International Peace and Security

Introduction

International Peace and Security - Research Guide International Law

Nowadays many international or regional organizations are involved in peacemaking, peace-enforcing and peacekeeping activities: United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, African Union, European Union, etc. In fact, they send multinational forces to the various conflict areas. While the expression ‘collective security’ does not occur in the United Nations Charter, it is often used to refer to the system for the maintenance of international peace and security under the UN Charter and the corresponding provisions of regional organizations. According to the UN Charter the United Nations have the primary responsilibility ‘[t]o maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace…’ (Art. 1 (1) UN Charter). If it determines, in accordance with Art. 39 UN Charter, the existence of a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, the UN Security Council may make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken by members of the UN to maintain or restore international peace and security.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research in the field of International Peace and Security. It provides the basic materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index codes 41. International police and  179. International Peace and Security and subject heading (keyword) International Peace and Security are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

Bibliography

Reference works

Books

Leading articles

Documents

Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

New titles


1. Law and the politics of memory
Law and the politics of memory : confronting the past / Stiina Löytömäki. - Abingdon ; New York : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. - VIII, 162 pages. ; 24 cm A GlassHouse Book. - Based on author's doctoral thesis: "Committing the irreparable: law and dealing with past injustice", European University Institute, 2010. - Bibliography: page 133-150. - With notes and index. - 2014
Keywords: France, Algeria, European Union, World War II, Holocaust, International crimes, Transitional justice, Memory,

2. Securing Africa
Securing Africa : local crises and global interventions / edited by Toyin Falola, Charles Thomas. - New York ; London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. - VIII, 257 pages. ; 23 cm. - (Routledge African studies ; 12) Includes bibliographical references and an index. - 2014
Keywords: Africa, National security, Conflict management, International relations,

3. Arab approaches to conflict resolution
Arab approaches to conflict resolution : mediation, negotiation and settlement of political disputes / Nahla Hamdan, Frederic Pearson. - London [etc.] : Routledge, 2013. - XV, 315 p. : tab. ; 24 cm. - (Routledge studies in peace and conflict resolution) Met lit. opg. en index. - 2013
Keywords: Arab States, Conflict management, International relations, Government, Politics,

4. The security activities of external actors in Africa
The security activities of external actors in Africa / edited by Olawale Ismail and Elisabeth Sköns. - Oxford : SIPRI Oxford University Press, 2014. - XIV, 213 pages. : illustrations. ; 24 cm With notes and index. - 2014
Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, Regional security, International relations,

5. La seguridad colectiva en América Latina
La seguridad colectiva en América Latina / Ricardo Valero. - México : Universidad Nacional de México. - Page 359-391 In: Estado de derecho internacional / Manuel Becerra Ramírez, Nuria González Martín, Coordinadores, ISBN 9786070230370: (2012), Page 359-391. - 2012
Keywords: Latin America, Collective security,

6. El Estado de derecho internacional frente a las nuevas amenazas a la seguridad internacional
El Estado de derecho internacional frente a las nuevas amenazas a la seguridad internacional / Samantha Franco. - México : Universidad Nacional de México. - Page 393-416 In: Estado de derecho internacional / Manuel Becerra Ramírez, Nuria González Martín, Coordinadores, ISBN 9786070230370: (2012), Page 393-416. - 2012
Keywords: Constitutional state, International peace and security,

7. Introduction: the Changing Conception of African Security
Introduction: the Changing Conception of African Security / Charles Thomas. - New York ; London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 1-18 In: Securing Africa / edited by Toyin Falola, Charles Thomas, ISBN 9780415817677: (2014), Page 1-18. - 2014
Keywords: Africa, National security, Conflict management, International relations,

8. Africa and AFRICOM
Africa and AFRICOM : United States Security Interests in Africa / Chris Agoha. - New York ; London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 197-209 In: Securing Africa / edited by Toyin Falola, Charles Thomas, ISBN 9780415817677: (2014), Page 197-209. - 2014
Keywords: Africa, United States of America, Regional security, International relations,

9. The Legality of ECOWAS Intervention in Peace Support in Terms of the UN Charter
The Legality of ECOWAS Intervention in Peace Support in Terms of the UN Charter / Kevwe Omoragbon. - New York ; London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 210-228 In: Securing Africa / edited by Toyin Falola, Charles Thomas, ISBN 9780415817677: (2014), Page 210-228. - 2014
Keywords: West Africa, Economic Community of West African States, Charter of the United Nations (San Francisco, 26 June 1945), Conflict management, Peacekeeping, Legality,

10. Securing Peace in Burundi
Securing Peace in Burundi : External Interventions to End the Civil War, 1993-2006 / Josiah Marineau. - New York ; London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 229-248 In: Securing Africa / edited by Toyin Falola, Charles Thomas, ISBN 9780415817677: (2014), Page 229-248. - 2014
Keywords: Burundi, African Union, Civil wars, Conflict management, Peace process, Intervention,

11. NSA Management Directive #424
NSA Management Directive #424 : Secrecy and Privacy in the Aftermath of Edward Snowden / George R. Lucas In: Ethics and International Affairs = ISSN 0892-6794: vol. 28, issue 1, page 29-38. - 2014
Keywords: United States of America, Surveillance operations, Secrecy, Privacy, Electronic data, National security, Secret services, State secrets, Whistle-blowers, Cyberwarfare,

12. The Impact of Peace and Human Rights NGOs on Israeli Policy
The Impact of Peace and Human Rights NGOs on Israeli Policy / Galia Golan. - London ; New York, NY : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. - Page 28-41 In: Non-state Actors in the Middle East / edited by Galia Golan and Walid Salem, ISBN 9780415517041: (2014), Page 28-41. - 2014
Keywords: Israel, Non-governmental organizations, Peace movement, Government policy,

13. Natürliche Partnerschaft?
Natürliche Partnerschaft? : EU-UN-Zusammenarbeit in der Friedenssicherung in Afrika / Manuela Scheuermann In: Vereinte Nationen = ISSN 0042-384X: vol. 62, issue 3, page 99-105. - 2014
Keywords: Africa, European Union, Common foreign and security policy, United Nations, Intervention, Peacekeeping, International peace and security, International military forces,

14. Frankreichs Sonderrolle in Afrika
Frankreichs Sonderrolle in Afrika : die französische Afrika-Politik zwischen nationaler Tradition und internationaler Verantwortung / Dustin Dehez In: Vereinte Nationen = ISSN 0042-384X: vol. 62, issue 3, page 106-112. - 2014
Keywords: Africa, Central Africa, France, Mali, Intervention, Foreign policy, International peace and security, African Union, United Nations, Peacekeeping,

15. Long-Anticipated Changes to US Munitions Export Controls Pose New Compliance Difficulties for Defence Contractors All over the World
Long-Anticipated Changes to US Munitions Export Controls Pose New Compliance Difficulties for Defence Contractors All over the World / Gregory Husisian In: International Trade Law and Regulation = ISSN 1357-3136: vol. 19, issue 4, page 67-74. - 2013
Keywords: United States of America, Arms industry, Trade, Exportation and importation, Control,

16. The United States: the American Way of Leading the World into Democratic Wars
The United States: the American Way of Leading the World into Democratic Wars / Stephanie Sohnius. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - Page 51-88 In: The Militant Face of Democracy : Liberal Forces for Good / edited by Anna Geis, Harald Müller and Niklas Schörnig, ISBN 9781107037403: (2013), Page 51-88. - 2013
Keywords: United States of America, Democracy, Liberalism, Intervention, Military policy, Use of force, War,

17. "The Right Thing to Do?"
"The Right Thing to Do?" : British Interventionism after the Cold War / Marco Fey. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - Page 89-123 In: The Militant Face of Democracy : Liberal Forces for Good / edited by Anna Geis, Harald Müller and Niklas Schörnig, ISBN 9781107037403: (2013), Page 89-123. - 2013
Keywords: Great Britain, Democracy, Liberalism, Intervention, Military policy, Use of force, War,

18. "O Ally, Stand By me": Australia's Ongoing Balancing Act between Geography and History
"O Ally, Stand By me": Australia's Ongoing Balancing Act between Geography and History / Niklas Schörnig. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - Page 124-159 In: The Militant Face of Democracy : Liberal Forces for Good / edited by Anna Geis, Harald Müller and Niklas Schörnig, ISBN 9781107037403: (2013), Page 124-159. - 2013
Keywords: Australia, Democracy, Liberalism, Intervention, Military policy, Use of force, War,

19. Canada: Standing on Guard for International Law and Human Security?
Canada: Standing on Guard for International Law and Human Security? / Una Becker-Jakob. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - Page 160-195 In: The Militant Face of Democracy : Liberal Forces for Good / edited by Anna Geis, Harald Müller and Niklas Schörnig, ISBN 9781107037403: (2013), Page 160-195. - 2013
Keywords: Canada, Democracy, Liberalism, Intervention, Military policy, Use of force, War, International law, Human security,

20. French Ambiguities: of Civilising, Diplomatic and Military Missions
French Ambiguities: of Civilising, Diplomatic and Military Missions / Johanmna Eckert. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - Page 196-230 In: The Militant Face of Democracy : Liberal Forces for Good / edited by Anna Geis, Harald Müller and Niklas Schörnig, ISBN 9781107037403: (2013), Page 196-230. - 2013
Keywords: France, Democracy, Liberalism, Intervention, Military policy, Use of force, War,

21. Burdens of the Past, Shadows of the Future: the Use of Military Force as a Challenge for the German "Civilian Power"
Burdens of the Past, Shadows of the Future: the Use of Military Force as a Challenge for the German "Civilian Power" / Anna Geis. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - Page 231-268 In: The Militant Face of Democracy : Liberal Forces for Good / edited by Anna Geis, Harald Müller and Niklas Schörnig, ISBN 9781107037403: (2013), Page 231-268. - 2013
Keywords: Germany, Democracy, Liberalism, Intervention, Military policy, Use of force, War,

22. Moving beyond Neutrality: Sweden's Changing Attitude towards the Miltary Use of Force
Moving beyond Neutrality: Sweden's Changing Attitude towards the Miltary Use of Force / Carmen Wunderlich. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - Page 269-303 In: The Militant Face of Democracy : Liberal Forces for Good / edited by Anna Geis, Harald Müller and Niklas Schörnig, ISBN 9781107037403: (2013), Page 269-303. - 2013
Keywords: Sweden, Democracy, Liberalism, Intervention, Military policy, Use of force, War, Neutrality,

23. The Appropriateness of the Liberal Use of Force: "Democratic Wars" under US Hegemony
The Appropriateness of the Liberal Use of Force: "Democratic Wars" under US Hegemony / Anna Geis and Harald Müller. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - Page 345-367 In: The Militant Face of Democracy : Liberal Forces for Good / edited by Anna Geis, Harald Müller and Niklas Schörnig, ISBN 9781107037403: (2013), Page 345-367. - 2013
Keywords: United States of America, Democracy, Liberalism, Intervention, Military policy, Use of force, War,

Librarian's choice

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  • Stahn, C. and Melber, H. (eds.) Peace Diplomacy, Global Justice and International Agency : Rethinking Human Security and Ethics in the Spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.

    Stahn, C. and Melber, H. (eds.) Peace Diplomacy, Global Justice and International Agency : Rethinking Human Security and Ethics in the Spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.

    As UN Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjold shaped many of the fundamental principles and practices of international organisations, such as preventive diplomacy, the ethics of international civil service, impartiality and neutrality. He was also at the heart of the constitutional foundations and principles of the UN. This tribute and critical review of Hammarskjold’s values and legacy examines his approach towards international civil service, agency and value-based leadership, investigates his vision of internationalism and explores his achievements and failures as Secretary-General. It draws on specific conflict situations and strategies such as Suez and the Congo for lessons that can benefit contemporary conflict resolution and modern concepts such as human security and R2P. It also reflects on ways in which actors such as international courts, tribunals and the EU can benefit from Hammarskjold’s principles and experiences in the fields of peace and security and international justice.

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  • Dannreuther, R., International Security: the Contemporary Agenda, Cambridge, Polity, 2013.

    Dannreuther, R., International Security : the Contemporary Agenda, Cambridge, Polity, 2013.

    International Security is a cutting-edge analysis of the key security challenges and developments in the post-Cold War world. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary examples, from the Iraq war to the rise of China, it is an essential guide for students and policy makers seeking to understand the theoretical and empirical debates over the fast-changing nature of international security today.

    The book is organized into four main parts. Part 1 provides an analytical framework for the book, identifying the most significant post-Cold War shifts in international security and recent theoretical developments in security studies. Part 2 analyses the root causes for contemporary warfare, the dilemmas and debates over military intervention, and the role played by the UN, NATO and other organizations in maintaining international peace and security. Part 3 assesses the challenges of environmental security, including the threat of resource-based conflict, most notably over oil and water, and the perceived security challenges of international migration. Part 4 discusses the new security challenges posed by international terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and cyber warfare. It explores the strategies and policies adopted by the United States, particularly in the aftermath of 9/11 and assesses the implications of the rise of China and other emerging powers.

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  • Neri, K., L'emploi de la force en mer, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2013.

    Neri, K., L'emploi de la force en mer, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2013.

    Le droit international contemporain se trouve face à un défi majeur : assurer la sécurité et la liberté des espaces maritimes, alors que l’on y observe une recrudescence des activités illicites ou dangereuses. L’étude s’inscrit dans le cadre de ce défi et tente de cerner la problématique de l’emploi de la force en mer afin de lutter contre ces activités. Dans le contexte du développement et de la mise en oeuvre de pouvoirs de police dans les zones maritimes, l’ouvrage démontre l’ambivalence de la police internationale relative à la mer. Il est caractérisé par une double juxtaposition entre l’objet de l’emploi de la force en mer (activités illicites de personnes privées ou actes illicites des états) et entre les acteurs chargés de lutter contre l’illicite en mer.

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  • Matlary, J.H. and Petersson, M. (eds.), NATO's European Allies: Military Capability and Political Will, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

    Matlary, J.H. and Petersson, M. (eds.), NATO's European Allies: Military Capability and Political Will, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

    This edited collection asks whether Europe, in a current situation of economic austerity and postmodern political values, can play a key role in regional and global security and defence. Hitherto Europeans have been called upon to rise to the occasion of matching the US with minor contributions, ranging from “showing the flag” to militarily important contributions. But when the US signals that its lead role no longer is automatic, what about the European allies? Can they and will they undertake sharp operations on their own, assuming leading roles? Which of NATO’s European allies are able militarily, and willing politically, to undertake “sharp operations” and to actually use force for the purpose of policy? This issue is of key importance for policy as well as for scholarship on NATO. In this volume, the ability and willingness to use force for political purposes amongst NATO’s European members are explored, firstly considering the important drivers for the use of force, namely history, political culture, economy and threat perceptions, and then scrutinising the use of force in eight European NATO countries: the UK, France, Germany, Spain, Poland, Hungary, Denmark and Norway.

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  • Tercinet, J., Le maintien de la paix et de la sécurité internationales, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2012.

    Résolument ancré dans une approche interdisciplinaire conjuguant harmonieusement le droit du maintien de la paix et la géopolitique, l’ouvrage apporte un éclairage lumineux sur les mutations profondes qui ont affecté le maintien de la paix depuis sa création, qu’il s’agisse de la diversification de ses opérations et de ses acteurs, de la complexification grandissante des modalités de ses interventions et des nécessaires articulations entre leurs différents niveaux, onusien ou non.

    Ce recueil d’études, hommage de la communauté scientifique et des collègues et amis du professeur Josiane Tercinet, rassemble une sélection de ses publications – chroniques, études de cas et synthèses critiques – consacrées à l’analyse du maintien de la paix et de la sécurité internationales. Il propose une documentation rigoureuse et constitue une contribution scientifique précieuse pour la doctrine du droit et des relations internationales touchant à la sécurité. Résolument ancré dans une approche interdisciplinaire conjuguant harmonieusement le droit du maintien de la paix et la géopolitique, l’ouvrage apporte un éclairage lumineux sur les mutations profondes qui ont affecté le maintien de la paix depuis sa création, qu’il s’agisse de la diversification de ses opérations et de ses acteurs, de la complexification grandissante des modalités de ses interventions et des nécessaires articulations entre leurs différents niveaux, onusien ou non.

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  • Kumaba Mbuta, W., L'ONU et la diplomatie des conflits: le cas de la République démocratique du Congo, Paris, Harmattan, 2012.

    Kumaba Mbuta, W., L'ONU et la diplomatie des conflits: le cas de la République démocratique du Congo, Paris, Harmattan, 2012.

    Par une approche juridico-politico-stratégique, ce livre traite d’un enjeu fondamental des relations internationales : le redéploiement des opérations de maintien de la paix de l’ONU depuis la fin de la guerre froide. Le but est d’appréhender les efforts et les difficultés de l’ONU dans sa mission de gestion et de liquidation des conflits, à travers l’exemple de la RDC.

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  • Benner, Th., Mergenthaler, S. and Rothmann, Ph., The New World of UN Peace Operations: Learning to Build Peace? Oxford, OUP, 2011.

    Benner, Th., Mergenthaler, S. and Rothmann, Ph., The New World of UN Peace Operations: Learning to Build Peace? Oxford, OUP, 2011.

    Peace operations are the UN’s flagship activity. Over the past decade, UN blue helmets have been dispatched to ever more challenging environments from the Congo to Timor to perform an expanding set of tasks. From protecting civilians in the midst of violent conflict to rebuilding state institutions after war, a new range of tasks has transformed the business of the blue helmets into an inherently knowledge-based venture. But all too often, the UN blue helmets, policemen, and other civilian officials have been “flying blind” in their efforts to stabilize countries ravaged by war. The UN realized the need to put knowledge, guidance and doctrine, and reflection on failures and successes at the center of the institution.

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  • Llopis, A.P., Force, ONU et organisations régionales: répartition des responsabilités en matière coercitive, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2012.

    Llopis, A.P., Force, ONU et organisations régionales: répartition des responsabilités en matière coercitive, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2012.

    L’étude se penche sur le rôle des organisations régionales dans le domaine de la coercition. L’auteur met en lumière qu’il existe deux modes de relation entre l’ONU et les organisations régionales, la déconcentration et la décentralisation. Dans certains cas l’ONU délègue aux organisations régionales l’exécution des réactions à une menace pour la paix et dans d’autres cas non.

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  • Tzanakopoulos, A., Disobeying the Security Council, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011.

    Tzanakopoulos, A., Disobeying the Security Council, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011.

    Also available as Fulltext e-book inside Peace Palace Library

    This book examines how the United Nations Security Council, in exercising its power to impose binding non-forcible measures (‘sanctions’) under Article 41 of the UN Charter, may violate international law, i.e., limits on its power imposed by the UN Charter itself and by general international law, including human rights guarantees. Such acts may engage the international responsibility of the United Nations, the organization of which the Security Council is an organ.

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  • Tshiyembe, M., Le droit de la sécurité internationale, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2011.

    Tshiyembe, M., Le droit de la sécurité internationale, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2011.

    Le droit de la sécurité internationale est une nouvelle matière introduite par la réforme, dans le cursus universitaire des Facultés de droit de la RDC. L’enjeu de cette réforme est de fournir aux bénéficiaires les clés d’analyse et de compréhension de la sécurité collective telle qu’elle fut concoctée par la charte de l’ONU en 1945, complétée par les résolutions du Conseil de sécurité et les arrêts de la Cour internationale de justice, modifiée et adaptée à la pratique des opérations du maintien de la paix.

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  • MacQueen, N., The United Nations, Peace Operations and the Cold War, Harlow, Longman/Pearson, 2011.

    MacQueen, N., The United Nations, Peace Operations and the Cold War, Harlow, Longman/Pearson, 2011.
    This is the first introduction to the United Nation’s activities during the Cold War period. It combines a history of the UN with a broader account of east-west diplomacy during the Cold War and after. Norrie MacQueen begins by looking at the formation, structure and functions of the UN. Then, within a chronological framework, he assesses its contribution to international security from the emergence of the UN’s peacekeeping role in 1945-56 right through to UN operations in the 1990s in Angola, Somalia and Bosnia.
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  • Williams, P.D., War and Conflict in Africa, Cambridge, Polity, 2011.

    Williams, P.D., War and Conflict in Africa, Cambridge, Polity, 2011.

    After the Cold War, Africa earned the dubious distinction of being the world’s most bloody continent. But how can we explain this proliferation of armed conflicts? What caused them and what were their main characteristics? And what did the world’s governments do to stop them? In addressing these and other questions, Paul Williams offers the first comparative assessment of more than two hundred armed conflicts which took place in Africa between 1990 and 2009 – from the continental catastrophe in the Democratic Republic of Congo to the environmental disaster in the Niger Delta and mass atrocities in the Sudan. Taking a broad comparative approach to examine the political contexts in which these wars occurred, he explores the key ingredients that provoked them and the major international responses undertaken to deliver lasting peace.

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Database

Blogs

  • Modern Technology and Its Potential Role in Peace Building and Conflict Prevention

    On August 20, the Hague Institute for Global Justice organized a high level panel on ‘Peace Technologies’ together with the newly established Peace Informatics Lab of Leiden Univeristy. A discussion was held between experts from civil society groups, governmental institutions, academia and the private sector to exchange ideas and examine what role modern technology can play in peace processes or in the prevention of conflicts. The event was an important opportunity to share knowledge in what is considered to be a revolutionary field. This blog will provide a brief summary of this event as well as give some background information on this particular subject.

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  • Hague Academy Model United Nations on Drone Warfare and International Law

    Directed energy weapons, drones, self targeting bullets, mobile tactical high energy lasers, military robots, spy weapons, weapons undetectable under an x-ray scan, remote controlled insect armies, self driving tanks, robotic mules, thermal camouflage, surveillance technologies and autonomous unmanned systems are some examples of the high tech weapons and military technology that are now used during warfare. The use of this state of the art military technology raises serious ethical and legal questions: (when) is the use of drones acceptable?

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  • Interview: Dr. Christian Noack

    This month, our first time guest editor and colleague, Ms. Anna Duszczyk, invited Dr. Christian Noack from the University of Amsterdam, for an in-depth interview on the current crisis in Ukraine. Dr. Noack is an expert on Eastern European History, Media Studies and Slavonic Studies. In this interview, he will discuss his views on the current political situation in Ukraine and the role of Russia and the European Union in the crisis.

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  • Nuclear security: Dangers and Achievements

    Nuclear security is generally accepted to mean “the prevention of, detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities”. In short it is about preventing terrorists from acquiring radioactive material or attacking nuclear facilities. Since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, nuclear security concerns have been heightened, but how real is the danger and what are the legal instruments to combat nuclear terrorism?

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  • Themes of NSS 2014

    The Netherlands will be hosting the Nuclear Security Summit on 24 and 25 March 2014. Nuclear security involves implementing a series of pre-emptive measures to prevent internal and/or external threats directly or indirectly related to nuclear materials, radioactive sources, relevant facilities or other associated activities. Reducing the amount of dangerous nuclear material in the world, improving the security of all nuclear material and radioactive sources and improving international cooperation are the main themes of the 2014 Summit.

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  • A Justification for Russia’s Intervention?

    In the last week Russian military forces have occupied Crimea, the Ukrainian Black Sea peninsula where the majority of the population is ethnic Russian and the Russian Black Sea Fleet is deployed in the city of Sevastopol. In the Russian constitution a few articles describe circumstances where a primacy of Russian constitutional law above international law may occur. How does Russia legally justify its intervention? Guest Blog by Anna K. Duszczyk.

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  • Nuclear Security Summit 2014: Preventing Nuclear Terrorism Around the Globe

    On 24 and 25 March 2014 the Third Nuclear Security Summit will take place here in The Hague. Nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to international peace and security. Even though the chance of a terrorist nuclear attack is small, the consequences would be enormous. The Nuclear Security Summit aims to enhance international cooperation in order to combat nuclear terrorist threats by preventing the illicit acquisition of nuclear material by non-state actors such as smugglers and terrorist groups.

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  • Open Season for Whistleblowers? Snowden and the right to privacy

    One of the best known whistleblowers at the moment is Edward Snowden. Snowden gave certain selected NSA documents to the Guardian and the Washington Post because “I can’t in good conscience allow the U.S. government to destroy privacy, internet freedom and basic liberties for people around the world with this massive surveillance machine they’re secretly building”.

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  • ARGO and the Follow-Up: Iran and the United States

    33 Years after the event, Hollywood has turned its attention to an episode that traumatized the United States for months: the seizure of the American Embassy in Tehran. As the US Embassy falls to a group of Islamist students and militants in support of the Iranian revolution and in retaliation for the USA’s sheltering of the recently deposed Shah, six diplomats slip out and seek sanctuary in the Canadian’s ambassador’s residence. It is up to the CIA’s Tony Mendez (Ben Affleck) to extract them from the country before they are discovered by the Revolutionary Guards. The plan? Create a fake movie, called Argo, and pretend they’re the crew.

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  • Colombia: At Last Peace with the FARC?

    Columbia’s fourth attempt at peace with the Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (FARC) started formally last month in Oslo and will continue the 15th of November in Havana, Cuba. The earlier attempts- starting in 1984, 1990 and 1998- to end one of Latin America’s longest and bloodiest armed conflict all failed. Why would the outcome of the peace talks this time be different?

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  • The Legality of Drone Attacks

    According to a recent report by Stanford and New York Universities’ law schools (Living Under Drones), the current US drone strike policy is counterproductive, has injured and killed civilians and undermines respect for international law. This blog explores briefly both the ius ad bellum and ius in bello implications of drone attacks.

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  • The Body Counts : Civilian Casualties in War

    Throughout the post Cold War period there has been a widespread view that war and armed conflict have changed radically since the First World War to the point where some 80-90% of war victims are now civilians. Many modern wars have been accompanied by significant depopulations, along with destruction of infrastructure and resources.

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  • Ivory Coast : UNOCI mandat prolonged until 30 June 2011

    At 20 December 2010 the United Nations Security Council (SC/10132) extended the mission in Cote d’Ivoire until 30 June 2011, strongly condemned attempts to usurp the will of the people and urged respect for the election outcome : Alassane Ouattara, a former prime minister, banker and leader of the opposition, has been recognized as the winner of November’s election by the United Nations, the African Union, the United States and the European Union. The incumbent president, Laurent Gbagbo has resisted repeated calls for him to cede the office.

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  • The Nobel Peace Prize 2010: Liu Xiaobo

    Foto scanpize reuters handout

    The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2010 to Liu Xiaobo for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China. The Norwegian Nobel Committee has long held the view that human rights and peace are closely linked. Human rights are essential for [...]

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  • Cyberwar: from fiction to fact

    Computers rather than missiles could pose the biggest security threat of the future with nations able to cripple rivals by using cyberwarfare. Computer strikes could damage a country’s infrastructure as well as defence equipment, cutting off communications, power supplies and military command systems. Major interference on a large scale can be generated by computer viruses. [...]

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  • Military coup in Honduras: Zelaya going for president again? No (update)

    The Organization of American States (OAS) suspended Honduras on Saturday after the Supreme Court of Honduras has rejected to reinstate President Manuel Zelaya.

    The plane was kept from landing at the main Honduras airport Sunday because the runway was blocked by groups of soldiers with military vehicles, some of them lined up against a crowd of thousands outside. His Venezuelan pilots circled around the airport and decided not to risk a crash.

    Honduran coup leaders had three days to restore deposed President Manuel Zelaya to power, the Organization of American States (OAS) said Wednesday, before Honduras risks being suspended from the group.

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  • North Korea Confirms Nuclear Test

    North Korea has conducted its second nuclear test, the country’s state news agency KCNA announced today. The nuclear test was expected. Earlier this year North Korea conducted a failed intercontinental missile test.

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  • International Conference on Afghanistan, The Hague, 31 March 2009

    On 31 March 2009, the Dutch government is hosting the ´International Conference on Afghanistan: a Comprehensive Strategy in a Regional Context´ at the World Forum in The Hague.

    Building on the achievements of previous Conferences in Bonn, London and Paris, this Conference should reaffirm the solid and long-term commitment of the international community to [...]

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  • UNHCR concerned about displaced Congolese and continuing LRA attacks

    On 13 January 2009 the U.N. refugee agency UNHCR published a news story about the humanitarian situation in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The UNHCR estimated that 537 people had been killed in LRA attacks since September in Oriental Province, which borders Uganda and South Sudan.

    On the same day, Joe Bavier of Reuters reported UN-”officials said the security and humanitarian situation in Democratic Republic of Congo’s Oriental Province had sharply deteriorated since the military operation started on December 14. Uganda, Congo and South Sudan launched the joint offensive against the Ugandan rebel Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in Congo’s Garamba National Park.”

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  • New Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) to be signed on December 3, 2008

    Cluster Bomb Tour Bus takes on Eastern Europe

    On Wednesday, 1st October an eight-week campaign trail through Europe was launched to convince all governments to sign a groundbreaking treaty banning cluster bombs, in Oslo on December 3, 2008. Beginning in Belgrade, Serbia and ending at the signing ceremony in Norway, the Ban Bus will rally [...]

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  • Peace and Justice!

    On Thursday, 31 July, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1828 (2008) renewing the mandate of UNAMID, the UN-African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur, for another year (resolution [PDF] and meeting record S/PV.5947 [PDF]).

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  • United Nations Sanctions Against Zimbabwe Leadership Vetoed

    A United States-led attempt to impose United Nations (UN) sanctions against Zimbabwe failed when on Friday, 11 July, China and Russia, both permanent members of the UN Security Council, voted against a draft resolution that would have instituted a travel ban and asset freeze against President Robert Mugabe and thirteen senior government/security officials in connection with the election violence in Zimbabwe.

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