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Article 2 under 7 of the Charter of the United Nations is clear in case a recognised state is subject to an intervention: “Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state”. This article contains a codification of the territorial integrity of a State principle. Under the Responsibility to Protect doctrine, rather than having a right to intervene in the conduct of other states, states are said to have a responsibility to intervene and protect the citizens of another state where that other state has failed in its obligation to protect its own citizens against international crimes or natural disasters. Responsibility to Protect is the name of a report produced in 2001 by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) which was established by the Canadian government in response to the history of unsatisfactory humanitarian interventions. The report sought to establish a set of clear guidelines for determining when intervention is appropriate, what the appropriate channels for approving an intervention are and how the intervention itself should be carried out. It argues that the notion of a ‘right to intervene’ is problematic and should be replaced with the ‘responsibility to protect’.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Intervention. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 59. Intervention and Non-Intervention and subject heading (keyword) Intervention and Non-Intervention are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Fassin, D. and M. Pandolfi (eds.), Contemporary States of Emergency: The Politics of Military and Humanitarian Interventions, New York, Zone Books, 2010.
- Hehir, A., Humanitarian Intervention: An Introduction, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2010.
- Simms, B. and D.J.B. Trim, Humanitarian Intervention: A History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
- Yoshihara, S., Waging War to Make Peace: U.S. Intervention in Global Conflicts, Santa Barbara, CA, Praeger Security International 2010.
- Hudson, K.A., ‘Justice, Intervention, and Force in International Relations: Reassessing Just War Theory in the 21st Century, London, Routledge, 2009.
- Kitchen, V.M., The Globalization of NATO: Intervention, Security and Identity, London, Routledge, 2010.
- Lu, C., Just and Unjust Interventions in World Politics: Public and Private, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
- Munkler, H. und Malowitz, (eds.), Humanitäre Intervention: ein Instrument außenpolitischer Konfliktbearbeitung: Grundlagen und Diskussion, Wiesbaden, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2008.
- Nalbandov, R., Foreign Interventions in Ethnic Conflicts, Farnham, Ashgate, 2009.
- Pattison. J., Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Who Should Intervene?, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010.
- La responsabilité de protéger: rapport de la Commission internationale de l’intervention et de la souveraineté des États, Ottawa, Centre de recherches pour le développement international, 2001.
- Chan, S., “Major-Power Intervention and War Initiation by the Weak”, International Politics, 47 (2010), No. 2, pp. 163-185.
- Lieblich, E., “Intervention and Consent: Consensual Forcible Interventions in Internal Armed Conflicts as International Agreements”, Boston University International Law Journal, 29 (2011), No. 2, pp. 337-382.
- McClean, E., “The Dilemma of Intervention: Human Rights and the UN Security Council”, in M. Odello and S. Cavandoli (eds.), Emerging Areas of Human Rights in the 21st Century: The Role of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Abingdon, Routledge, 2011, pp. 24-44.
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Arredondo, R., Intervención humanitaria y responsabilidad de proteger: ¿hacia un nuevo paradigma de protección de los derechos humanos? Buenos Aires, Catálogos, 2012.
Hasta que el terrorismo acaparó la atención internacional después del 11 de septiembre de 2001, el debate que había dominado la agendade las relaciones internacionales durante la última década del siglo XX y los primeros años del XXI fue el de la intervención humanitaria – esto es, la cuestión de cuándo, si correspondiera, resulta apropiado que los Estados utilicen la fuerza armada en otro Estado, con el propósito de proteger a las poblaciones vulnerables que se encuentran en peligro en ese otro Estado, como en los casos de Ruanda, Sbrenica, Darfur, Libia o Siria.(…)Ricardo Arredondo explica que las categorías tradicionales que se han utilizado para analizar, justificar y establecer la legalidad de la intervención armada unilateral han sido insuficientes para comprender la complejidad de la interacción material entre la legalidad, la moralidad y el deseo político de los Estados por intervenir frente a casos de violaciones masivas y flagrantes a los derechos humanos y/o al derecho internacional humanitario y sus respectivas justificaciones por parte de los Estados.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Kumaba Mbuta, W., L'ONU et la diplomatie des conflits: le cas de la République démocratique du Congo, Paris, Harmattan, 2012.
Par une approche juridico-politico-stratégique, ce livre traite d’un enjeu fondamental des relations internationales : le redéploiement des opérations de maintien de la paix de l’ONU depuis la fin de la guerre froide. Le but est d’appréhender les efforts et les difficultés de l’ONU dans sa mission de gestion et de liquidation des conflits, à travers l’exemple de la RDC.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Aydin, A., Foreign Powers and Intervention in Armed Conflicts, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 2012.
Intervention in armed conflicts is full of riddles that await attention from scholars and policymakers. This book argues that rethinking intervention—redefining what it is and why foreign powers take an interest in others’ conflicts—is of critical importance to understanding how conflicts evolve over time with the entry and exit of external actors. It does this by building a new model of intervention that crosses the traditional boundaries between economics, international relations theory, and security studies, and places the economic interests and domestic political institutions of external states at the center of intervention decisions. Combining quantitative and qualitative evidence from both historical and contemporary conflicts, including interventions in both interstate conflicts and civil wars, it presents an in-depth discussion of a range of interventions—diplomatic, economic, and military—in a variety of international contexts, creating a comprehensive model for future research on the topic.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Steenberghe, R. van, La légitime défense en droit international public, Bruxelles, Larcier, 2012.
Cet ouvrage aborde de manière systématique, innovante et actualisée la question de la légitime défense en droit international public. Il s’agit de la première étude francophone entièrement consacrée à cette question. Elle est principalement fondée sur une analyse approfondie de la pratique contemporaine des états relative à l’emploi de la force. Tous les cas problématiques récents (tels que l’intervention des états-Unis en Afghanistan et les incursions d’Israël dans les territoires arabes voisins) y reçoivent une attention particulière. La pratique ancienne (comme la célèbre affaire du Caroline) y est également étudiée dans la mesure où elle permet d’éclairer les débats actuels relatifs à la légitime défense.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Benner, Th., Mergenthaler, S. and Rothmann, Ph., The New World of UN Peace Operations: Learning to Build Peace? Oxford, OUP, 2011.
Peace operations are the UN’s flagship activity. Over the past decade, UN blue helmets have been dispatched to ever more challenging environments from the Congo to Timor to perform an expanding set of tasks. From protecting civilians in the midst of violent conflict to rebuilding state institutions after war, a new range of tasks has transformed the business of the blue helmets into an inherently knowledge-based venture. But all too often, the UN blue helmets, policemen, and other civilian officials have been “flying blind” in their efforts to stabilize countries ravaged by war. The UN realized the need to put knowledge, guidance and doctrine, and reflection on failures and successes at the center of the institution.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Weiss, T.G., Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas in Action, Cambridge, Polity, 2012.
A singular development of the post Cold-War era is the use of military force to protect human beings. From Rwanda to Kosovo, Sierra Leone to East Timor, and more recently Libya to Côte d’Ivoire, soldiers have rescued some civilians in some of the world’s most notorious war zones. Could more be saved? Drawing on over two decades of research, Thomas G. Weiss answers “yes” and provides a persuasive introduction to the theory and practice of humanitarian intervention in the modern world. He examines political, ethical, legal, strategic, economic, and operational dimensions and uses a wide range of cases to highlight key debates and controversiesView this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Genser, J. and I. Cotler, The Responsibility to Protect: the Promise of Stopping Mass Atrocities in Our Time, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2012.
Also available as Fulltext e-book inside Peace Palace Library
Jared Genser and Irwin Cotler provide a comprehensive overview on how this contemporary principle of international law has developed and analyze how best to apply it to current and future humanitarian crises. The “responsibility to protect” is a doctrine unanimously adopted by the UN World Summit in 2005, which says that all states have an obligation to protect their own citizens from mass atrocities, which includes genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic cleansing. Its adoption and application has generated a passionate debate in law schools, professional organizations, media and within the U.N. system.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Hehir, A., Humanitarian Intervention : an introduction, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2010.A broad-ranging introduction to the theory, practice and politics of humanitarian intervention on the contemporary world, its historical background and future prospects after the experiences of Rwanda, Kosovo, Darfur and Iraq.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Kuwali, D., The Responsibility to Protect: Implementation of Article 4(h) Intervention, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2011.
This book explores the scope and limits of Article 4(h) of the African Union Constitutive Act (AU Act). The goal is to generate new thinking on, and contribute a fresh legal approach to, the implementation of the right to intervene under Article 4 (h) of the AU Act in the face of war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Saunders, E.N., Leaders at War: How Presidents Shape Military Interventions, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2011.
One of the most contentious issues in contemporary foreign policy—especially in the United States—is the use of military force to intervene in the domestic affairs of other states. Some military interventions explicitly try to transform the domestic institutions of the states they target; others do not, instead attempting only to reverse foreign policies or resolve disputes without trying to reshape the internal landscape of the target state. In Leaders at War, Elizabeth N. Saunders provides a framework for understanding when and why great powers seek to transform foreign institutions and societies through military interventions. She highlights a crucial but often-overlooked factor in international relations: the role of individual leaders.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Simms, B. and Trim, D.J.B., Humanitarian intervention: a history, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
The dilemma of how best to protect human rights is one of the most persistent problems facing the international community today. This unique and wide-ranging history of humanitarian intervention examines responses to oppression, persecution and mass atrocities from the emergence of the international state system and international law in the late sixteenth century, to the end of the twentieth century. Leading scholars show how opposition to tyranny and to religious persecution evolved from notions of the common interests of ‘Christendom’ to ultimately incorporate all people under the concept of ‘human rights’.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Orford, A., International Authority and the Responsibility to Protect, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
The idea that states and the international community have a responsibility to protect populations at risk has framed internationalist debates about conflict prevention, humanitarian aid, peacekeeping and territorial administration since 2001. This book situates the responsibility to protect concept in a broad historical and jurisprudential context, demonstrating that the appeal to protection as the basis for de facto authority has emerged at times of civil war or revolution – the Protestant revolutions of early modern Europe, the bourgeois and communist revolutions of the following centuries and the revolution that is decolonisation. This analysis, from Hobbes to the UN, of the resulting attempts to ground authority on the capacity to guarantee security and protection is essential reading for all those seeking to understand, engage with, limit or critique the expansive practices of international executive action authorised by the responsibility to protect concept.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Bellamy, A.J. and S.E. Davies (eds.), The Responsibility to Protect and International Law, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2011.
The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is a major new international principle, adopted unanimously in 2005 by Heads of State and Government. Whilst it is broadly acknowledged that the principle has an important and intimate relationship with international law, especially the law relating to sovereignty, peace and security, human rights and armed conflict, there has yet to be a volume dedicated to this question. The Responsibility to Protect and International Law fills that gap by bringing together leading scholars from North America, Europe and Australia to examine R2P’s legal content.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Conference about ICJ's judgment in the case between Nicaragua and the USA
In 1986, the International Court of Justice issued its judgment on the merits in a dispute between Nicaragua and the United States of America. Twenty-five years later, members of the legal teams of both Nicaragua and the United States faced each other once again in the Peace Palace.Read more
A Licence to Kill? The assassination of Osama Bin Laden: Has the USA gone too far in acting as a policeman or was the raid justified?
Osama Bin Laden (OBL) is dead. He was killed by a special ops team from the United States of America (USA), “after a firefight.” After OBL had been assassinated, the special team of SEALS took the deceased body of the dangerous mastermind terrorist and several hard drives from the compound in Abbottabad. Bin laden had been hiding there with his family for several years without being noticed. When the Pentagon researched the hard drives, it appeared that OBL had been planning new attacks, at least on several US cities and also on European locations. Upon hearing this news so many have sighed with relief that the secret services of the USA found out about these planned attacks before they could actually take place. Obama, President of the USA stated that “justice had been done” by executing OBL. But “what kind of justice” The assassination also led to a lot of questions and criticism: Was the raid justified?Read more
Ivory Coast : UNOCI mandat prolonged until 30 June 2011
At 20 December 2010 the United Nations Security Council (SC/10132) extended the mission in Cote d’Ivoire until 30 June 2011, strongly condemned attempts to usurp the will of the people and urged respect for the election outcome : Alassane Ouattara, a former prime minister, banker and leader of the opposition, has been recognized as the winner of November’s election by the United Nations, the African Union, the United States and the European Union. The incumbent president, Laurent Gbagbo has resisted repeated calls for him to cede the office.Read more
Georgia on his mind. From R2P toR2I?
Russia always maintained that its intervention in Georgia was justified by the principle of “responsibility to protect” (R2P).Read more
Russian President Medvedev, also supreme military commander, introduced an amendment to the Russian defense Law to allow Russian armed forces to intervene beyond Russian borders.
Military coup in Honduras: Zelaya going for president again? No (update)
The Organization of American States (OAS) suspended Honduras on Saturday after the Supreme Court of Honduras has rejected to reinstate President Manuel Zelaya.
The plane was kept from landing at the main Honduras airport Sunday because the runway was blocked by groups of soldiers with military vehicles, some of them lined up against a crowd of thousands outside. His Venezuelan pilots circled around the airport and decided not to risk a crash.
Honduran coup leaders had three days to restore deposed President Manuel Zelaya to power, the Organization of American States (OAS) said Wednesday, before Honduras risks being suspended from the group.Read more
- International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect
- International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty
- AMERICA'S TRADITION OF NON-INTERVENTIONISM
- On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. Foreign Policy | Non-Interventionism
- Humanitarian intervention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Research guide Intervention and Non-Intervention Peace Palace Library
- ICISS Report on the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) : International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty
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