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Law of the Sea
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Montego Bay, 10 December 1982), UNCLOS, is intended to govern the use of oceans for fishing, shipping, exploration, navigating and mining. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea is the most comprehensive treaty in public international law and covers a range of Law of the Sea topics, such as delimitation of maritime boundaries, maritime zones, marine environment protection, marine scientific research, piracy and many more. Part XI UNCLOS on the legal regime on deep seabed mining used to be a main obstacle for ratification by Western states and blocked the entry into force of the UNCLOS as a whole. After more specific regulations in the 1994 Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of UNCLOS about the commercial exploitation of the deep seabed, more countries were willing to ratify and UNCLOS entered into force in 1994. Although the United States now recognizes the UNCLOS as a codification of customary international law, the US has not yet ratified it.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on the Law of the Sea. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 96. Law of the Sea and subject headings (keywords) Law of the Sea and UN Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Dupuy, R.-J. and D.A. Vignes, Handbook on the New Law of the Sea, Dordrecht, Nijhoff, 1991.
- Kwiatkowska, B., Decisions of the World Court relevant to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Reference Guide, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2010.
- Lowe, V. and S. Talmon, (eds.), The Legal Order of the Oceans: Basic Documents on the Law of the Sea, Oxford, Hart, 2009.
- Nordquist, M.H. (ed.), United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982: A Commentary, Dordrecht, Nijhoff, 1985-2011.
- Oda, S. Fifty Years of the Law of the Sea: With a Special Section on the International Court of Justice: Selected Writings of Shigeru Oda, Judge of the International Court of Justice, Dordrecht, Nijhoff, 1993.
- Anderson, D., Modern Law of the Sea : Selected Essays, Leiden etc. : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1983.
- Churchill, R.R. and A.R. Lowe,, The Law of the Sea, Yonkers, NY : Juris Publishing, 1999.
- Dupuy, R.-J. and D. Vignes, A Handbook on the New Law of the Sea, Dordrecht etc. : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1991.
- Freestone, D., R. Barnes and D.M. Ong, The Law of the Sea : Progress and Prospects, Oxford etc. : Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Harrison, J., Making the Law of the Sea : a Study in the Development of International Law, Cambridge etc. : Cambridge University Press, 2011.
- Kolodkin, A.L., V.N. Gutsuliak and I.V. Bobrova, The World Ocean : International Legal Regime, The Hague : Eleven International Publishing, 2010.
- Lowe,V. and S. Talmon, The Legal Order of the Oceans : Basic Documents on Law of the Sea, Oxford etc. : Hart, 2009.
- McDorman, T.L. (et al.), International Ocean Law : Materials and Commentaries, Durham, NC : Carolina Academic Press, 2005.
- Morell, James B., Law of the Sea : an Historical Analysis of the 1982 Treaty and its Rejection by the United States, Jefferson, NC, McFarland, 2013
- Nordquist, N.H., United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 : a Commentary, Dordrecht etc. : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985.
- Oda, S., Fifty Years of the Law of the Sea : with a Special Section on the International Court of Justice, The Hague etc. : Kluwer Law International, 2003.
- Sohn, L.B. and J.E. Noyes, Cases and Materials on the Law of the Sea, Ardsley, NY : Transnational, 2004.
- Symmons, C.R., Historic Waters in the Law of the Sea : a Modern Re-Appraisal, Leiden etc. : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008.
- Vincent, P., Droit de la mer, Bruxelles : Larcier, 2008.
- Vitzthum, W. und G. Hafner, Handbuch des Seerechts, München : Beck, 2006.
- Henriksen, T. and G. Ulfstein, “Maritime Delimitation in the Arctic : the Barents Sea Treaty”, Ocean Development and International Law, 42 (2011), No. 1, pp. 1-21.
- Linkevičius, J., “International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea: The Limits of Compulsory Jurisdiction”, Baltic Yearbook of International Law, 11 (2012), pp. 153-172.
- Lowe, V. and A. Tzanakopoulos, “The Development of the Law of the Sea by the International Court of Justice”, in: C. J. Tams and J. Sloan (eds.), The Development of International Law by the International Court of Justice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 177-193.
- Magnússon, B.M., “Is there a Temporal Relationship Between the Delineation and the Delimitation of the Continental Shelf Beyond 200 Nautical Miles?” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, 28 (2013), No. 2, pp. 465-483.
- Oral, N., ”Implementing Part XII of the 1982 UN Law of the Sea Convention and the Role of International Courts”, in N. Boschiero [et al.](eds.) International Courts and the Development of International Law : Essays in Honour of Tullio Treves, The Hague, Asser Press, pp. 403-423.
- Plakokefalos, I., “Shared Responsibility Aspects of the Dispute Settlement Procedures in the Law of the Sea Convention”, Journal of International Dispute Settlement, 4 (2013), No.2, pp. 385-405.
- Ros, N., “El Derecho jurisprudencial de la delimitación marítima”, Revista española de derecho internacional, 65 (2013), No. 2, pp. 71-115.
- Rothwell, D.R. (ed.), Law of the Sea (Collection of Articles), Northampton, MA, Edward Elgar Publications, 2013.
- Song, Yann-huei, “Survey of Declarations or Statements made by the Parties to the Law of the Sea Convention: 30 Years after Adoption”, International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, 28 (2013), No. 1, pp. 5-59.
- Tanaka, Y., ”Obligations and Liability of Sponsoring States Concerning Activities in the Area : Reflections on the ITLOS Advisory Opinion of 1 February 2011″, Netherlands International Law Review, 60 (2013), No. 2, pp. 205-230.
- Vidas, D., ”Consolidation or Deviation? : on Trends and Challenges in the Settlement of Maritime Delimitation Disputes by International Courts and Tribunals”, in N. Boschiero [et al.](eds.) International Courts and the Development of International Law : Essays in Honour of Tullio Treves, The Hague, Asser Press, pp. 325-334.
- Tofan, C. (ed.), The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Collection : Basic Documents, Oisterwijk, International Courts Association, 2011.
- The Law of the Sea : Official Texts of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 and of the Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 : with Index and Excerpts from the Final Act of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, New York, NY : United Nations, 1997
- United Nations Law of the Sea Convention (Montego Bay, 10 December 1982), UNCLOS
- UNCLOS III and 1994 Implementation agreement Part XI, UNCLOS
Periodicals, serial publications
- Annuaire de droit maritime et oceanique
- Center for Oceans Law and Policy Publications, The Hague, Nijhoff
- Law of the Sea Bulletin
- New Directions in the Law of the Sea : Regional & National Development
- Ocean and Coastal Law Journal
- Ocean Development and International Law
- Ocean Yearbook
- Publications on Ocean Development
- Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders (ITLOS)
- Studies in International Law of the Sea and Maritime Law / International Seerecht und Seehandelsrecht
- Yearbook (ITLOS)
- Jenisch, U. (et al.), Bibliography of German Publications on the International and Public Law of the Sea, 1982-2007, Baden-Baden : Nomos, 2008
- Papadakis, N., International Law of the Sea : a Bibliography, Alphen aan den Rĳn etc. : Sĳthoff & Noordhoff, 1980
- The Law of the Sea : a Select Bibliography, 2008, New York, NY : United Nations, 2008
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These publications are selected for you by Raymond Ridderhof.
Kraska, J. and R. Pedrozo, International Maritime Security Law, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013. Showcase itemView this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book defines an emerging interdisciplinary field of law and policy comprised of norms, legal regimes, and rules to address today’s hybrid threats to the global order of the oceans. Worldwide shipping commerce, fishing fleets, pleasure craft, and coastal states are exposed to the menace of offshore terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, piracy, smuggling, robbery, marine insurgency and anti-access threats. Land-based institutions and maritime constabulary forces operate within an increasingly integrated network that blends elements of humanitarian law, human rights law, criminal law, and law of the sea, with inspection regimes, commercial enterprise, and marine safety and environmental stewardship.
Harrison, J., Making the Law of the Sea: a Study in the Development of International Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014. Showcase itemView this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Making the Law of the Sea examines how various international organisations have contributed to the development of this law and what kinds of instruments and law-making techniques have been used. Each chapter considers a different international institution – including the International Maritime Organization and the United Nations – and analyses its functions and powers. Important questions are posed about the law-making process, including what actors are involved and what procedures are followed. Potential problems for the development of the law of the sea are considered and solutions are proposed. In particular, James Harrison explores and evaluates the current methods employed by international institutions to coordinate their law-making activities in order to overcome fragmentation of the law-making process.
Yamamoto, L. and Esteban, M., Atoll Island States and International Law: Climate Change Displacement and Sovereignty, Berlin, Springer, 2014. Showcase itemView this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Atoll Island States exist on top of what is perceived to be one of the planet’s most vulnerable ecosystems: atolls. It has been predicted that an increase in the pace of sea level rise brought about by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere will cause them to disappear, forcing their inhabitants to migrate. The present book represents a multidisciplinary legal and engineering perspective on this problem, challenging some common misconceptions regarding atolls and their vulnerability to sea-level rise. Coral islands have survived past changes in sea levels, and it is the survival of coral reefs what will be crucial for their continued existence. These islands are important for their inhabitants as they represent not only their ancestral agricultural lands and heritage, but also a source of revenue through the exploitation of the maritime areas associated with them.
Scheiber, H.N. and J.-H. Paik (eds.), Regions, Institutions, and Law of the Sea: Studies in Ocean Governance, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book offers fresh perspectives both on issues specific to major ocean regions, and on the nature and functions of institutions that implement the legal order of the oceans. Of special interest is a set of chapters by distinguished scholars and jurists providing nuanced analysis of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea as a key actor in the institutional and regime structure. Other expert authors contribute timely analysis of specific ocean uses in the context of implementation of “soft” and “hard” law. Piracy, global warming and ecosystem challenges, geo-engineering, control of pollution in shipping operations, Seabed Authority policy, and performance of the UN Regional Seas Programme are among key issues presented in both their regional and legal dimensions.
Molenaar, E.J., A.G. Oude Elferink and D.R. Rothwell (eds.), The Law of the Sea and the Polar Regions: Interactions between Global and Regional Regimes, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book analyzes of the contemporary law of the sea and related areas of international law in Antarctica and the Arctic, with a particular focus upon the interaction of global and regional regimes. The global component of the international law of the sea – principally the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea – applies to the entire marine domain in both polar regions but explicitly requires regional implementation or acknowledges its usefulness. This volume critically examines regional regimes for the Arctic and Antarctic on science, maritime security, fisheries and shipping by means of common research questions; thus enabling an overall synthesis and identification of trends, differences and similarities.
Lischka, E.M., Völkerrechtliches und nationales Schifffahrtsrecht, Frankfurt am Main, Lang, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Die Arbeit analysiert die Rechte und Pflichten der Schifffahrt in den verschiedenen Seezonen. Dürfen alle Schiffe (auch Kriegs- und Staatsschiffe) die einzelnen Seezonen durchfahren oder gelten bestimmte Rechte nur für Handelsschiffe? Welche Vorschriften haben die Schiffe in den einzelnen Seezonen zu beachten und welche Probleme tauchen in der Praxis regelmäßig auf? Ferner werden aktuelle Probleme, wie die massive Ausweitung der Piraterie und die stetige Zunahme der Ausflaggung von Handelsschiffen in sogenannte «offene Register» zum Zwecke der Kostenersparnis besprochen und Lösungsansätze hierzu aufgezeigt. Die Themen werden in völkerrechtlicher Hinsicht an Hand des Seerechtsübereinkommens durchleuchtet sowie deren Umsetzung in das deutsche Recht herausgearbeitet.
Nordquist, M.H. (et al.) (eds.), The Law of the Sea Convention: US Accession and Globalization, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The Law of the Sea Convention: US Accession and Globalization, provides valuable insight into a number of contemporary and pressing issues concerning the world’s oceans and their management. (….) Brought together on the occasion of the 34th Annual Conference of the Center for Oceans Law and Policy, University of Virginia School of Law (COLP), panels considered the impact of the lack of US participation in UNCLOS, evaluating topics such as energy and economic development, including the undersea cable industry, as well as ramifications for U.S. national security and navigational rights.
Tanaka, Y., The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The law of the sea is a complex and fascinating subject. This textbook explores the subject from the perspective of public international law, covering all the key topics from the legal regimes governing the different jurisdictional zones, to international co-operation for protection of the marine environment. Students interested in international environmental and natural resources law will find chapters on emerging issues such as the conservation and the protection of natural resources and biodiversity in the oceans. It includes student-friendly features such as chapter overviews, conclusions, figures and tables and further reading sections. Clarity of expression, engaging analysis and comprehensive coverage make this book essential reading for all students of the law of the sea.
Karaman, I.V., Dispute Resolution in the Law of the Sea, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has been frequently referred to as the ‘constitution for the oceans’ and as one of the most important events in the history of modern international law. A detailed dispute settlement system represents a significant achievement of the Convention, an aspect on which Dispute Resolution in the Law of the Sea focuses. The book aims at examining the resolution of disputes which have emerged since the Convention’s entry into force and at analyzing the role of compulsory procedures entailing binding decisions through the prism of general international law and jurisprudence.
Coutansais, C.P., Géopolitique des océans: l'Eldorado maritime, Paris, Ellipses, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Longtemps cantonnée à des activités immémoriales, l’exploitation des océans se trouve à un tournant : ressources en hydrocarbures, minérales ou génétiques s’ajoutent à des porte-conteneurs devenus le soubassement de la globalisation pour faire de la mer un nouvel Eldorado. Celui-ci participe de l’expansion de criminalités transnationales qui connaissent, du narcotrafic à la traite d’être humains en passant par la piraterie, une expansion continue, à l’inverse de mouvements terroristes qui ne parviennent pas à s’adapter à ce milieu. Si, dans ce nouveau cadre, l’US Navy demeure incontestée, des ambitions chinoises, indiennes se font jour, à l’inverse des Nations européennes qui peinent à conserver leur rang. Les enjeux ne sont pourtant pas minces : du contrôle des routes maritimes stratégiques aux espaces donnant accès à ces nouvelles richesses, l’avenir une fois encore se jouera en mer.
- ASIL Electronic research guide Law of the Sea
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Conferences on the Law of the Sea, by Shabtai Rosenne and Julia Gebhard
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, High Seas, by Tullio Treves
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, History of the Law of the Sea, by Andree Kirchner
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Sea Lanes, by Donald R. Rothwell
- Nijhoff, International Maritime Boundaries Online
- UNCLOS III Research Guide
Arctic Sovereignty: Icy Roads to the North Pole
Canada, the US, Norway, Russia, and Denmark have been gathering scientific evidence for more than a decade in an effort to increase their continental shelf claims in the Arctic Ocean Region.The potential delimitation dispute between Canada, Russia and Denmark seems to focus on the Lomonosov Ridge. The North Pole is located about 400 nautical miles from the northernmost island of Canada, Denmark, Norway and the Russian Federation. Under international law coastal state rights over the water columns are limited to the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone, using the state’s territorial sea baselines as starting point.Read more
Tuvalu, Quo Vadis?
Climate change damage in the South Pacific is a problem for all small island developing states, including Tuvalu. These island states may become uninhabitable within the foreseeable future. What about the maritime boundaries and maritime claims of the former (Tuvalu) sea territory, which options do Tuvaluans have here? Does a disappearing Tuvalu have international repercussions? Tuvalu (formerly the Ellice Islands) comprises a cluster of nine islands, plus islets, located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean just south of the Equator. These remote atolls are situated about 1,050 km (650 mi) n of Suva, Fiji, and 4,000 km (2,500 mi) of Sydney, Australia. Tuvalu has a coastline of 24 km (15 mi). As a rather small archipel Tuvale possesses considerable maritime claims on fishing grounds and natural resources in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and continental shelf.Read more
Unresolved Territorial Disputes: The Tunbs and Abu Musa in the Gulf
Last week, the Foreign Minister of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed, renewed his country’s demand for the restoration of sovereignty over three islands in the Persian Gulf region. Responding to the statement by the UAE, Iran’s representative reiterated his country’s full sovereignty over the islands and categorically rejected any claims to the contrary. The legal dispute about ownership and sovereignty of the three islands is based on rival historical claims by both sides.Read more
Senkaku or Diaoyu(tai) Islands?
The Senkaku/Diaoyu dispute has been close to the boil for months. The Japanese prime minister, Yoshihiko Noda, took the decision to buy the islands to head off a more destabilising but popular proposal not only to acquire them but also to begin their active development.Read more
Criminal Acts at Sea: research topic of the 2012 Programme of the Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations
On Monday 20 August 2012 the Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations of the The Hague Academy of International Law will start. The Research Programme of this year is concerned with criminal acts at sea. Together with the two Directors of Studies of the research programme for 2012, Dr. Kimberley N. TRAPP (Lecturer at Newnham College, University of Cambridge) for the French-speaking section and Dr. Efthymios PAPASTAVRIDIS (Lecturer at University of Thrace and Research Fellow at Academy of Athens) for the English-speaking section, the participants will concern themselves with the various aspects of law which are related to criminal acts at sea.Read more
Hans Island : Crisis in the Arctic?
Compared with other regions on the planet, the Arctic is warming faster. More of the Arctic is free of ice for longer periods. The possibilities for exploitation of natural resources and for control over Northern shipping lanes have prompted countries’ renewed interest in their competing claims to the region. Recently, Denmark (for Greenland) and Canada have clashed over their claims to a small, barren rock known as Hans Island.Read more
Pirates, Buccaneers and Privateers : Concepts of International Law
Establishing an authoritative definition of “piracy” in international law has always been rather problematic. The definition is relevant, because any confusion in terminology invariably leads to debates between State sovereignty and universal jurisdiction over crimes at sea. The various international law meanings of piracy are derived from, among others, international treaties, and various municipal law meanings are defined by statutes and State practice.Read more
Plastic Soup – What Legal Response to Marine Debris Pollution ?
Solving the problem of marine debris and plastic pollution in the World’s oceans is a very complex and challenging enterprise. In particular, its legal framework. Various international and regional instruments, domestic and local laws and regulations apply directly or indirectly to marine debris pollution. The conspicuously global nature of this problem indicates that a potential role of significance is reserved for international environmental law. However, not all international and regional instruments are legally binding, and not all have a strong focus on marine debris and plastic pollution.Read more
Grotius in Slovenia
Grotius’ theory on the Freedom of the Sea might help Slovenia in the dispute with Croatia over a small bay in the Adriatic. Since their independence from Yuogoslavia in 1991 they quarrel over the territorial sea delimitation in the Bay of Piran. Croatia claims that the border should be drawn in the middle of the bay, which would deny Slovenian ships direct access to the high sea…Read more
Norway and Russian Federation sign maritime delimitation agreement
In Murmansk on Wednesday 15th September 2010 Norway and the Russian Federation signed a treaty concerning the maritime delimitation and cooperation in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The disputed territory covered 175,000 square km (67,600 sq miles), an area mainly in the Barents Sea between proven petroleum reserves on the Russian and Norwegian sides.Read more
Announcement lecture 'The law of the sea'
On monday, June 21 2010, prof. mr. A.H.A. Soons (Utrecht university) will give a lecture on the ‘Law of the Sea‘. The topics will be international maritime law in general and specific issues like piracy, overfishing and Japanese whaling. Professor Soons will also speak on disputes that states had to claim marine areas. The lecture [...]Read more
The Falkland Islands Conflict
Tensions between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands came to a boiling point when the UK announced plans to begin offshore oil drilling near the remote islands in February 2010. This blog will briefly discuss this complicated dispute as well as the actions taken by both parties in the United Nations General Assembly.Read more
Mare Liberum 1609-2009
Celebration of the 400th anniversary of Grotius’ famous book “Mare Liberum”.Read more
Highlight was the presentation of the first copy of a new English translation of Mare Liberum “ Hugo Grotius Mare liberum 1609-2009. Original Latin and English Translation”. Edited and annotated by Robert Feenstra, General Introduction by Jeroen Vervliet. Leiden : Brill 2009. ISBN 9789004177017.
Innocent passage in the territorial sea
The concept of passage is defined in article 18 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Montego Bay, 1982) as ‘continious and expeditious’ navigation through the territorial sea from and to any other sea zone. The passage, to be characterised as innocent, must not be prejudicial to the peace, good order and security of the coastal state (article 19 UNCLOS III).
Article 30 UNCLOS III states that ‘If any warship does not comply with the laws and regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea and disregards any request for compliance therewith which is made to it, the coastal State may require it to leave the territorial sea immediately.’Read more
Hugo Grotius’ Mare Liberum 1609-2009
The Hague celebrates the 400th anniversary of the publication of Hugo Grotius’ Mare Liberum (Leiden, Publishing House of Elsevier) with an extensive program of activities. It commemmorates the fact that Grotius wrote his book in The Hague with exhibitions, theater/musical plays, films, publications and lectures in museums and libraries.Read more
Maritime Cultural Property and Treasure Hunting
Archaeological sites in international waters are numerous and still largely untouched. With the development of sophisticated technology for the search and recovery of shipwrecks on the ocean floor, however, issues of ownership, preservation, and cultural property rights have achieved increasing prominance. In particular, after the discovery of RMS Titanic in 1985 the debate among marine archaeologists, cultural rights proponents and commercial salvage companies about treasure hunting in international waters has intensified.Read more
32nd Telders International Law Moot Court Competition (16-18 April 2009)
The Mare Liberum Case Case concerning sovereignty over Abundantia Ridge and other matters. Rosmarus v Urusus.
From 16 – 18 April 2009 the 32nd Telders International Law Moot Court Competition will be held at the Peace Palace in The Hague. The Telders Moot Court Competition could be considered the most prestigious and important [...]Read more
Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v. Ukraine)
On Tuesday 3 February 2009 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) rendered its Judgment in the case concerning Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v. Ukraine). A public sitting took place at 10 a.m. at the Peace Palace in The Hague, during which the President of the Court, Judge Rosalyn Higgins, read the Court’s Judgment.Read more
- International Seabed Authority (ISA)
- International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)
- United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea
- United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law, Lecture Series on Law of the Sea
- International Law of the Sea (Gallagher Law Library, University of Washington)
- Chronological Lists of Ratifications of Ratifications of, Accessions and Successions to the Convention and the Related Agreements
- United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law - Lecture Series
- The American Society of International Law
- ASIL - LOS Reports
- Map Maritime Boundaries Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
- Research guide Law of the Sea Peace Palace Library
- Offical website of the Fridtjof Nansen Institute
- UN-Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS)
- INDEMER, Institut du droit Économique de la mer, Monaco
- International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
- The De-escalation of the Spratly Dispute in Sino-Southeast Asian Relations [PDF]
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Hashtag for this research guide: #rgsea