International Relations

Introduction

International Relations - Research Guide International Law

International relations can be defined as political activities and other kinds and aspects of interactions among two or more states. The academic field of international relations is a branch of political science that is concerned with the study of relations between states, the foreign policy of nation-states, and the mechanisms and institutions (such as international organisations, inter-governemental organisations, international and national non-governmental organisations and multinational corporations) through which states interact. The study of international relations involves many subjects such as international and regional peace and security, international organizations, nuclear proliferation, globalization, human rights, economic development, intervention, international financial relations, and international trade relations.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on International Relations. It provides the basic materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 445. International Relations: General Works and subject heading (keyword) International Relations are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

Bibliography

Reference works

Books

Leading articles

Documents

Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

New titles


1. Negocjacje w stosunkach międzynarodowych
Negocjacje w stosunkach międzynarodowych / Stanisław Bieleń. - Warszawa : Aspra-jr, 2013. - 418 pages. ; 24 cm Universitet Warszawski. Wydział Dziennikarstwa i Nauk Politycznych. Instytut Stosunków Międzynarodowych. - Includes bibliographical references and index. - Bibliography : page 379-401. - 2013
Keywords: International negotiations, International mediation, International disputes, International relations,

2. Globalizacija i sovremennaja Rossija
Globalizacija i sovremennaja Rossija : monografija / pod redakciej V. Ju. Vel’skogo, A.I Sacuty. - Moskva : Juniti, 2014. - 135 pages. ; 22 cm. - (Magister) Includes bibliographical references. - 2014
Keywords: Russian Federation, Globalization,

3. Au nom de la France
Au nom de la France : guerres secrètes au Rwanda / Benoît Collombat et David Servenay. - Paris : Editions La Découverte, 2014. - 309 pages. ; 24 cm. - (Cahiers libres, ISSN 0526-8370) Includes bibliographical references. - 2014
Keywords: Rwanda, France, Civil wars, Genocide, History, International relations,

4. Die Ukraine: Machtvakuum zwischen Russland und der Europäischen Union
Die Ukraine: Machtvakuum zwischen Russland und der Europäischen Union / Winfried Schneider-Deters. - 2. Auflage. - Berlin : BWV, Berliner Wissenschaftlicher-Verlag, 2014. - IX, 639 pages. ; 24 cm First edition: 2012. - Bibliography: page 629-639. - With notes. - 2014
Keywords: Russian Federation, Ukraine, European Union, Integration, International relations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Foreign policy,

5. From Arrow to Path: International Relations Theory and the Humanitarian Space
From Arrow to Path: International Relations Theory and the Humanitarian Space / Mathew J. Davies. - London : Hurst & Company. - Page 211-220 In: Negotiating Relief : The Politics of Humanitarian Space / Michele Acuto (editor), ISBN 9781849042383: (2014), Page 211-220. - 2014
Keywords: International relations, International relations theory, Humanitarianism, Humanitarian assistance,

6. ESDP Operations and NATO: An Overview
ESDP Operations and NATO: An Overview / Gabriele Cascone. - Valencia, España : Psylicom Distribuciones Editoriales. - Page 90-97 In: The Integration of the Human Rights Component and International Humanitarian Law in Peace Missions led by the European Union : International Colloquium, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain, 25-26 November 2010 / Mariano J. Aznar & Milena Costas, eds., ISBN 9788493813086: (2011), Page 90-97. - 2011
Keywords: European Union, Common security and defence policy, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, International co-operation,

7. Las consecuencias en política exterior del proceso de liberalización en Túnez y Egipto
Las consecuencias en política exterior del proceso de liberalización en Túnez y Egipto : su carácter social al descubierto / Marta Tawil In: Foro internacional = ISSN 0185-013X: vol. 54, issue 3 (jul-sep), page 624-550. - 2014
Keywords: Tunesia, Egypt, Foreign policy, Liberalization,

8. Mastering the Endgame of War
Mastering the Endgame of War / Dominic Tierney In: Survival : Global Politics and Strategy = ISSN 0039-6338: vol. 56, issue 5, page 66-94. - 2014
Keywords: United States of America, Iraq, International relations, Foreign policy, Wars,

9. The Smart Revisionist
The Smart Revisionist / Jonathan Holslag In: Survival : Global Politics and Strategy = ISSN 0039-6338: vol. 56, issue 5, page 95-116. - 2014
Keywords: China, Foreign policy, Association of South East Asian Nations, Economic development, International politics,

10. Conflict and Cooperation on Natural Resources: Justifying the CoCooN Programme
Conflict and Cooperation on Natural Resources: Justifying the CoCooN Programme / Georg Frerks, Ton Dietz & Pieter van der Zaag. - Boca Raton ; London ; New York ; Leiden : CRC Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 13-34 In: Conflicts over Natural Resources in the Global South - Conceptual Approaches / Maarten Bavinck, Lorenzo Pellegrini, Erik Mostert, ISBN 9781138020405: (2014), Page 13-34. - 2014
Keywords: Developing countries, The Netherlands, Natural resources, Conflicts, Environmental protection, Peacebuilding, Foreign policy, International co-operation,

11. Challenges in the Design of a Research and Development Programme on Conflict and Cooperation over Natural Resources
Challenges in the Design of a Research and Development Programme on Conflict and Cooperation over Natural Resources / Jan Joost Kessler, Han van Dijk & Wijnand van IJssel. - Boca Raton ; London ; New York ; Leiden : CRC Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 193-204 In: Conflicts over Natural Resources in the Global South - Conceptual Approaches / Maarten Bavinck, Lorenzo Pellegrini, Erik Mostert, ISBN 9781138020405: (2014), Page 193-204. - 2014
Keywords: The Netherlands, Natural resources, International co-operation, Conflicts, Economic development, Innovation,

12. International Relations Between War and Revolution: Wilsonian Diplomacy and the Making of the Treaty of Versailles
International Relations Between War and Revolution: Wilsonian Diplomacy and the Making of the Treaty of Versailles / Alexander Anievas In: International Politics = ISSN 1384-5748: vol. 51, issue 5, page 619-647. - 2014
Keywords: United States of America, Europe, Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919), Diplomacy, International politics, International relations, History, World War I, Marxism, Sociology,

13. Our Partisan Foreign Affairs Constitution
Our Partisan Foreign Affairs Constitution / Jide Nzelibe In: Minnesota Law Review = ISSN 2309-8678: vol. 97, issue 3, page 838-906. - 2013
Keywords: United States of America, Government, Separation of powers, Foreign policy, International relations, History,

14. Peace-building as Small State Foreign Policy: Norway’s Peace Engagement in a Changing International Context
Peace-building as Small State Foreign Policy: Norway’s Peace Engagement in a Changing International Context / Kristian Stokke In: International Studies = ISSN 0973-0702: vol. 49, issue 3-4, page 207-231. - 2012
Keywords: Norway, Burma, Sri Lanka, Small states, Foreign policy, Peace,

15. Asia del Este y la política exterior del Japón: desafíos para el siglo XXI
Asia del Este y la política exterior del Japón: desafíos para el siglo XXI / Yusuke Murakami In: (Revista) Agenda internacional = ISSN 1027-6750: vol. 18, issue 29, page 19-54. - 2011
Keywords: Japan, United States of America, China, East Asia, International relations, Regional security, Conflicts, Regionalism,

Librarian's choice

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  • Heilmann, S. and D.H. Schmidt, China's Foreign Political and Economic Relations : An Unconventional Global Power, Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014.

    This balanced and thoughtful book presents a thorough analysis of the dynamics of China s foreign relations. Sebastian Heilmann and Dirk H. Schmidt provide a comprehensive and discriminating view of the complex, often competing factors (domestic influences, regional tensions, global uncertainties) that shape Chinese foreign policy. They portray the PRC as a land of multiple identities-a nation that is becoming more assertive in East Asia as it explores novel approaches to its foreign economic policies, while simultaneously displaying thin-skinned sensitivities when confronted with international criticism. The authors argue that unconventional approaches to foreign relations-in particular a unique combination of long-term strategies with multilevel policy experiments-are driving Chinese global expansion. The provocative and challenging final chapter, designed to spur discussion, considers China s imperial identity warring against the decentralized activities conducted in the shadow of the empire. Illicit transnational guerilla-like networks have thus become powerful driving forces behind the continued development of China s foreign policy as well as its foreign-trade relations. The authors contend that the activities of these niche nomads, with their largely invisible or chameleon-like presence, constitute the most alarming dimension of China s foreign relations as they gain ground and resources in many parts of the world with the potential to shake the very foundations of other societies.

    This balanced and thoughtful book presents a thorough analysis of the dynamics of China s foreign relations. Sebastian Heilmann and Dirk H. Schmidt provide a comprehensive and discriminating view of the complex, often competing factors (domestic influences, regional tensions, global uncertainties) that shape Chinese foreign policy. They portray the PRC as a land of multiple identities-a nation that is becoming more assertive in East Asia as it explores novel approaches to its foreign economic policies, while simultaneously displaying thin-skinned sensitivities when confronted with international criticism. The authors argue that unconventional approaches to foreign relations-in particular a unique combination of long-term strategies with multilevel policy experiments-are driving Chinese global expansion. The provocative and challenging final chapter, designed to spur discussion, considers China s imperial identity warring against the decentralized activities conducted in the shadow of the empire. Illicit transnational guerilla-like networks have thus become powerful driving forces behind the continued development of China s foreign policy as well as its foreign-trade relations. The authors contend that the activities of these niche nomads, with their largely invisible or chameleon-like presence, constitute the most alarming dimension of China s foreign relations as they gain ground and resources in many parts of the world with the potential to shake the very foundations of other societies.

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  • Murithi, T., Handbook of Africa's International Relations, New York, Routledge, 2014.

    Africa’s international relations have often been defined and oriented by the dominant international and geopolitical agendas of the day. In the aftermath of colonialism the Cold War became a dominant paradigm that defined the nature of the continent’s relationship with the rest of the world. The contemporary forces of globalization are now exerting an undue influence and impact upon Africa’s international relations. Increasingly, the African continent is emerging as a vocal, and in some respects an influential, actor in international relations. There is a lack of analysis and research on this emerging trend. This timely book fills this analytical gap by engaging with a wide range of issues, with chapters written by experts on a variety of themes.

The emerging political prominence of the African continent on the world stage is predicated on an evolving internal process of continental integration. In particular, there are normative and policy efforts to revive the spirit of Pan-Africanism: the 21st century is witnessing the evolution of Pan-Africanism, notably through the constitution and establishment of the African Union (AU). Given the dearth of analysis on this phenomemon, this volume also examines the notion of Pan-Africanism through various lenses – notably peace and security, development, the environment and trade.

The volume will also engage with the emerging role of the AU as an international actor, e.g. with regard to its role in the reform of the United Nations Security Council, climate change, the International Criminal Court (ICC), the treaty establishing Africa as a nuclear-free zone, Internally Displaced Persons, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), international trade, the environment, public health issues, security, and development issues. This book will assess how the AU’s role as an international actor is complicated by the difficulty of promoting consensus among African states and then maintaining that consensus in the face of often divergent national interests. This book will in part assess the role of the AU in articulating collective and joint policies and in making interventions in international decision and policy-making circles.

The Handbook will also assess the role of African social movements and their relationship with global actors. The role of African citizens in improving their own conditions is often underplayed in the international relations discourse, and this volume will seek to redress this oversight. Throughout the book the various chapters will also assess the role that these citizen linkages have contributed towards continental integration and in confronting the challenges of globalization.

    Africa’s international relations have often been defined and oriented by the dominant international and geopolitical agendas of the day. In the aftermath of colonialism the Cold War became a dominant paradigm that defined the nature of the continent’s relationship with the rest of the world. The contemporary forces of globalization are now exerting an undue influence and impact upon Africa’s international relations. Increasingly, the African continent is emerging as a vocal, and in some respects an influential, actor in international relations. There is a lack of analysis and research on this emerging trend. This timely book fills this analytical gap by engaging with a wide range of issues, with chapters written by experts on a variety of themes.

    The emerging political prominence of the African continent on the world stage is predicated on an evolving internal process of continental integration. In particular, there are normative and policy efforts to revive the spirit of Pan-Africanism: the 21st century is witnessing the evolution of Pan-Africanism, notably through the constitution and establishment of the African Union (AU). Given the dearth of analysis on this phenomemon, this volume also examines the notion of Pan-Africanism through various lenses – notably peace and security, development, the environment and trade.

    The volume will also engage with the emerging role of the AU as an international actor, e.g. with regard to its role in the reform of the United Nations Security Council, climate change, the International Criminal Court (ICC), the treaty establishing Africa as a nuclear-free zone, Internally Displaced Persons, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), international trade, the environment, public health issues, security, and development issues. This book will assess how the AU’s role as an international actor is complicated by the difficulty of promoting consensus among African states and then maintaining that consensus in the face of often divergent national interests. This book will in part assess the role of the AU in articulating collective and joint policies and in making interventions in international decision and policy-making circles.

    The Handbook will also assess the role of African social movements and their relationship with global actors. The role of African citizens in improving their own conditions is often underplayed in the international relations discourse, and this volume will seek to redress this oversight. Throughout the book the various chapters will also assess the role that these citizen linkages have contributed towards continental integration and in confronting the challenges of globalization.

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  • Ismael, T.Y. and G.E. Perry (eds.), The International Relations of the Contemporary Middle East : Subordination and Beyond, Ismael, London, Routledge, 2014 [2013].

    The International Relations of the Contemporary Middle East Subordination and Beyond

    The Middle East, a few decades ago, was seen to be an autonomous subsystem of the global international political system. More recently, the region has been subordinated to the hegemony of a singular superpower, the US, bolstered by an alliance with Israel and a network of Arab client states.

    The subordination of the contemporary Middle East has resulted in large part from the disappearance of countervailing forces, for example, global bipolarity, that for a while allowed the Arab world in particular to exercise a modicum of flexibility in shaping its international relations.The aspirations of the indigenous population of the Middle East have been stifled by the dynamics of the unequal global power relationships, and domestic politics of the countries of the region are regularly subordinated to the prerogatives of international markets and the strategic competition of the great powers.

    Employing the concept of imperialism, defined as a pattern of alliances between a center (rulers) in the Center (developed) country and a center (client regime) in the Periphery (underdeveloped country) – as an overall framework to analyse the subordination of the region, this book is essential reading for students and scholars of the Middle East, International Relations, and Politics in general.

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  • Bueno de Mesquita, B., Principles of International Politics, Washington, DC, CQ Press, 2014.

    Bueno de Mesquita, B., Principles of International Politics, Washington, DC, CQ Press, 2014.

    Renowned scholar Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, who set the standard for the scientific approach to international relations and transformed the field, has returned with a reformulated fifth edition based on extensive reviewer feedback and guided by an emphasis on questions about the causes and consequences of war, peace, and world order. More than ever before, the strategic perspective in international relations is examined with complete clarity, precision, and accessibility. What hasn’t changed is Bueno de Mesquita’s commitment to covering the fundamentals of IR. The foundational topics and examination are all there: the major theories of war, the domestic sources of international politics, an exploration of the democratic peace, the problems of terrorism, the role of foreign aid, democratization, international political economy, globalization, international organizations, international law, and the global environment. No other introductory text delivers such an easily-understood contemporary explanation of international politics, while truly enabling students to learn how to mobilize the key concepts and models themselves-thus develop a new method for thinking about world affairs. More than ever before, Principles provides a comprehensive evaluation of all aspects of international affairs, systematically compares the accuracy of competing approaches to international relations, and walks students through the simple, intuitive models and games that capture the essence of the strategic, selectorate viewpoint.

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  • Dunoff, J.L. and M.A. Pollack (eds.), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations: the State of the Art, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    Dunoff, J.L. and M.A. Pollack (eds.), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations: the State of the Art, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    International Law and International Relations: Synthesizing Insights from Interdisciplinary Scholarship brings together the most influential contemporary writers in the fields of international law and international relations to take stock of what we know about the making, interpretation, and enforcement of international law. The contributions to this volume critically explore what recent interdisciplinary work reveals about the design and workings of international institutions, the various roles played by international and domestic courts, and the factors that enhance compliance with international law. The volume also explores how interdisciplinary work has advanced theoretical understandings of the causes and consequences of the increased legalization of international affairs.

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  • Viotti, P.R. and M.V. Kauppi, International Relations and World Politics, Boston, MA, Pearson, 2013.

    Viotti, P.R. and M.V. Kauppi, International Relations and World Politics, Boston, MA, Pearson, 2013.

    Updated in its 5th edition, International Relations and World Politics is a toolkit that offers an authoritative survey of the field and practical ways to analyze current and future world problems. Drawn from the authors’ experience as scholars and practitioners, this new edition was completely rewritten to focus on an enduring teaching and learning goal-how individuals can apply theory, history, geography, and more for a lifetime of understanding politics in a globalized world. Whether as actors themselves in world politics, participants in the global economy, or simply readers of world news, those reading International Relations and World Politics not only get more help to master the field’s concepts but also get more help to understand that these are real-world ideas with real-world implications.

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  • Koivisto, M., Normative State Power in International Relations, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.

    Koivisto, M., Normative State Power in International Relations, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.

    While the relationship between norms and the state is an omnipresent research theme in International Relations, most international theory – from classical liberalism to recent constructivism – continues to treat ‘normative state power’ as an analytical impossibility. Scholarship within the fields of human rights, global civil society, and globalization remains primarily focused on moral evaluations and the mitigation of the geopolitical power of the state. Rarely are the normative institutional capacities of the state the focus of analysis. This book offers a new theory of normative state power in global politics. Marjo Koivisto argues that normative state power is distinct from the fiscal or military might of states. It is usually institutionalized and internalized within the state as a set of cultural norms relating to the role of statehood in local and global practice. By deploying both theoretical inquiry and substantive analysis of the Nordic model, the book offers a deep, institutionalist account of normative state power as exercised in relation to the welfare state. A case study of the internationalist networks of the Nordic states in times of economic crises (both the 1930s and 1990s) illustrates how, thanks to the persistence of normative state power, state forms tend to outlast political and economic transformations.

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  • Devetak, R. (et al.) (eds.), An Introduction to International Relations, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 2012.

    Devetak, R. (et al.) (eds.), An Introduction to International Relations, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 2012.

    Invaluable to students and those approaching the subject for the first time, An Introduction to International Relations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive and stimulating introduction to international relations, its traditions and its changing nature in an era of globalisation. Thoroughly revised and updated, it features chapters written by a range of experts from around the world. It presents a global perspective on the theories, history, developments and debates that shape this dynamic discipline and contemporary world politics. Now in full-colour and accompanied by a password-protected companion website featuring additional chapters and case studies, this is the indispensable guide to the study of international relations.

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  • Ku, C., International law, International Relations, and Global Governance, London, Routledge, 2012.

    Ku, C., International law, International Relations, and Global Governance, London, Routledge, 2012.

    International Relations and International Law have developed in parallel but distinctly throughout the 20th Century. However in recent years there has been recognition that their shared concerns in areas as diverse as the environment, transnational crime and terrorism, human rights and conflict resolution outweigh their disciplinary and methodological divergences. This concise and accessible volume focuses on collaborative work within the disciplines of international law and international relations, and highlights the need to develop this collaboration further, describing the value for individuals, states, IGOs, and other non-state actors in being able to draw on the cross-pollination of international relations and international legal scholarship. Helping readers to examine and understand how accumulated actions over time have given rise to system-wide changes, this work is essential reading for all students of international law, international relations and global governance.

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Database

Blogs

  • The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 and the Roadmap to Israeli-Palestinian Permanent Peace!

    Between 11 and 18 October the Youth Peace Initiative 2014 took place in The Hague, international City of Peace and Justice. The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 (YPI 2014) has been set up to get Israeli and Palestinian youth involved with the current peace negotiations between their nations. The YPI 2014 participants discussed and deliberated a whole week to achieve consensus on ideas and solutions for the peace process.

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  • Interview: Dr. Christian Noack

    This month, our first time guest editor and colleague, Ms. Anna Duszczyk, invited Dr. Christian Noack from the University of Amsterdam, for an in-depth interview on the current crisis in Ukraine. Dr. Noack is an expert on Eastern European History, Media Studies and Slavonic Studies. In this interview, he will discuss his views on the current political situation in Ukraine and the role of Russia and the European Union in the crisis.

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  • Nuclear security: Dangers and Achievements

    Nuclear security is generally accepted to mean “the prevention of, detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities”. In short it is about preventing terrorists from acquiring radioactive material or attacking nuclear facilities. Since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, nuclear security concerns have been heightened, but how real is the danger and what are the legal instruments to combat nuclear terrorism?

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  • Themes of NSS 2014

    The Netherlands will be hosting the Nuclear Security Summit on 24 and 25 March 2014. Nuclear security involves implementing a series of pre-emptive measures to prevent internal and/or external threats directly or indirectly related to nuclear materials, radioactive sources, relevant facilities or other associated activities. Reducing the amount of dangerous nuclear material in the world, improving the security of all nuclear material and radioactive sources and improving international cooperation are the main themes of the 2014 Summit.

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  • A Justification for Russia’s Intervention?

    In the last week Russian military forces have occupied Crimea, the Ukrainian Black Sea peninsula where the majority of the population is ethnic Russian and the Russian Black Sea Fleet is deployed in the city of Sevastopol. In the Russian constitution a few articles describe circumstances where a primacy of Russian constitutional law above international law may occur. How does Russia legally justify its intervention? Guest Blog by Anna K. Duszczyk.

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  • Ukraine, Moving East or West?

    Although Yanukovych has claimed many times to seek good ties with Russia and the EU simultaneously, it seems that by refusing to sign the Association Agreement (AA) and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with the EU last November, the power balance is tipping towards Russia. As an alternative to further EU integration, Russia has been actively promoting Ukraine to join the Russian-led Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, which in the future could progress towards a further integrated Eurasian Union.

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  • Unresolved Territorial Disputes: The Tunbs and Abu Musa in the Gulf

    Last week, the Foreign Minister of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed, renewed his country’s demand for the restoration of sovereignty over three islands in the Persian Gulf region. Responding to the statement by the UAE, Iran’s representative reiterated his country’s full sovereignty over the islands and categorically rejected any claims to the contrary. The legal dispute about ownership and sovereignty of the three islands is based on rival historical claims by both sides.

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  • ARGO and the Follow-Up: Iran and the United States

    33 Years after the event, Hollywood has turned its attention to an episode that traumatized the United States for months: the seizure of the American Embassy in Tehran. As the US Embassy falls to a group of Islamist students and militants in support of the Iranian revolution and in retaliation for the USA’s sheltering of the recently deposed Shah, six diplomats slip out and seek sanctuary in the Canadian’s ambassador’s residence. It is up to the CIA’s Tony Mendez (Ben Affleck) to extract them from the country before they are discovered by the Revolutionary Guards. The plan? Create a fake movie, called Argo, and pretend they’re the crew.

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  • South Sudan: Birth Of A Nation

    On 9th July 2011, South-Sudan finally gained independence from Sudan after 50 years of conflicts in Northeasteren Africa. This blog will briefly discuss the most important obstacles that will lie ahead for the people of South-Sudan.

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  • North Korea Confirms Nuclear Test

    North Korea has conducted its second nuclear test, the country’s state news agency KCNA announced today. The nuclear test was expected. Earlier this year North Korea conducted a failed intercontinental missile test.

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See also

More Research guides on International Organizations and Relations

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