive references to further reading. Six cross-cutting introductory chapters explain the Charter’s institutional anchorage, its relationship to the Fundamental Rights Agency, its interaction with other parts of international human rights law, the enforcement mechanisms, extraterritorial scope, and the all-important ‘Explanations’.

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  • Dörr, O. (Hrsg.), Staatshaftung in Europa : nationales und Unionsrecht, Berlin, De Gruyter, 2014.

    Dörr, O. (Hrsg.), Staatshaftung in Europa : nationales und Unionsrecht, Berlin, De Gruyter, 2014.

    This reference work provides a systematic presentation of the liability systems in EU member states for the first time. Similarities and differences between EU states’ various legal systems are presented and also explained in terms of Union Law. In addition, approaches to establishing a uniform state liability law in the future are outlined. This work includes, on the one hand, more than twenty reports about the state liability systems in the individual member states; on the other hand, comprehensive specialized report explain the entire European context and present comparative conclusions on the individual specialized topics. Based on the synopsis of the state liability systems together with the current state of Union liability as developed in case law, the law on state liability in the EU is extensively analyzed and its capability to develop based on general legal principles is defined.

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Database

EUR-Lex provides free access to European Union law and other documents considered to be public. The collection  include  treaties, international agreements, legislation in force, preparatory acts, case-law and parliamentary questions.

The European e-Justice Portal implemented by the Commission in very close cooperation with EU countries, provides a wealth of information and links on laws and practices in all EU countries. The resources range from information on legal aid, judicial training, European small claims and videoconferencing to links to legal databases, online insolvency and land registers. It also includes user-friendly forms for various judicial proceedings, such as the European order for payment. The portal benefits citizens, businesses, lawyers and judges with cross-border legal questions and boosts mutual understanding of different legal systems by contributing to the creation of a single European area of justice.

Blogs

  • Connecting Habermas with International Law

    The financial crisis has intensified the debate about the feasibility of the European Union as a new phenomenon in international law. In his essay ‘On Europe’s Constitution’, philosopher Jürgen Habermas underlines that he regards the EU as a step in the direction of a politically constituted world order. In an 2012 interview Habermas focuses on the conceptual challenges of the EU by asking the quintessential question: How should we imagine a for closer co-operation necessary, supranational association which complies with stringent demands of democratic legitimacy without assuming the shape of a state?

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  • ECJ Judgment: Private Copying Levy Cannot Include Copies Made from Unlawful Sources!

    The European Court of Justice has been pretty busy the past weeks. On Tuesday, April 8th 2014, the Court has declared the Data Retention Directive invalid from the date on which the directive entered into force. On Thursday, April 10th 2014, the Court has given its verdict on a complicated Dutch case involving the home-copying exception of European copyright legislation, and the associated use of copyright levies on blank media.

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  • The Origins of EU and EMU: Towards a Post-Westphalian Paradigm

    The theoretical hallmark of the European Union is its flexible approach to sovereignty. According to the Westphalian system of international relations which forms the prevailing paradigm in international law and lies at the heart of the organisation of the United Nations, sovereignty is one and indivisible. States are sovereign and without sovereignty there is no State. Guest blog by Jaap Hoeksma, Philosopher of Law, Director of Euroknow and Creator of the Boardgame Eurocracy.

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  • Exit Data Retention Directive: a Victory for Privacy in Europe!

    Last Tuesday, April 8, the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg has declared the Data Retention Directive (Directive 2006/24/EC, 15 March 2006) invalid from the date on which the directive entered into force. In the view of the Court, the requirement in the Data Retention Directive for mobile operators and internet service providers to retain data interfered in a “particularly serious manner with the fundamental rights to respect for private life and to the protection of personal data”.

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  • Europe: Backwards or Forwards?

    In an apocalyptic essay, written at the height of the euro-crisis in 2012, Joseph Weiler predicted that the European Union will turn on its member-states in a similar way as the Golem of Prague persecuted its creators in the 16th century. The author paves the way for this conclusion by attributing a dimension of ‘political messianism’ to the statements of the founding fathers, which turns the Schuman-declaration into a roadmap to ‘the Promised Land’. As messianic narratives are doomed to collapse, the European project is set to disappoint and alienate the populace as well. Consequently, the EU creates the conditions for its own destruction.

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  • Beyond the Westphalian Paradigm

    For decades, the process of European integration has been hampered by the predominance of the Westphalian system of international relations. According to this system, which owes its name to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the process of European integration had to result either in the creation of a federal European state or in the establishment of a confederal union of states. Founded in 1992, the EU defied the Westphalian paradigm from the outset.

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  • Ukraine, Moving East or West?

    Although Yanukovych has claimed many times to seek good ties with Russia and the EU simultaneously, it seems that by refusing to sign the Association Agreement (AA) and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with the EU last November, the power balance is tipping towards Russia. As an alternative to further EU integration, Russia has been actively promoting Ukraine to join the Russian-led Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, which in the future could progress towards a further integrated Eurasian Union.

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  • Back to or Beyond Westphalia?

    The Italian banker and politician Padoa-Schioppa used to describe Great-Britain as the Venice of Europe. Drawing a comparison between the Italian unification in the 19th century and the present process of European integration, Padoa-Schioppa suggested that the UK is and will remain as reluctant to give up the pound in favour of euro as Venice has been to join the Italian lira. The implication of the comparison is, of course, that, however grudgingly, in the end the UK will accept the common European currency as well.

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  • The European Union as a Common Democracy

    As a young democracy the EU urgently needs to strengthen its legitimacy and accountability. The transition from a traditional union of nation states to a polity of citizens and member states requires a fundamental adjustment of governance structures. The primordial challenge for the coming decades is therefore to address the democratic deficit and to turn the EU into a living democracy.

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  • A Union of States and Citizens: The Emergence of a New Term in International Law

    On June 28th 2011 Peter Kooijmans participated in a conference about the place of the EU in international law, which was held in the Academy Hall of the Peace Palace under the auspices of the T.M.C. Asser Instituut and the Carnegie Foundation. According to a blog on this website, one of the participants started the debate on the presumption that ‘the EU is a thing for which lawyers have no name’.

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  • Cameron and the Intricacies of the Westphalian System of International Relations

    In his long-awaited speech on Europe British Prime Minister David Cameron criticised the EU for its lack of democracy. PM Cameron is right insofar as the citizens of the EU can’t elect their own European government and miss the power to vote their leaders out of office. However, Cameron’s criticism would only be justified if the EU were to be considered as a sovereign state like the UK, France or Germany.

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  • The EU and the Nobel Peace Prize: Who will say thank you?

    European Council President Herman Van Rompuy or Jose-Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission or Martin Schulz, President of the European Parliament? Together they will fly to Oslo on December 10 to represent the main institutions of the EU at the acceptance ceremony for the Nobel Peace Prize 2012.

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  • The Novelty of the EU

    For decades, the debate about the future of the European Union has been dominated by the dilemma whether the EU was to become a federal state or should establish itself as a union of states. After the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, however, it may be suggested that the deadlock in the debate about the finalité politique has been broken. The gist of this blog is to argue that the Lisbon Treaty construes the EU as a democracy without turning the Union into a state. This conclusion can be underpinned as follows.

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  • Internet governance 2012: Who should control the Internet?

    In the last twenty years, the Internet has had a tremendous impact on society and the term “Internet governance” was introduced. At first it was mainly used to describe the technical management of the Internet such as domain names and internet protocols. Nowadays governance refers to questions like “Do we all accept our responsibilities to safeguard the continued development of the Internet as a global, open and safe virtual environment? and Who sets the rules? In this blog I will give a few highlights of the current developments of internet governance on an International and (as well as on) an European level.

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  • The EU as a democratic polity in international law

    On June 28, 2011 a conference was held about The European Union (hereafter EU) as a Polity in International Law at the Academy Hall of the Peace Palace, The Hague, The Netherlands. The conference was held at the initiative of Mr. Jaap Hoeksma, Director of Euroknow. This initiative was supported by Dr P. H. Kooijmans, Prof Dr L-J Brinkhorst, Dr W.F. van Eekelen, Dr W.van Gerven and Dr Th. van Boven.

    The theme of the conference was the legal status of the European Union and its relationship with international law.From its inception, the main goal of the European Union and its integration in the legal as well as political systems of the Member states has been faced with conceptual problems regarding the final goal of the establishment of the European Union. The purpose of the conference was to discuss whether the Lisbon Treaty has overcome the problems by constructing the EU as a democratic polity without turning the Union into a state. If so, what are the consequences for the place of the EU as a polity in international law and for its role in international relations?

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  • European nuclear safety after the Japanese Fukushima disaster

    On Friday 11 March 2011, Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake and tsunami, also known as the Tōhoku earthquake. Japan’s nuclear crisis that was caused by the earthquake and tsunami has so far evoked many questions and worries about the safety of nuclear energy just like the Chernobyl disaster evoked responses in the 1980s. It raises questions about the possible impact of nuclear energy industry on safety and health. Several European countries have discussed the use of nuclear energy and safety measures or have temporarily shut down nuclear reactors since the Japanese earthquake of 11 March 2011.

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  • International and European criminal measures on intellectual property rights

    On October 2, 2010, the 11th and final round of the negotiations for the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) was concluded successfully in Tokyo, Japan. The Government of Japan hosted the negotiations. Participants in the negotiations included Australia, Canada, the European Union (EU) – represented by the European Commission and the EU Presidency (Belgium) and the [...]

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  • Roma Rights in the European Union.

    In July 2010, The French government decided to begin to expel Roma’s, mainly from Romania and Bulgaria, as many of them were living in France illegally. This decision caused much controversy within the Institutions of the EU. This blog will briefly discuss in what way EU institutions have responded to recent Roma issues and what can be done to improve the position of this marginalized community in Europe.

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  • EU Enlargement Strategy and Progress Reports 2009

    On 14 October 2009 the European Commission adopted its annual strategy document explaining its policy on EU enlargement. The document includes also a summary of the progress made over the last twelve months by each candidate and potential candidate: Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, as well as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, [...]

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  • The European Union’s ‘ContraFake’ policy

    Counterfeiting, which represents 5 to 7% of world trade, has implications on the competitiveness of EU companies, on jobs and on the health and security of EU citizens. László Kovác, European Commissioner in charge of Taxation and Customs Union, states his vision on the fight against counterfeiting as follows. ‘Customs have a vital role [...]

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