War

Introduction

War - Research Guide International Law

War is a state of organized, armed and often prolonged conflict carried on between states, nations, or other parties typified by extreme aggression, social disruption, and usually high mortality. In addition to the existence of this organized behavior pattern amongst human primates, very similar organized warlike behavior patterns are also found in many other primate species. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. An absence of War is usually called Peace. In the 1832 treatise On War, Prussian military general and theoretician Carl Von Clausewitz defined war as follows: ‘War is thus an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will’. Polemology is the study of human conflict and war.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on War. It provides the materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 10. War in General; Peace Research: In General and subject heading (keyword) War are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

Latest acquisition

Kaurin, P.M., The Warrior, Military Ethics and Contemporary Warfare: Achilles Goes Asymmetrical, Farnham; Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2014.Kaurin, P.M., The Warrior, Military Ethics and Contemporary Warfare: Achilles Goes Asymmetrical, Farnham; Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2014.

When it comes to thinking about war and warriors, first there was Achilles, and then the rest followed. The choice of the term warrior is an important one for this discussion. While there has been extensive discussion on what counts as military professionalism, that is what makes a soldier, sailor or other military personnel a professional, the warrior archetype (varied for the various roles and service branches) still holds sway in the military self-conception, rooted as it is in the more existential notions of war, honor and meaning. In this volume, Kaurin uses Achilles as a touch stone for discussing the warrior, military ethics and the aspects of contemporary warfare that go by the name of ‘asymmetrical war.’ The title of the book cuts two ways-Achilles as a warrior archetype to help us think through the moral implications and challenges posed by asymmetrical warfare, but also as an archetype of our adversaries to help us think about asymmetric opponents.

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Reference works

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Leading articles

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 Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

New titles


1. War as a Network Enterprise: the New Security Terrain and its Implications
War as a Network Enterprise: the New Security Terrain and its Implications / Mark Duffield. - Farnham ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate. - Page 109-121 In: The Criminology of War / edited by Ruth Jamieson, ISBN 9780754623946: (2014), Page 109-121. - 2014
Keywords: War, Public-private partnership, Security,

2. A Continuum of Violence: Gender, War and Peace
A Continuum of Violence: Gender, War and Peace / Cynthia Cockburn. - Farnham ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate. - Page 357-375 In: The Criminology of War / edited by Ruth Jamieson, ISBN 9780754623946: (2014), Page 357-375. - 2014
Keywords: Armed conflicts, Gender, Feminism, Violence, Peace process, Post-conflict reconstruction,

3. Introduction - Justice and/or Peace?
Introduction - Justice and/or Peace? / Gunther Hellmann. - Frankfurt/New York : Campus Verlag. - Page 7-15 In: Justice and Peace : Interdisciplinary Perspectives on a Contested Relationship / Gunther Hellmann (ed.), ISBN 9783593399829: (2013), Page 7-15. - 2013
Keywords: Justice, Peace, International law, Political philosophy,

4. Justice and Peace: Good Things do not always go together
Justice and Peace: Good Things do not always go together / Harald Müller. - Frankfurt/New York : Campus Verlag. - Page 43-68 In: Justice and Peace : Interdisciplinary Perspectives on a Contested Relationship / Gunther Hellmann (ed.), ISBN 9783593399829: (2013), Page 43-68. - 2013
Keywords: Justice, Peace, Theories of justice,

5. The Normative Order of Justice and Peace
The Normative Order of Justice and Peace / Rainer Forst. - Frankfurt/New York : Campus Verlag. - Page 69-89 In: Justice and Peace : Interdisciplinary Perspectives on a Contested Relationship / Gunther Hellmann (ed.), ISBN 9783593399829: (2013), Page 69-89. - 2013
Keywords: Justice, Peace, Theories of justice,

6. "Peace" and "Justice" in the Tradition of "Just War-Theories"
"Peace" and "Justice" in the Tradition of "Just War-Theories" / Matthias Lutz-Bachmann. - Frankfurt/New York : Campus Verlag. - Page 90-97 In: Justice and Peace : Interdisciplinary Perspectives on a Contested Relationship / Gunther Hellmann (ed.), ISBN 9783593399829: (2013), Page 90-97. - 2013
Keywords: Justice, Peace, Theories of justice, Just war,

7. Confessional Peace as a Political and Legal Problem in the Early Modern Period
Confessional Peace as a Political and Legal Problem in the Early Modern Period / Luise Schorn-Schütte. - Frankfurt/New York : Campus Verlag. - Page 98-111 In: Justice and Peace : Interdisciplinary Perspectives on a Contested Relationship / Gunther Hellmann (ed.), ISBN 9783593399829: (2013), Page 98-111. - 2013
Keywords: Justice, Peace, Theories of justice, Religion,

8. Democratic Geopolitics, the Rise and Fall of a Transatlantic Normative Order, 1974/1989-2009
Democratic Geopolitics, the Rise and Fall of a Transatlantic Normative Order, 1974/1989-2009 / Brendan Simms. - Frankfurt/New York : Campus Verlag. - Page 112-123 In: Justice and Peace : Interdisciplinary Perspectives on a Contested Relationship / Gunther Hellmann (ed.), ISBN 9783593399829: (2013), Page 112-123. - 2013
Keywords: Justice, Peace, Theories of justice, Democracy, Geopolitics,

9. Popular Casuistry and the Problem of Peace/Justice in Christian Ethics
Popular Casuistry and the Problem of Peace/Justice in Christian Ethics / Cecelia Lynch. - Frankfurt/New York : Campus Verlag. - Page 124-139 In: Justice and Peace : Interdisciplinary Perspectives on a Contested Relationship / Gunther Hellmann (ed.), ISBN 9783593399829: (2013), Page 124-139. - 2013
Keywords: Justice, Peace, Theories of justice, Christianity, Secularisation,

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  • Frowe, H. and G. Lang (eds.), How We Fight: Ethics in War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014. Showcase item

    Frowe, H. and G. Lang (eds.), How We Fight: Ethics in War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    This book presents a substantial body of new work by some of the leading philosophers of war. The ten essays cover a range of topics concerned with both jus ad bellum (the morality of going to war) and jus in bello (the morality of fighting in war). Alongside explorations of classic in bello topics, such as the principle of non-combatant immunity and the distribution of risk between combatants and non-combatants, the volume also addresses ad bellum topics, such as pacifism and punitive justifications for war, and explores the relationship between ad bellum and in bello topics, or how the fighting of a war may affect our judgments concerning whether that war meets the ad bellum conditions. The essays take a keen interest in the micro-foundations of just war theory, and uphold the general assumption that the rules of war must be supported, if they are going to be supported at all, by the liability and non-liability of the individuals who are encompassed by those rules. Relatedly, the volume also contains work which is relevant to the moral justification of several moral doctrines used, either explicitly or implicitly, in just war theory: in the doctrine of double effect, in the generation of liability in basic self-defensive cases, and in the relationship between liability and the conditions which are normally appended to permissible self-defensive violence: imminence, necessity, and proportionality. The volume breaks new ground in all these areas.

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  • Newman, E., Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and Change in Intra-State Conflict, London, New York, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2014.

    Newman, E., Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and Change in Intra-State Conflict, London, New York, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2014.

    This volume explores the nature of civil war in the modern world and in historical perspective. Civil wars represent the principal form of armed conflict since the end of the Second World War, and certainly in the contemporary era. The nature and impact of civil wars suggests that these conflicts reflect and are also a driving force for major societal change. In this sense, Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and change in intrastate conflict argues that the nature of civil war is not fundamentally changing in nature. The book includes a thorough consideration of patterns and types of intrastate conflict and debates relating to the causes, impact, and ‘changing nature’ of war. A key focus is on the political and social driving forces of such conflict and its societal meanings, significance and consequences. The author also explores methodological and epistemological challenges related to studying and understanding intrastate war. A range of questions and debates are addressed. What is the current knowledge regarding the causes and nature of armed intrastate conflict? Is it possible to produce general, cross-national theories on civil war which have broad explanatory relevance? Is the concept of ‘civil wars’ empirically meaningful in an era of globalization and transnational war? Has intrastate conflict fundamentally changed in nature? Are there historical patterns in different types of intrastate conflict? What are the most interesting methodological trends and debates in the study of armed intrastate conflict? How are narratives about the causes and nature of civil wars constructed around ideas such as ethnic conflict, separatist conflict and resource conflict? This book will be of much interest to students of civil wars, intrastate conflict, security studies and international relations in general.

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  • Tuck, C., Understanding Land Warfare, London; New York, I.B. Tauris, 2014.

    Tuck, C., Understanding Land Warfare, London; New York, I.B. Tauris, 2014.

    Understanding Land Warfare provides a thorough grounding in the vocabulary, concepts, issues and debates associated with modern land warfare. The book is a thematic, debate-driven analysis of what makes land warfare unique; how it interacts with the other environments; the key concepts that shape how it is executed; the trade-offs associated with its prosecution; and the controversies that continue to surround its focus and development. Understanding Land Warfare contains several key themes: the difficulty of conducting land warfare, the interplay between change and continuity, the growing importance of co-operation, the variety of ways in which land warfare is fought; the competing theoretical debates; the tensions and trade-offs. This book will be essential reading for military personnel studying on cadet, intermediate and staff courses. In addition, it will also be of use to undergraduate and postgraduate students of military history, war studies and strategic studies.

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  • Barash, D.P. and C.P. Webel, Peace and Conflict Studies, Los Angeles, CA, Sage, 2014.

    Barash, D.P. and C.P. Webel, Peace and Conflict Studies, Los Angeles, CA, Sage, 2014.

    This thoroughly revised Third Edition of Peace and Conflict Studies sets the gold standard as an accessible introduction and comprehensive exploration of this vital subject. The authors share their vast knowledge and analysis of 21st-century world events—including new coverage on timely topics such as the scope and history of peace and conflict studies, the nature of violence and nonviolence, cutting-edge military technologies, the rise of the “BRIC” countries, and the US and Global Peace Indexes. With an encyclopedic scope, this introductory text chronicles a plethora of important global topics from pre-history to the present.

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  • Gillespie, A., The Causes of War, Volume I - 3000 BCE to 1000 CE, Oxford, Hart, 2013.

    Gillespie, A., The Causes of War, Volume I - 3000 BCE to 1000 CE, Oxford, Hart, 2013.

    This is the first volume of a projected four-volume series charting the causes of war from 3000 BCE to the present day, written by a leading international lawyer, and using as its principal materials the documentary history of international law largely in the form of treaties and the negotiations which led up to them. These volumes seek to show why millions of people, over thousands of years, slayed each other. In departing from the various theories put forward by historians, anthropologists and psychologists, Gillespie offers a different taxonomy of the causes of war, focusing on the broader settings of politics, religion, migrations and empire-building. These four contexts were dominant and often overlapping justifications for the first four thousand years of human civilisation, for which written records exist.

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  • Joas, H. and W. Knöbl, War in Social Thought: Hobbes to the Present, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2013.

    Joas, H. and W. Knöbl, War in Social Thought: Hobbes to the Present, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2013.

    This book, the first of its kind, provides a sweeping critical history of social theories about war and peace from Hobbes to the present. Distinguished social theorists Hans Joas and Wolfgang Knöbl present both a broad intellectual history and an original argument as they trace the development of thinking about war over more than 350 years–from the premodern era to the period of German idealism and the Scottish and French enlightenments, and then from the birth of sociology in the nineteenth century through the twentieth century. While focusing on social thought, the book draws on many disciplines, including philosophy, anthropology, and political science. Joas and Knöbl demonstrate the profound difficulties most social thinkers–including liberals, socialists, and those intellectuals who could be regarded as the first sociologists–had in coming to terms with the phenomenon of war, the most obvious form of large-scale social violence. With only a few exceptions, these thinkers, who believed deeply in social progress, were unable to account for war because they regarded it as marginal or archaic, and on the verge of disappearing. This overly optimistic picture of the modern world persisted in social theory even in the twentieth century, as most sociologists and social theorists either ignored war and violence in their theoretical work or tried to explain it away. The failure of the social sciences and especially sociology to understand war, Joas and Knöbl argue, must be seen as one of the greatest weaknesses of disciplines that claim to give a convincing diagnosis of our times.

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  • Lang, A.F. (et al.) (eds.), Just War: Authority, Tradition, and Practice, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2013.

    Lang, A.F. (et al.) (eds.), Just War: Authority, Tradition, and Practice, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2013.

    The just war tradition is central to the practice of international relations, in questions of war, peace, and the conduct of war in the contemporary world, but surprisingly few scholars have questioned the authority of the tradition as a source of moral guidance for modern statecraft. Just War: Authority, Tradition, and Practice brings together many of the most important contemporary writers on just war to consider questions of authority surrounding the just war tradition. Authority is critical in two key senses. First, it is central to framing the ethical debate about the justice or injustice of war, raising questions about the universality of just war and the tradition’s relationship to religion, law, and democracy. Second, who has the legitimate authority to make just-war claims and declare and prosecute war? Such authority has traditionally been located in the sovereign state, but non-state and supra-state claims to legitimate authority have become increasingly important over the last twenty years as the just war tradition has been used to think about multilateral military operations, terrorism, guerrilla warfare, and sub-state violence. The chapters in this collection, organized around these two dimensions, offer a compelling reassessment of the authority issue’s centrality in how we can, do, and ought to think about war in contemporary global politics.

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  • Waldman, T., War, Clausewitz and the Trinity, Farnham, Ashgate, 2013.

    Waldman, T., War, Clausewitz and the Trinity, Farnham, Ashgate, 2013.
    Today, the ideas of Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) are employed almost ubiquitously in strategic studies, military history and defence literatures, but often in a manner which distorts their true meaning. In this book, Waldman explores Clausewitz’s central theoretical device for understanding war – the ‘remarkable trinity’ of politics, chance and passion. By situating the great Prussian in historical context, he presents a conception truer to Clausewitz’s intention. Seeking to achieve this through an in-depth reinterpretation of On War and Clausewitz’s other writings, conducted through the prism of the trinity, this book draws on existing studies but argues that there is room for clarification. It presents fresh perspectives into aspects of Clausewitz’s thought and emphasises elements of his theory that have often been neglected. Furthermore, it provides a solid basis from which debate on the nature of modern war can move forward.
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Database

Blogs

  • Peace Palace Carnegie Wateler Peace Prize 2012 awarded to War Child

    On November 15 2012 War Child received the Carnegie Wateler Peace Prize.

    The Carnegie Foundation awarded the Carnegie Wateler Peace Prize to War Child for the global efforts that War Child has made on behalf of children and young people in (former) conflict.

    War Child is an independent humanitarian organization that since 1995 has committed itself to helping children and youngsters that have been affected by war to attain a peaceful future. With a creative approach War Child helps children and teens deal with their war experiences.

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  • The Body Counts : Civilian Casualties in War

    Throughout the post Cold War period there has been a widespread view that war and armed conflict have changed radically since the First World War to the point where some 80-90% of war victims are now civilians. Many modern wars have been accompanied by significant depopulations, along with destruction of infrastructure and resources.

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  • “Resistance is Futile”

    Many people have expressed their concern over this futuristic way of Predator warfare as practized by the U.S. in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Amongst others, Philip Ashton, United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial executions, presented a critical report on the secrecy of the US drone program and its legal basis.

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  • Cyberwar: from fiction to fact

    Computers rather than missiles could pose the biggest security threat of the future with nations able to cripple rivals by using cyberwarfare. Computer strikes could damage a country’s infrastructure as well as defence equipment, cutting off communications, power supplies and military command systems. Major interference on a large scale can be generated by computer viruses. [...]

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