Food

Introduction

Food - Research Guide International Law

In the 20th century science and technology changed the agricultural sector enormously in many industrialized countries. The implications for both developed and developing countries in the agricultural sector, rural development, food security, food safety, the Codex Alimentarius, the environment, the green revolution, Genetically Modified Food (GM Food or biotech foods), trade, etc., are the subject of this research guide.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Food. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 9j. Agriculture, Agrarian Policy, etc. and subject heading (keyword) Food are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

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Books

Leading articles

Documents

Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

 

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  • Akram-Lodhi, A.H., Hungry For Change: Farmers, Food Justice and the Agrarian Question, Halifax, Fernwood, 2013.

    Akram-Lodhi, A.H., Hungry For Change: Farmers, Food Justice and the Agrarian Question, Halifax, Fernwood, 2013.
    Hunger and obesity sit side by side in the world today because a food system dominated by money, markets and profits allows those with money to obtain above and beyond their needs while those without cannot get the fundamentals of life. The result is a growing polarization of global agriculture, between a small number of haves and an ever-increasing number of have-nots. In Hungry for Change, Haroon Akram-Lodhi explains how capitalism was introduced into farming and how it transformed the terms and conditions by which farmers produce food. Written in accessible language and incorporating accounts from farmers and agricultural workers, this book explains how the creation, structure and operation of the capitalist world food system is marginalizing family farmers, small-scale peasant farmers and landless rural workers as it entrenches us all in a global subsistence crisis. Building upon the idea of food sovereignty, Akram-Lodhi develops a set of additional solutions to resolve the current crisis of the world food system”.
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  • Fantu, C. and R. Modi, Agricultural Development and Food Security in Africa: the Impact of Chinese, Indian and Brazilian Investments, London, Zed Books, 2013.

    Fantu, C. and R. Modi, Agricultural Development and Food Security in Africa: the Impact of Chinese, Indian and Brazilian Investments, London, Zed Books, 2013.

    The subject of food security and land issues in Africa has become one of increased importance and contention over recent years. In particular, the focus has shifted to the role new Global South donors – in particular India, China and Brazil – are playing in shaping African agriculture through their increased involvement and investment in the continent. Approaching the topic through the framework of South-South co-operation (SSC), this highly original volume presents a critical analysis of the ways in which Chinese, Indian and Brazilian engagements in African agriculture are structured and implemented. Do these investments have the potential to create new opportunities to improve local living standards, transfer new technology and know-how to African producers, and reverse the persistent productivity decline in African agriculture? Or will they simply aggravate the problem of food insecurity by accelerating the process of land alienation and displacement of local people from their land? Topical and comprehensive, Agricultural Development and Food Security in Africa offers fresh insight into a set of relationships that will shape both Africa and the world over the coming decades.

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  • Kugelman, M. and S.L. Levenstein (eds.), The Global Farms Race: Land Grabs, Agricultural Investment, and the Scramble for Food Security, Washington, DC, Island Press, 2013.

    Kugelman, M. and S.L. Levenstein (eds.), The Global Farms Race: Land Grabs, Agricultural Investment, and the Scramble for Food Security, Washington, DC, Island Press, 2013.
    As we struggle to feed a global population speeding toward 9 billion, we have entered a new phase of the food crisis. Wealthy countries that import much of their food, along with private investors, are racing to buy or lease huge swaths of farmland abroad. The Global Farms Race is the first book to examine this burgeoning trend in all its complexity, considering the implications for investors, host countries, and the world as a whole. The debate over large-scale land acquisition is typically polarized, with critics lambasting it as a form of “neocolonialism,” and proponents lauding it as an elixir for the poor yields, inefficient technology, and unemployment plaguing global agriculture. The Global Farms Race instead offers diverse perspectives, featuring contributions from agricultural investment consultants, farmers’ organizations, international NGOs, and academics. The book addresses historical context, environmental impacts, and social effects, and covers all the major geographic areas of investment.  Nearly 230 million hectares of farmland—an area equivalent to the size of Western Europe—have been sold or leased since 2001, with most of these transactions occurring since 2008. As the deals continue to increase, it is imperative for anyone concerned with food security to understand them and their consequences. The Global Farms Race is a critical resource to develop that understanding.
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  • Guneratne, C., Genetic Resources, Equity and International Law, Chelthenham, Elgar, 2012.

    Guneratne, C., Genetic Resources, Equity and International Law, Chelthenham, Elgar, 2012.

    This book examines current developments in international law which regulate the uses of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, and the various property regimes which are applied to these resources by these international agreements. In the current context of the global food crisis, the development and stability of national agricultural systems is an urgent concern, particularly among developing countries. This stability, and national food security, will potentially be threatened if these countries are unable to have free access to agricultural crop plants. This book analyses a range of international agreements including the recently adopted Nagoya Protocol and demonstrates that in their current implementation they favour private ownership of these resources rather than free access. The book takes the position that this is inherently inequitable and these resources should be maintained in the public domain. This book will be of use to a wide range of readers from students and scholars to those working in the fields of trade and intellectual property, human rights, environmental conservation and advocacy on international issues. It contains a rigorous legal analysis of current international law development on the issue based on the negotiations which have taken place in the relevant forums, and will therefore be particularly useful to lawyers and legal scholars. It is also written in an uncomplicated style which makes it readily accessible to non-lawyers and the case studies and empirical data used throughout the book adds to its interest.

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  • Özerdem, A. and R. Roberts, Challenging Post-Conflict Environments: Sustainable Agriculture, Farnham, Ashgate, 2012.

    Özerdem, A. and R. Roberts, Challenging Post-Conflict Environments: Sustainable Agriculture, Farnham, Ashgate, 2012.

    Crossing disciplinary boundaries, this volume by Özerdem and Roberts conceptualizes the challenges of developing sustainable agriculture in post-conflict environments as well as identifying the policies and practical solutions to achieve sustainable agricultural production which is central to the survival of humanity. Without sustainable agriculture, populations remain vulnerable increasing the likelihood of a return to conflict. Therefore, sustainable agriculture is central to effective post-conflict recovery that provides human security as well as stability and rule of law. Unique in combining a comprehensive and comparative understanding of sustainable agriculture challenges in post-conflict environments, there is originality in the interdisciplinary nature of the book. Interdisciplinary often means bringing together a political scientist and a sociologist, but in this case it means bringing together natural and social scientists, as well as those with practical experience in development and agricultural contexts. By adopting a holistic multi-disciplinary approach which identifies key themes and case studies, this book sets the scene for the debate surrounding sustainable agriculture in post-conflict environments. Seeing ‘fixing’ agriculture as more than merely a technical matter, the volume focuses on this critical post-conflict challenge with social, political and cultural characteristics and consequences as well as the obvious economic ones.

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  • Adam, É., Droit International de l'Agriculture: Sécuriser le Commerce des Produits Agricoles, Paris, L.G.D.J., 2012.

    Adam, É., Droit International de l'Agriculture: Sécuriser le Commerce des Produits Agricoles, Paris, L.G.D.J., 2012.

    La question agricole est redevenue un enjeu géopolitique qui risque de s’avérer de plus en plus complexe compte tenu des défis démographiques, écologiques et socio-économiques du XXIe siècle. Ces nouveaux enjeux nécessitent de replacer l’agriculture au coeur de l’agenda international et d’engager une réflexion approfondie sur l’encadrement juridique des relations agricoles internationales. C’est l’objet de cet ouvrage qui expose et analyse, pour la première fois, le droit international de l’agriculture. Les crises alimentaires de 2008 et 2011 ont mis en lumière les dangers des embargos économiques dans la vie internationale. Cette question sera demain au centre de nos préoccupations et le droit devra fournir des instruments pour améliorer la gouvernance mondiale de l’agriculture afin d’organiser et sécuriser le commerce des produits agricoles. En tenant compte des considérations sociales et environnementales de l’agriculture, un accord international devrait reposer sur l’interdépendance économique des États : en échange d’une meilleure organisation du commerce des produits agricoles, les pays producteurs pourraient s’engager à garantir la sécurité des approvisionnements vis-à-vis des pays consommateurs.

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  • Santilli, J. , Agrobiodiversity and the Law: Regulating Genetic Resources, Food Security and Cultural Diversity, Abingdon, Earthscan, 2012

    Santilli, J. , Agrobiodiversity and the Law: Regulating Genetic Resources, Food Security and Cultural Diversity, Abingdon, Earthscan, 2012

    A wide range of crop genetic resources is vital for future food security. Loss of agricultural biodiversity increases the risk of relying on a limited number of staple food crops. However, many laws, such as seed laws, plant varieties protection and access and benefit-sharing laws, have direct impacts on agrobiodiversity, and their effects have been severely underestimated by policy-makers. This is of concern not only to lawyers, but also to agronomists, biologists, and social scientists, all of whom need clear guidance as to the relevance of the law to their work. This book analyzes the impact of the legal system on agrobiodiversity (or agricultural biodiversity) – the diversity of agricultural species, varieties, and ecosystems. Using an interdisciplinary approach, it takes up the emerging concept of agrobiodiversity and its relationship with food security, nutrition, health, environmental sustainability, and climate change. It assesses the impacts on agrobiodiversity of key legal instruments, including seeds laws, the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, plant breeders’ rights, the Convention on Biological Diversity (regarding specifically its impact on agrobiodiversity), and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. It also reviews the options for the implementation of these instruments at the national level in several countries. It discusses the interfaces between the free software movement, the ‘commons’ movement, and seeds, as well as the legal instruments to protect cultural heritage and their application to safeguard agrobiodiversity-rich systems. Finally, it analyzes the role of protected areas and the possibility of using geographical indications to enhance the value of agrobiodiversity products and processes.

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  • Costato, L. (ed.), European Food Law, Padova, Cedam, 2012.

    Costato, L. (ed.), European Food Law, Padova, Cedam, 2012.

    La realizzazione del volume European Food Law in lingua inglese nasce da considerazioni specifiche all’area disciplinare del diritto alimentare, in cui sono sempre più evidenti le dimensioni europea ed internazionale (e dove la Food Law suscita largo interesse – secondo quanto già sperimentato negli ultimi anni con la crescita dei corsi dedicati a tale tema), come più generali, in ragione dell’attivazione in numerose università di corsi di laurea, o comunque di insegnamenti, impartiti in lingua inglese. Su un piano più generale, va sottolineato che da ultimo – come è noto – la riforma universitaria (L. 240 del 30.12.2010, c.d. “Legge Gelmini”) ha espressamente privilegiato, anche ai fini della valutazione dei diversi Atenei: “il rafforzamento dell’internazionalizzazione”. Il volume dovrebbe pertanto incontrare l’interesse di un significativo numero di lettori, non soltanto nelle università, ma anche nell’ambito delle attività di formazione della Pubblica Amministrazione e delle imprese alimentari, sempre più sensibili ai temi del commercio internazionale e dunque interessate a conoscere la strumentazione giuridica europea ed internazionale nella lingua inglese comunemente utilizzata in tale commercio. La struttura del volume è quella del manuale, ed adotta un modello redazionale snello limitando le note ai soli riferimenti normativi e giurisprudenziali, ma non si limita ad un approccio descrittivo e dà conto del dibattito in essere sulle diverse questioni. I ventisei capitoli in cui si articola il volume (redatti da professori ordinari, associati e ricercatori nella materia) compongono una ricostruzione completa del sistema di diritto alimentare europeo, dall’individuazione dei principi generali sino all’analisi dei singoli istituti, dalla tutela del consumatore alle norme di etichettatura, ai prodotti biologici ed a tutti gli altri istituti propri della materia. Gli ultimi due capitoli sono dedicati ai vini di qualità ed all’olio di oliva, quali produzioni tipiche del mercato italiano, che costituiscono casi esemplari di integrazione fra normative di fonte europea e normative nazionali. Gli indici analitici della legislazione e della giurisprudenza, ed una compiuta bibliografia completano il volume.

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  • Ferrari, M. and U. Izzo, Diritto Alimentare Comparato: Regole del Cibo e Ruolo Della Tecnologia, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2012.

    Ferrari, M. and U. Izzo, Diritto Alimentare Comparato: Regole del Cibo e Ruolo Della Tecnologia, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2012.

    Il volume illustra la regolamentazione giuridica delle attività legate alla produzione e al consumo di alimenti e bevande. È messo in luce in particolare il ruolo svolto dalla tecnologia nel rendere necessaria l’innovazione del diritto alimentare, a livello sia locale sia globale, per garantire il difficile equilibrio fra dinamiche di mercato, tutela della salute umana ed animale, sostenibilità ambientale, libertà individuale e valori socio-culturali.

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  • McMahon, J.A. and M.G. Desta (eds.), Research Handbook on the WTO Agriculture Agreement, Cheltenham, Elgar, 2012.

    McMahon, J.A. and M.G. Desta (eds.), Research Handbook on the WTO Agriculture Agreement, Cheltenham, Elgar, 2012.
    Agriculture has been the unruly horse of the GATT/WTO system for a long time and efforts to halter it are still ongoing. This Research Handbook focuses on aspects of agricultural production and trade policy that are recognized for their importance but are often kept out of the limelight, such as the implication of national and international agricultural production and trade policies on national food security, global climate change, and biotechnology. It provides a summary of the state of the WTO agriculture negotiations as well as the relevant jurisprudence, but also, and uniquely, it focuses on the new and emerging issues of agricultural trade law and policy that are rarely addressed in the existing literature.
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  • Gibson, M. The Feeding of Nations: Redefining Food Security for the 21st Century, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 2012.

    Gibson, M. The Feeding of Nations: Redefining Food Security for the 21st Century, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 2012.

    In the last decade, the world has grown richer and produced more food than ever before. Yet in that same period, hunger has increased and 925 million remain underfed and malnourished. Exploring this troubling paradox, The Feeding of Nations: Re-Defining Food Security for the 21st Century offers a glimpse into how the simple aspiration of global food security has evolved and unfolded—with sometimes contradictory and counterproductive policies, agendas, and ideologies. Providing a holistic analysis of the issues surrounding food security, this volume engages in a cross-disciplinary approach that makes the subject accessible to readers and academically rigorous in delivery. 

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  • Faurès, J.M. (et al.) (eds.), Coping with Water Scarcity: An Action Framework for Agriculture and Food Security, Rome, FAO, 2012.

    Faurès, J.M. (et al.) (eds.), Coping with Water Scarcity: An Action Framework for Agriculture and Food Security, Rome, FAO, 2012.This report aims to provide a conceptual framework to address food security under conditions of water scarcity in agriculture. The purpose of this report is twofold. First, to define a water accounting framework that allows water scarcity to be interpreted objectively. Second, to indicate where and how agricultural water management can play a more proactive and effective role in response to increasing concerns over global freshwater scarcity. The document offers views on the conceptual framework on which FAO's water scarcity programme should be based, proposes a set of definitions associated with the concept of water scarcity, and indicates the main principles on which FAO should base its action in support to its member countries
Geographical coverage: Asia, Global, Oceania, Australia, India
Main themes: Accounting, Agriculture, Auditing, Food security, Virtual water, Water availability, Water demand, Water management, Water policy, Water scarcity
Main target audience: Agriculture sector, Policy makers, Stakeholders, Water managers
Main purpose: Advocacy, Guidance
Type of resource: Background document, Recommendations

    This report aims to provide a conceptual framework to address food security under conditions of water scarcity in agriculture. The purpose of this report is twofold. First, to define a water accounting framework that allows water scarcity to be interpreted objectively. Second, to indicate where and how agricultural water management can play a more proactive and effective role in response to increasing concerns over global freshwater scarcity. The document offers views on the conceptual framework on which FAO’s water scarcity programme should be based, proposes a set of definitions associated with the concept of water scarcity, and indicates the main principles on which FAO should base its action in support to its member countries.

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  • Bees under Bombardment : Time for Plan Bee

    Current scientific evidence demonstrates that a sixth major extinction of biological diversity event is underway. The Earth is losing between one and ten percent of biodiversity per decade, mostly due to habitat loss, pest invasion, pollution, climate change, over-harvesting and disease. Certain natural ecosystem services, which are vital for human societies, are under stress.

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