Subjects of International Law

Introduction

Subjects of International Law - Research Guide International Law by Dr. Ruwanthika Gunaratne

Subjects of International Law can be described as those persons or entities who possess international personality. Throughout the 19th century, only States qualified as subjects of international law. After, the Second World War, more and more new actors emerged in the international legal arena such as the intergovernmental organizations created by States, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) created by individuals, multinationals and even natural persons (i.e. individuals). These can now be considered as having to a large or sometimes limited extend the capacity to become international persons.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Subjects of International Law. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s subject heading (keyword) Subjects of International Law is instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

Bibliography

Reference works

Books

 

Leading articles

Documents

 

Periodicals, serial publications

 

Bibliographies

New titles


1. State Succession with Respect to Multilateral Treaties in the Context of Secession
State Succession with Respect to Multilateral Treaties in the Context of Secession : from the Principle of Tabula Rasa to the Emergence of a Presumption of Continuity of Treaties / Patrick Dumberry In: Baltic Yearbook of International Law = ISSN 1569-6456: vol. 13 (2013), page 27-65. - 2013
Keywords: Dissolution, State succession, Multilateral treaties, State practice, Rights and duties of States,

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  • French, D., Statehood and Self-Determination: Reconciling Tradition and Modernity in International Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    French, D., Statehood and Self-Determination: Reconciling Tradition and Modernity in International Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    The concepts of statehood and self-determination provide the normative structure on which the international legal order is ultimately premised. As a system of law founded upon the issue of territorial control, ascertaining and determining which entities are entitled to the privileges of statehood continues to be one of the most difficult and complex issues. Moreover, although the process of decolonisation is almost complete, the principle of self-determination has raised new challenges for the metropolitan territories of established states, including the extent to which ‘internal’ self-determination guarantees additional rights for minority and other groups. As the controversies surrounding remedial secession have revealed, the territorial integrity of a state can be questioned if there are serious and persistent breaches of a people’s human rights. This volume brings together such debates to reflect further on the current state of international law regarding these fundamental issues.

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  • Kettemann, M.C., The Future of Individuals in International Law: Lessons from International Internet Law, The Hague, Eleven International Publishing, 2013.

    Kettemann, M.C., The Future of Individuals in International Law: Lessons from International Internet Law, The Hague, Eleven International Publishing, 2013.

    The state-centric international order is in flux and the role of the individual as an actor in international law is growing. Yet in most international law regimes, states continue to interposition themselves between individuals and international law. Against the background of humanization which is shown to permeate all international legal regimes, this book sketches the future of individuals in international law. From the normative success of International Internet Law as the most innovative post-interposition regime this book draws lessons for the optimal design of (existing and emerging) legal frameworks. Describing in detail the characteristics of a post-interposition regime, including a commitment to multistakeholderism, non-traditional normative instruments and system-wide disintermediation, this book demonstrates why the future of individuals in international law looks bright.

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  • Ben-Ari, R.H., The Normative Position of International Non-Governmental Organizations under International Law: an Analytical Framework, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2012.

    Ben-Ari, R.H., The Normative Position of International Non-Governmental Organizations under International Law: an Analytical Framework, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2012.

    The activities of International Non-Governmental Organizations give rise to multifaceted questions of legality and legitimacy. The normative position of INGOs within the ‘international community’ has proved to be acutely controversial, demanding a fundamental reconsideration of the concepts of the nation-state and of international organizations of all kinds. There is manifestly a crying need for a comprehensive framework against which the capacity of international law to comprehend these complex issues can be measured. This book explores contemporary approaches towards INGOs, those based on criticism of the doctrine of international legal personality as well as those adopting a functional-constitutional perspective. It engages in a stimulating and thorough interdisciplinary evaluation of the theoretical and practical potential of these theories to generate solutions for the problems produced by the exercise of unregulated authority outside the state-system. The book investigates the main concepts put forward by international lawyers within ‘postmodern’ discourse, among them ‘global civil society’, ‘globalization’ and ‘governance’, and examines their consistency with existing institutional arrangements, and the century-old attempts to standardize the status of INGOs.

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  • Schüssler, S., NGOs als Akteure der internationalen Sanktionspolitik zur Menschenrechtsförderung: Clubmitglieder oder Außenseiter?, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2012.

    Schüssler, S., NGOs als Akteure der internationalen Sanktionspolitik zur Menschenrechtsförderung: Clubmitglieder oder Außenseiter?, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2012.

    Welche Rolle spielen NGOs bei der Verhängung internationaler Sanktionen zur Durchsetzung von Menschenrechtsnormen? Auf Grundlage von zwei Fallstudien zur Sanktionspolitik gegen Südafrika in der Ära der Apartheid und dem heutigen Burma behandelt die Studie die Frage, wie sich die Einflussmöglichkeiten von NGOs auf internationale Sanktionsregime durch die Öffnung der Weltpolitik verändert haben. Auch wenn NGOs heute stärker auf die Inklusion bei der intergouvernementalen Regelsetzung drängen, haben sich ihre selbst definierten Aufgaben nicht verändert. NGOs übernehmen als Experten, Überwacher und private Sanktionierer wichtige Funktionen und sind somit keine Außenseiter der internationalen Sanktionspolitik.

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  • Szazi, E., NGOs: Legitimate Subjects of International Law, Leiden, Leiden University Press, 2012.

    Szazi, E., NGOs: Legitimate Subjects of International Law, Leiden, Leiden University Press, 2012.

    History shows that NGOs activity in the international arena has grown steadily since the beginning of the 20th century, accelerating its pace after the enactment of the UN Charter, which admitted pluralism not only between States, but also beyond States, because it acknowledged that individuals could interact with the United Nations not only through governmental organizations but also through non-governmental organizations. In ‘NGOs: legitimate subjects of International Law’, Eduardo Szazi presents a methodical appraisal of the role of NGOs in the contemporary world, addressing their main characteristics under each of the sources of international law, as well some pressing questions about the legitimacy deficit of States and Intergovernmental Organizations in the 21st century.

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  • Gaus, N., Materiell-rechtliche Gewährleistungen und verfahrensrechtliche Durchsetzbarkeit völkerrechtlich garantierter Menschenrechte: zur rechtlichen Stellung des Einzelnen im Völkerrecht, Frankfurt am Main, Lang, 2011.

    Gaus, N., Materiell-rechtliche Gewährleistungen und verfahrensrechtliche Durchsetzbarkeit völkerrechtlich garantierter Menschenrechte: zur rechtlichen Stellung des Einzelnen im Völkerrecht, Frankfurt am Main, Lang, 2011.
    Diese Arbeit analysiert die völkerrechtlichen Menschenrechtsgewährleistungen und ihre verschiedenen Instrumente zur verfahrensrechtlichen Durchsetzbarkeit. Diese verfahrensrechtlichen Instrumentarien beziehen zunehmend das Individuum in den Prozess der Rechtsbeachtung und Rechtsbewahrung auf Völkerrechtsebene ein, wie zum Beispiel das Individualbeschwerdeverfahren vor dem Europäischen Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte verdeutlicht. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wird untersucht, ob dieses Phänomen des Einbezugs des Individuums in den Prozess der Rechtsdurchsetzung im völkerrechtlichen Menschenrechtsschutz auf den europäischen Rechtsraum begrenzt ist, oder ob es Tendenzen gibt, dass dem Individuum im völkerrechtlichen Menschenrechtsschutz generell zunehmend Verfahrenspositionen eingeräumt werden. In diesem Zusammenhang widmet sich die Untersuchung schließlich der Frage, ob und inwieweit von einer Stellung des Individuums im völkerrechtlichen Menschenrechtsschutz, d. h. von einer Völkerrechtssubjektivität des Einzelnen, gesprochen werden kann.
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  • Cançado Trindade, A.A., Le droit international pour la personne humaine, Paris, Pedone, 2011.

    Cançado Trindade, A.A., Le droit international pour la personne humaine, Paris, Pedone, 2011.

    Ce livre est un recueil d’articles du célèbre internationaliste brésilien Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, ancien Président de la Cour interaméricaine des droits de l´homme et actuellement Juge à la Cour internationale de Justice. Il permet de prendre toute la mesure d’une pensée profondément originale au sein de la discipline internationaliste contemporaine car, à contre-courants du positivisme et du réalisme dominants, le juge Antônio Cançado Trindade y défend une conception résolument jusnaturaliste du droit qui s’enracine dans la pensée des grands penseurs de la scolastique espagnole. Cette conviction est au service d’une thèse qui résonne de façon singulièrement forte aujourd’hui : il s’agit de défendre l’idée que le droit international n’est pas ce droit basé sur la volonté des Etats souverains auquel on a voulu trop souvent le réduire, mais qu’il est en train de devenir irrésistiblement ce qu’il aurait toujours dû être : un droit universel de l’humanité dont la personne humaine doit être le bénéficiaire ultime. Les 15 études qui composent cet ouvrage fournissent une argumentation approfondie qui vient étayer puissamment la thèse de l’auteur. Elles associent des articles de doctrine à des études techniques très précises où l’auteur démontre l’existence de ce droit universel de l’humanité en s’appuyant à la fois sur l’histoire de la pensée internationaliste et sur son expérience, unanimement saluée, en tant qu’éminent spécialiste du droit international des droits de l’homme. Elles sont introduites par un nouveau témoignage personnel de l’auteur qui retrace l’origine et l’évolution de sa pensée et l’engagement de toute une vie d’universitaire et de juge au service de ses convictions.

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Database

Blogs

  • Is Sudan set for a divorce?

    Sudan has a history of protracted conflict between the predominately Muslim north and the largely Christian south. On 9-15 January 2011, the citizens of Southern Sudan took part in a referendum to determine if they wish to become an independent state. Although South Sudan has been an autonomous region since the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) [...]

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  • The Influence of NGOs on International Law

    From a traditional point of view, International Public Law has been understood as a set of rules produced by states in order to regulate relations between them. Since the end of the Cold War, the role of NGOs in international law is growing in importance and their activities are reaching the remotest parts of the world. In this blog, I will briefly discuss how NGOs have transformed international law as well as how they continue to contribute to the development of international law.

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See also

More Research guides on Public International Law

PPL keywords

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