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Article 2 under 7 of the Charter of the United Nations is clear in case a recognised state is subject to an intervention: “Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state”. This article contains a codification of the territorial integrity of a State principle. Under the Responsibility to Protect doctrine, rather than having a right to intervene in the conduct of other states, states are said to have a responsibility to intervene and protect the citizens of another state where that other state has failed in its obligation to protect its own citizens against international crimes or natural disasters. Responsibility to Protect is the name of a report produced in 2001 by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) which was established by the Canadian government in response to the history of unsatisfactory humanitarian interventions. The report sought to establish a set of clear guidelines for determining when intervention is appropriate, what the appropriate channels for approving an intervention are and how the intervention itself should be carried out. It argues that the notion of a ‘right to intervene’ is problematic and should be replaced with the ‘responsibility to protect’.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Intervention. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 59. Intervention and Non-Intervention and subject heading (keyword) Intervention and Non-Intervention are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Fassin, D. and M. Pandolfi (eds.), Contemporary States of Emergency: The Politics of Military and Humanitarian Interventions, New York, Zone Books, 2010.
- Hehir, A., Humanitarian Intervention: An Introduction, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2010.
- Simms, B. and D.J.B. Trim, Humanitarian Intervention: A History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
- Yoshihara, S., Waging War to Make Peace: U.S. Intervention in Global Conflicts, Santa Barbara, CA, Praeger Security International 2010.
- Hudson, K.A., ‘Justice, Intervention, and Force in International Relations: Reassessing Just War Theory in the 21st Century, London, Routledge, 2009.
- Kitchen, V.M., The Globalization of NATO: Intervention, Security and Identity, London, Routledge, 2010.
- Lu, C., Just and Unjust Interventions in World Politics: Public and Private, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
- Munkler, H. und Malowitz, (eds.), Humanitäre Intervention: ein Instrument außenpolitischer Konfliktbearbeitung: Grundlagen und Diskussion, Wiesbaden, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2008.
- Nalbandov, R., Foreign Interventions in Ethnic Conflicts, Farnham, Ashgate, 2009.
- Pattison. J., Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Who Should Intervene?, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010.
- Bannelier, K., Christakis, Th., ”Under the UN Security Council’s Watchful Eyes: Military Intervention by Invitation in the Malian Conflict”, Leiden Journal of International Law, 26 (2013), No. 4, pp. 855-874.
- Iyi, J.-M., “The AU/ECOWAS Unilateral Humanitarian Intervention Legal Regimes and the UN Charter”, African Journal of International and Comparative Law, 21 (2013), No. 3, pp. 489-519.
- Lieblich, E., “Intervention and Consent: Consensual Forcible Interventions in Internal Armed Conflicts as International Agreements”, Boston University International Law Journal, 29 (2011), No. 2, pp. 337-382.
- McClean, E., “The Dilemma of Intervention: Human Rights and the UN Security Council”, in M. Odello and S. Cavandoli (eds.), Emerging Areas of Human Rights in the 21st Century: The Role of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Abingdon, Routledge, 2011, pp. 24-44.
- Morkyte, D., ”International Law as a Legal Basis for Unilateral Humanitarian Intervention”, Hague Yearbook of International Law, 24 (2012), pp.121-152.
- Williams,P.R., Ulbrick, J.T. and J. Worboys, “Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes : the Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crisis”, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 45 (2013), No. 1-2, pp. 473-503.
- La responsabilité de protéger: rapport de la Commission internationale de l’intervention et de la souveraineté des États, Ottawa, Centre de recherches pour le développement international, 2001.
Periodicals and Serial Publications
- Global Responsibility to Protect (GR2P)
- McPherson, A.L. (eds.), Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2013.
1. The politics of justifying force
The politics of justifying force : the Suez crisis, the Iraq war, and international law / Charlotte Peevers. - Oxford ; New York, NY : Oxford University Press, 2013. - XII, 274 pagina's. ; 24 cm Bibliografie: pagina 257-269. - Met literatuuropgave, index. - 2013
Keywords: Great Britain, Egypt, Iraq War (2003), Intervention, Use of force, History, International law,
Keywords: Great Britain, Egypt, Iraq War (2003), Intervention, Use of force, History, International law,
These publications are selected for you by Raymond Ridderhof.
Walling, C.B., All Necessary Measures: the United Nations and Humanitarian Intervention, Philadelphia, PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
What prompts the United Nations Security Council to intervene forcefully in some crises at high risk for genocide and ethnic cleansing but not others? In All Necessary Measures, Carrie Booth Walling identifies several systematic patterns in the stories that council members tell about conflicts and the policy solutions that result from them. Drawing on qualitative comparative case studies spanning two decades, including situations where the council has intervened to stop mass killing (Somalia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Sierra Leone) as well as situations where it has not (Rwanda, Kosovo, and Sudan), Walling posits that the arguments council members make about the cause and character of conflict as well as the source of sovereign authority in target states have the potential to enable or constrain the use of military force in defense of human rights. At a moment when constructivist scholars in international relations are pushing beyond empirical claims for the value of norms toward critical analysis of such norms, All Necessary Measures establishes discourse’s real-world explanatory power. From her comparative chronology, Walling demonstrates that humanitarian intervention becomes possible when the majority of Security Council members come to a shared understanding of the conflict, perpetrators, and victims—and probable when the Council understands state sovereignty as complementary to human rights norms. By illuminating the relationship between national interests and the core values of Security Council members and how it influences decision-making, All Necessary Measures suggests when and where the Security Council is likely to intervene in the future.
Hehir, A. and R. Murray (eds.) Libya, The Responsibility to Protect and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book brings together internationally renowned academics from Europe and North America offering a uniquely comprehensive and timely analysis of the intervention in Libya in 2011. The military intervention in Libya in March 2011 generated heated debate internationally and reinvigorated interest in humanitarian intervention. The action was widely heralded as a surprisingly robust and effective response to a looming mass atrocity. This volume critically analyses the intervention and challenges the dominant positive narrative, especially the ostensibly causal role played by the ‘Responsiblity to Protect’ doctrine (R2P). The contributors assess the Libyan intervention in the context of a number of contemporary trends and ongoing debates and argue that the manner in which the intervention was sanctioned, prosecuted and justified has a number of troubling implications for both the future of humanitarian intervention and international peace and security.
Burke, C., An Equitable Framework for Humanitarian Intervention, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book aims to resolve the dilemma regarding whether armed intervention as a response to gross human rights violations is ever legally justified without Security Council authorisation. Thus far, international lawyers have been caught between giving a negative answer on the basis of the UN Charter’s rules (‘positivists’), and a ‘turn to ethics’, declaring intervention legitimate on moral grounds, while eschewing legal analysis (‘moralists’). In this volume, a third solution is proposed. The idea is presented that many equitable principles may qualify as ‘general principles of law recognised by civilised nations’ – one of the three principal sources of international law (though a category that is often overlooked) – a conclusion based upon detailed research of both national legal systems and international law.
Schmidt, E., Foreign Intervention in Africa: from the Cold War to the War on Terror, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Foreign Intervention in Africa chronicles the foreign political and military interventions in Africa from 1956 to 2010, during the periods of decolonisation and the Cold War, as well as during the periods of state collapse and the ‘global war on terror’. In the first two periods, the most significant intervention was extra-continental. The USA, the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and the former colonial powers entangled themselves in countless African conflicts. During the period of state collapse, the most consequential interventions were intra-continental. African governments, sometimes assisted by powers outside the continent, supported warlords, dictators and dissident movements in neighbouring countries and fought for control of their neighbours’ resources. The global war on terror, like the Cold War, increased foreign military presence on the African continent and generated external support for repressive governments. In each of these cases, external interests altered the dynamics of Africa’s internal struggles, escalating local conflicts into larger conflagrations, with devastating effects on African peoples.
Allison, R., Russia, the West and Military Intervention, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Russia has been embroiled in bitter disputes with major Western powers over high-profile military interventions – over Kosovo (1999), Iraq (2003), Georgia (2008), and even Libya (2011) which had a UN Security Council mandate. Moscow and the West reached much more agreement over the Gulf War (1990) and intervention in Afghanistan (2001), but these cases are exceptional.
This interdisciplinary study explores the persistent differences between Russian and Western leaders about most Western-led military campaigns and about Russia’s own use of force in the CIS region. What does this tell us about emerging norms on the use of force in humanitarian crises? How and why has there been such controversy over the legal justifications for these military operations? Has greater consensus been possible over force in global counterterrorism? What do all these controversies tell us about international rule-making?
Dahlhoff, G., Die Verpflichtung zu Blauhelm-Missionen: besitzt der Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen einen Anspruch auf Militärbeistand?, Marburg, Tectum, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Überall auf der Welt brennt es: Grenzkonflikte zwischen Staaten, Bürgerkriege um Land, Ressourcen oder die Staatsmacht, separatistische Bestrebungen oder internationaler Terrorismus verlangen immer wieder ein schnelles Eingreifen der Weltgemeinschaft. Doch der UN-Sicherheitsrat in New York führt oft genug ein stumpfes Schwert: Gerade ökonomisch potente und demokratisch gefestigte Staaten wie Deutschland, Japan oder die Schweiz entziehen sich reserviert dem Wunsch nach bewaffneten Blauhelm-Truppen. Der Jurist und Diplomat Günther Dahlhoff ist der Ansicht, dass der Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen Staaten zur Bereitstellung von Truppen für friedenserhaltende Missionen nach Artikel 43 der UN-Charta verpflichten kann. In einer historischen Herleitung begründet er seine These ausführlich und schildert die Rechtspraxis in der Geschichte der Vereinten Nationen.
Arredondo, R., Intervención humanitaria y responsabilidad de proteger: ¿hacia un nuevo paradigma de protección de los derechos humanos? Buenos Aires, Catálogos, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Hasta que el terrorismo acaparó la atención internacional después del 11 de septiembre de 2001, el debate que había dominado la agendade las relaciones internacionales durante la última década del siglo XX y los primeros años del XXI fue el de la intervención humanitaria – esto es, la cuestión de cuándo, si correspondiera, resulta apropiado que los Estados utilicen la fuerza armada en otro Estado, con el propósito de proteger a las poblaciones vulnerables que se encuentran en peligro en ese otro Estado, como en los casos de Ruanda, Sbrenica, Darfur, Libia o Siria.(…)Ricardo Arredondo explica que las categorías tradicionales que se han utilizado para analizar, justificar y establecer la legalidad de la intervención armada unilateral han sido insuficientes para comprender la complejidad de la interacción material entre la legalidad, la moralidad y el deseo político de los Estados por intervenir frente a casos de violaciones masivas y flagrantes a los derechos humanos y/o al derecho internacional humanitario y sus respectivas justificaciones por parte de los Estados.
Kumaba Mbuta, W., L'ONU et la diplomatie des conflits: le cas de la République démocratique du Congo, Paris, Harmattan, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Par une approche juridico-politico-stratégique, ce livre traite d’un enjeu fondamental des relations internationales : le redéploiement des opérations de maintien de la paix de l’ONU depuis la fin de la guerre froide. Le but est d’appréhender les efforts et les difficultés de l’ONU dans sa mission de gestion et de liquidation des conflits, à travers l’exemple de la RDC.
Aydin, A., Foreign Powers and Intervention in Armed Conflicts, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Intervention in armed conflicts is full of riddles that await attention from scholars and policymakers. This book argues that rethinking intervention—redefining what it is and why foreign powers take an interest in others’ conflicts—is of critical importance to understanding how conflicts evolve over time with the entry and exit of external actors. It does this by building a new model of intervention that crosses the traditional boundaries between economics, international relations theory, and security studies, and places the economic interests and domestic political institutions of external states at the center of intervention decisions. Combining quantitative and qualitative evidence from both historical and contemporary conflicts, including interventions in both interstate conflicts and civil wars, it presents an in-depth discussion of a range of interventions—diplomatic, economic, and military—in a variety of international contexts, creating a comprehensive model for future research on the topic.
Benner, Th., Mergenthaler, S. and Rothmann, Ph., The New World of UN Peace Operations: Learning to Build Peace? Oxford, OUP, 2011.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Peace operations are the UN’s flagship activity. Over the past decade, UN blue helmets have been dispatched to ever more challenging environments from the Congo to Timor to perform an expanding set of tasks. From protecting civilians in the midst of violent conflict to rebuilding state institutions after war, a new range of tasks has transformed the business of the blue helmets into an inherently knowledge-based venture. But all too often, the UN blue helmets, policemen, and other civilian officials have been “flying blind” in their efforts to stabilize countries ravaged by war. The UN realized the need to put knowledge, guidance and doctrine, and reflection on failures and successes at the center of the institution.
Weiss, T.G., Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas in Action, Cambridge, Polity, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
A singular development of the post Cold-War era is the use of military force to protect human beings. From Rwanda to Kosovo, Sierra Leone to East Timor, and more recently Libya to Côte d’Ivoire, soldiers have rescued some civilians in some of the world’s most notorious war zones. Could more be saved? Drawing on over two decades of research, Thomas G. Weiss answers “yes” and provides a persuasive introduction to the theory and practice of humanitarian intervention in the modern world. He examines political, ethical, legal, strategic, economic, and operational dimensions and uses a wide range of cases to highlight key debates and controversies
Bellamy, A.J. and S.E. Davies (eds.), The Responsibility to Protect and International Law, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2011.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is a major new international principle, adopted unanimously in 2005 by Heads of State and Government. Whilst it is broadly acknowledged that the principle has an important and intimate relationship with international law, especially the law relating to sovereignty, peace and security, human rights and armed conflict, there has yet to be a volume dedicated to this question. The Responsibility to Protect and International Law fills that gap by bringing together leading scholars from North America, Europe and Australia to examine R2P’s legal content.
A Justification for Russia’s Intervention?
In the last week Russian military forces have occupied Crimea, the Ukrainian Black Sea peninsula where the majority of the population is ethnic Russian and the Russian Black Sea Fleet is deployed in the city of Sevastopol. In the Russian constitution a few articles describe circumstances where a primacy of Russian constitutional law above international law may occur. How does Russia legally justify its intervention? Guest Blog by Anna K. Duszczyk.Read more
Conference about ICJ's judgment in the case between Nicaragua and the USA
In 1986, the International Court of Justice issued its judgment on the merits in a dispute between Nicaragua and the United States of America. Twenty-five years later, members of the legal teams of both Nicaragua and the United States faced each other once again in the Peace Palace.Read more
A Licence to Kill? The assassination of Osama Bin Laden: Has the USA gone too far in acting as a policeman or was the raid justified?
Osama Bin Laden (OBL) is dead. He was killed by a special ops team from the United States of America (USA), “after a firefight.” After OBL had been assassinated, the special team of SEALS took the deceased body of the dangerous mastermind terrorist and several hard drives from the compound in Abbottabad. Bin laden had been hiding there with his family for several years without being noticed. When the Pentagon researched the hard drives, it appeared that OBL had been planning new attacks, at least on several US cities and also on European locations. Upon hearing this news so many have sighed with relief that the secret services of the USA found out about these planned attacks before they could actually take place. Obama, President of the USA stated that “justice had been done” by executing OBL. But “what kind of justice” The assassination also led to a lot of questions and criticism: Was the raid justified?Read more
Ivory Coast : UNOCI mandat prolonged until 30 June 2011
At 20 December 2010 the United Nations Security Council (SC/10132) extended the mission in Cote d’Ivoire until 30 June 2011, strongly condemned attempts to usurp the will of the people and urged respect for the election outcome : Alassane Ouattara, a former prime minister, banker and leader of the opposition, has been recognized as the winner of November’s election by the United Nations, the African Union, the United States and the European Union. The incumbent president, Laurent Gbagbo has resisted repeated calls for him to cede the office.Read more
Georgia on his mind. From R2P toR2I?
Russia always maintained that its intervention in Georgia was justified by the principle of “responsibility to protect” (R2P).Read more
Russian President Medvedev, also supreme military commander, introduced an amendment to the Russian defense Law to allow Russian armed forces to intervene beyond Russian borders.
Military coup in Honduras: Zelaya going for president again? No (update)
The Organization of American States (OAS) suspended Honduras on Saturday after the Supreme Court of Honduras has rejected to reinstate President Manuel Zelaya.
The plane was kept from landing at the main Honduras airport Sunday because the runway was blocked by groups of soldiers with military vehicles, some of them lined up against a crowd of thousands outside. His Venezuelan pilots circled around the airport and decided not to risk a crash.
Honduran coup leaders had three days to restore deposed President Manuel Zelaya to power, the Organization of American States (OAS) said Wednesday, before Honduras risks being suspended from the group.Read more
- International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect
- International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty
- AMERICA'S TRADITION OF NON-INTERVENTIONISM
- On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. Foreign Policy | Non-Interventionism
- Humanitarian intervention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Research guide Intervention and Non-Intervention Peace Palace Library
- ICISS Report on the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) : International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty
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