International business transactions are described in the form of an international contract, containing the objective(s) and commitments of each of the parties involved and the terms which govern the transaction. When parties from different countries enter into a contract, they are governed by international contract law unless they agree to abide by the laws of one of the countries. International contract law is a branch of private international law. This type of law is frequently applied to as international sales law. International sales contracts are governed by the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) from 1980. The purpose of the CISG is to provide a regime for contracts for the international sale of goods. The Convention is developed to promote commercial exchanges between private parties. In history, merchants developed their own sort of international contract law. Traders wanted to deal despite differences in languages, culture and laws developed their own code for international transactions. These rules have evolved into the contract laws of today.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on International Contracts. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's classification index code 291. Contracts: General Works; Law governing Contracts; Vienna Rules 1926 and subject heading (keyword) International Contracts are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Bortolotti, F., Drafting and Negotiating International Commercial Contracts: a Practical Guide, Paris, International Chamber of Commerce, 2008.
- Wiggers, W.J.H. (ed.), International Commercial Law: Source Materials: Corporate Governance ... Incoterms 2000, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2007.
- Honnold, J.O., Uniform Law for International Sales under the 1980 United Nations Convention, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2009.
- Vogenauer, S. (ed.), Commentary on the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (PICC), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015.
- Bortolotti, F., Drafting and Negotiating International Commercial Contracts : A Practical Guide, Paris, International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), 2008.
- Chow, D.C.K. and T.J. Schoenbaum, International Business Transactions : Problems, Cases and Materials, New York, Wolters Kluwer, 2010.
- Dalhuisen, J., Dalhuisen on Transnational Comparative, Commercial, Financial and Trade Law, Oxford, Hart, 2010.
- Del Duca, P.L., Choosing the Language of Transnational Deals: Practicalities, Policy, and Law Reform, Chicago, IL, ABA Section of International Law, 2010.
- Dimatteo, L.A., Law of International Contracting, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2009.
- Ferrari, F., Rome I Regulation: Pocket Commentary, Munich, Sellier European Law Publishers, 2015.
- Fontaine, M. and F. de Ly, Drafting International Contracts: An Analysis of Contract Clauses, Ardsley, NY, Transnational, 2006.
- Honnold, J.O., Uniform Law for International Sales under the 1980 United Nations Convention, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2009.
- Munoz, E., Modern Law of Contracts and Sales in Latin America, Spain and Portugal, The Hague, Eleven International Publishing, 2011.
- Ostendorf, P., International Sales Terms, München, Beck, 2010.
- Plender, R. and Wilderspin, M., The European Private International Law of Obligations, London, Sweet & Maxwell, 2015.
- Sánchez Lorenzo, S. (ed.), Derecho contractual comparado: una perspectiva europea y transnacional, Cizur Menor, Civitas, 2013.
- Schwenzer, I. (ed.), Commentary on the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 3rd ed., Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010.
- Vogenauer, S. and J. Kleinheisterkamp (eds.), Commentary on the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (PICC), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009.
- Albornoz, M.M., "Choice of Law in International Contracts in Latin American Legal Systems", Journal of Private International Law, 6 (2010), No. 1, pp. 23-58.
- Arenas García, R., "La formación de los contratos internacionales", in: María Ángeles Parra Lucán (ed.), Negociación y perfección de los contratos, Cizur Menor, Aranzadi, 2014, pp. 527-597.
- Dimatteo, L.A. and D.T. Ostas, "Comparative Efficiency in International Sales Law", American University International Law Review, 26 (2011), No. 2, pp. 371-439.
- Kornet, N., "Evolving General Principles of (International) Commercial Contracts: The Unidroit Principles and 'Favor contractus'", in Samoy, I. (ed.), Evolutie van de basisbeginselen van het contractenrecht, Antwerpen, Intersentia, 2010, pp. 179-199.
- Lando, O., "Tradition versus Harmonization in the Recent Reforms of Contract Law", Collected Courses of the Xiamen Academy of International Law, (2011), pp. 81-154.
- Martiny, D., Die Haager Principles on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts : eine weitere Verankerung der Parteiautonomie, Rabels Zeitschrift fur Auslandisches und Internationales Privatrecht, 79 (2015), No. 3, pp. 624-653.
- Radicati di Brozolo, L.G., "Non-National Rules and Conflicts of Law: Reflections in Light of the Unidroit and Hague Principles", Rivista di diritto internazionale privato e processuale, 48 (2012), No. 4, pp. 841-864.
- Principles on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts approved by the Hague Conference on Private International Law on 19 March 2015 = Principes Sur le Choix de la loi Applicable Aux Contrats Commerciaux Internationaux approuvé par la Conférence de la Haye de droit international privé le 19 mars 2015, 20 (2015), Uniform Law Review, No.2-3, pp. 362-489.
- Wiggers, W.J.H. (ed.), International Commercial Law: Source Materials, The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 2001.
Periodicals, serial publications
1. The Enforcement of Dispute Adjudication Board Decisions
Keywords: Singapore, International Federation of Consulting Engineers, Construction, Standard contracts, International contracts, National courts, International commercial arbitration, Case-law,
2. Determining the Relevant Limitation Period for International Sales Contracts Before International Arbitral Tribunals
Keywords: Switzerland, United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Vienna, 11 April 1980), International Chamber of Commerce, Sale, Statutes of limitation, International contracts, International commercial arbitration, Law of civil procedure,
These publications are selected for you by [post_author_posts_link].
McParland, M., The Rome I Regulation on the Law applicable to Contractual Obligations, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The Rome I Regulation applies to all EU Member States (except Denmark) in relation to 'contractual obligations in civil and commercial matters' in 'situations involving a conflict of laws' that arise out of contracts concluded from 17 December 2009. The Rome I Regulation has been described by the European Commission as 'a central element of the Community acquis in the area of civil justice'. This book is the most comprehensive work on the development of the Rome I Regulation that studies in detail the historical background, the legislative development and the teleological purpose of the Regulation.
Vogenauer, S. (ed.), Commentary on the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (PICC), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The leading commentary on the PICC and a standard reference for all involved with international commerce;
Clearly structured and easy to navigate article-by-article commentary provides quick access to all the case-law and legal literature needed to address a specific problem;
In-depth scholarly analysis is combined with guidance on practical application;
Comparative approach facilitates access for readers from different jurisdictions;
International team of contributors comprising academics and practitioners from 13 jurisdictions gives a fresh and unbiased analysis of the subject;
Includes a comparative synopsis to the provisions of international uniform law Conventions including the CISG, the Agency Convention, the Assignment Convention, and the Limitation Convention, in addition to PECL and the PICC
DiMatteo, L.A., International Sales Law: A Global Challenge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This title provides an introduction to international sales law. It provides a comprehensive review and analysis of the jurisprudence surrounding the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). As of 1st January 2004, 62 countries have adopted the CISG as their countries' international sales law. Since the introduction of the CISG, a critical mass of interpretive jurisprudence has developed, and, given its importance now as the world's preeminent sales law, the authors believed that a fresh analysis of the evolving case and arbitral law was now needed. The analysis in the book is undertaken at two levels - the practical interpretation of the CISG and the theoretical limits of interpretation of supranational conventions.
Cordero-Moss, G., International Commercial Contracts: Applicable Sources And Enforceability, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Any practising lawyer and student working with international commercial contracts faces standardised contracts and international arbitration as mechanisms for dispute settlement. Transnational rules may be applicable, but national law is still important. Based on extensive practical experience, this book analyses international contract practice and its interaction with the various applicable sources: which role is played by the contractual regulation, which by national law, which by transnational sources, what is the interaction among these factors, and how does this all apply to contracts that refer disputes to international arbitration?
Spark, G., Vitiation of Contracts: International Contractual Principles and English Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver PlinkletVitiation of Contracts proposes a new theory to explain the rationale of general vitiating factors in English contract law. It provides a clear link to voluntariness as the foundation of contractual liability and compares the English position, in light of this theory, with the Principles of International Commercial Contracts (PICC), the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL), the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) and the US Restatement (Second) of Contracts.
Penadés Fons, M.A., Elección tácita de ley en los contratos internacionales, Cizur Menor, Aranzadi, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
La libertad que actualmente se concede a las partes para que escojan la ley aplicable a su contrato comercial internacional no siempre se manifiesta mediante una cláusula expresa en el acuerdo. Este silencio deriva frecuentemente en litigación relativa a determinar si las partes efectivamente ejercieron dicha libertad, a pesar de que no quedara reflejado en el contrato. Aunque la normativa de la Unión Europea establece una solución armonizada para esta materia, la práctica demuestra que la respuesta dada por los tribunales de los Estados Miembros es sustancialmente heterogénea. Esto la convierte en una cuestión controvertida e incierta en cualquier litigio relacionado con un contrato comercial internacional. La presente obra analiza en profundidad los criterios empleados tanto por la jurisprudencia española como europea y ofrece una valiosa guía práctica profesional para enfrentarse a la cuestión de elección tácita de ley aplicable ante tribunales nacionales y arbitrales.
Bortolotti, F., Il contratto internazionale: manuale teorico-pratico, Padova, Cedam, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Il presente volume intende affrontare il tema dei contratti internazionali in modo originale, da un lato concentrando l'attenzione sui temi essenziali, la cui comprensione è indispensabile per orientarsi in questa materia, e dall'altro utilizzando un metodo di esposizione, integrato con esempi e casi concreti, che faciliti la comprensione delle problematiche, non prive di complessità, relative alla cosiddetta contrattualistica internazionale. Per quanto riguarda il primo aspetto, l'autore ha cercato di approfondire gli aspetti realmente importanti per capire la materia dei contratti internazionali, tralasciando aspetti più marginali e talvolta anche questioni importanti sotto il profilo teorico, ma di fatto prive di rilevanza concreta. Infatti, lo scopo primario del volume è di mettere il lettore in grado di comprendere a fondo le problematiche dei contratti internazionali e quindi di potersi orientare nella materia, il che non esclude la possibilità di ulteriori approfondimenti su aspetti specifici. Quanto al secondo aspetto, quello del metodo espositivo, ricorrendo ad un linguaggio semplice e il meno «tecnico» possibile, illustrando le questioni critiche con esempi concreti e, infine, utilizzando accorgimenti grafici che facilitino la lettura, è stato realizzato un prodotto editoriale che sia nella massima misura user-friendly, mettendo in primo piano le esigenze del lettore.
UNCITRAL Rotterdam Rules
Following the adoption of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce at its twenty-ninth session in 1996, the United Nations Commission on Trade Law (UNCITRAL) considered, as part of the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) project, a proposal to include in its work programme a review of current practices and laws in the area of the international carriage of goods by sea, with a view to establishing the need for uniform rules where no such rules existed and with a view to achieving greater uniformity of laws.Read more
- CISG Database
- CISG Online
- Contract Principles
- International Contract and Competition Law in Internet Matters, by M.Roth
- International Contract Drafting : a Complex Headache, by Andrew Dat
- What Is International Contract Law?
- UNILEX on CISG and UNIDROIT Principles : International Case Law and Bibliography
More Research guides on Private International Law
- Intellectual Property
- International Commercial Law
- International Family Law
- Private International Law