War

Introduction

War - Research Guide International Law

War is a state of organized, armed and often prolonged conflict carried on between states, nations, or other parties typified by extreme aggression, social disruption, and usually high mortality. In addition to the existence of this organized behavior pattern amongst human primates, very similar organized warlike behavior patterns are also found in many other primate species. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. An absence of War is usually called Peace. In the 1832 treatise On War, Prussian military general and theoretician Carl Von Clausewitz defined war as follows: ‘War is thus an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will’. Polemology is the study of human conflict and war.

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on War. It provides the materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library’s classification index code 10. War in General; Peace Research: In General and subject heading (keyword) War are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

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Recent books

Leading articles

Documents

 Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

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1. Should We Justify War?
Should We Justify War? / Roger Berkowitz. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 1-26 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 1-26. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Religion, Politics, Ethics, Jus ad bellum, Laws of war,

2. Justice and Justifications: War Theory among the Ancient Greeks
Justice and Justifications: War Theory among the Ancient Greeks / Carolyn Dewald. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 27-50 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 27-50. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Ethics, Ancient history,

3. Religion, Ritual and War in the Late Roman Republic
Religion, Ritual and War in the Late Roman Republic / Robert M. Berchman. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 51-68 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 51-68. - 2013
Keywords: Roman Empire, Just war, War, Religion, Ethics, Ancient history,

4. The Wars of Yahweh: Biblical Views of Just War
The Wars of Yahweh: Biblical Views of Just War / Baruch A. Levine. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 69-91 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 69-91. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Religion, Bible, Ethics,

5. Just War in Classical Judaism
Just War in Classical Judaism / Jacob Neusner. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 93-109 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 93-109. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Religion, Judaism, Ethics,

6. Christianity in War
Christianity in War / Bruce Chilton. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 111-134 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 111-134. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Religion, Christianity, Ethics,

7. Jihad in Classical Islamic Legal and Moral Thought
Jihad in Classical Islamic Legal and Moral Thought / Mairaj Syed. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 135-162 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 135-162. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Religion, Jihad, Ethics, Islamic law, Islam,

8. Just War in Buddhism
Just War in Buddhism / Kristin Scheible. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 163-192 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 163-192. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Religion, Buddhism, Ethics,

9. Reflections on War and Dharma in Classical Hinduism
Reflections on War and Dharma in Classical Hinduism / Richard H. Davis. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 193-205 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 193-205. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Religion, Hinduism, Ethics,

10. Fighting the Good Fight
Fighting the Good Fight / R.E. Tully. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 207-224 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 207-224. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Theory, Ethics,

11. "Jus ad Bellum" and the Islamic Reformation
"Jus ad Bellum" and the Islamic Reformation / Mark David Welton. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 225-244 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 225-244. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Religion, Jus ad bellum, Ethics, Islam, Jihad,

12. Fighting Wars Justly: the Legal and Moral Concerns and Consequences of Private Military and Security Contractors in Modern Armed Conflicts
Fighting Wars Justly: the Legal and Moral Concerns and Consequences of Private Military and Security Contractors in Modern Armed Conflicts / David A. Wallace. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 245-274 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 245-274. - 2013
Keywords: Private military companies, Armed conflicts, Just war, War, Ethics,

13. The Duty of Moral Diligence: the Responsibility of Soldiers to Determine the Justness of War
The Duty of Moral Diligence: the Responsibility of Soldiers to Determine the Justness of War / Brian Imiola. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 275-289 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 275-289. - 2013
Keywords: Militaries, Just war, War, Ethics,

14. Just War Theory, Choice and necessity and Israel's Responses to Genocidal Threats: an Evidence-Based Approach
Just War Theory, Choice and necessity and Israel's Responses to Genocidal Threats: an Evidence-Based Approach / Elihu D. Richter, Yael Stein, Tamar Pileggi. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 291-353 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 291-353. - 2013
Keywords: Israel, Arab-Israeli conflict, Jus ad bellum, Laws of war, Just war, War, Ethics,

15. Anticipation in Walzer's Just War Theory: the Example of Israel's 1967 First Strike in the Light of Historical Evidence
Anticipation in Walzer's Just War Theory: the Example of Israel's 1967 First Strike in the Light of Historical Evidence / Joel Perlmann. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 355-384 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 355-384. - 2013
Keywords: Israel, Arab-Israeli conflict, Just war, War, Ethics,

16. The Matter of Motive: Concluding Thoughts on Just War Theory
The Matter of Motive: Concluding Thoughts on Just War Theory / William Scott Green. - Lanham ; Boulder ; New York ; Toronto ; Plymouth, UK : University Press of America. - Page 385-392 In: Just War in Religion and Politics / edited by Jacob Neusner, Bruce D. Chilton. R.E. Tully, ISBN 9780761860938: (2013), Page 385-392. - 2013
Keywords: Just war, War, Ethics,

17. War and Peace
War and Peace / Sohail H. Hashmi. - Farnham ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate. - Page 193-206 In: The Ashgate Research Companian to Islamic Law / edited by Rudolph Peters and Peri Bearman, ISBN 9781409438939: (2014), Page 193-206. - 2014
Keywords: Islamic law, War, Peace, Jihad, Doctrines,

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  • Frowe, H. and G. Lang (eds.), How We Fight: Ethics in War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014. Showcase item

    Frowe, H. and G. Lang (eds.), How We Fight: Ethics in War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    This book presents a substantial body of new work by some of the leading philosophers of war. The ten essays cover a range of topics concerned with both jus ad bellum (the morality of going to war) and jus in bello (the morality of fighting in war). Alongside explorations of classic in bello topics, such as the principle of non-combatant immunity and the distribution of risk between combatants and non-combatants, the volume also addresses ad bellum topics, such as pacifism and punitive justifications for war, and explores the relationship between ad bellum and in bello topics, or how the fighting of a war may affect our judgments concerning whether that war meets the ad bellum conditions. The essays take a keen interest in the micro-foundations of just war theory, and uphold the general assumption that the rules of war must be supported, if they are going to be supported at all, by the liability and non-liability of the individuals who are encompassed by those rules. Relatedly, the volume also contains work which is relevant to the moral justification of several moral doctrines used, either explicitly or implicitly, in just war theory: in the doctrine of double effect, in the generation of liability in basic self-defensive cases, and in the relationship between liability and the conditions which are normally appended to permissible self-defensive violence: imminence, necessity, and proportionality. The volume breaks new ground in all these areas.

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  • Newman, E., Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and Change in Intra-State Conflict, London, New York, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2014.

    Newman, E., Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and Change in Intra-State Conflict, London, New York, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2014.

    This volume explores the nature of civil war in the modern world and in historical perspective. Civil wars represent the principal form of armed conflict since the end of the Second World War, and certainly in the contemporary era. The nature and impact of civil wars suggests that these conflicts reflect and are also a driving force for major societal change. In this sense, Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and change in intrastate conflict argues that the nature of civil war is not fundamentally changing in nature. The book includes a thorough consideration of patterns and types of intrastate conflict and debates relating to the causes, impact, and ‘changing nature’ of war. A key focus is on the political and social driving forces of such conflict and its societal meanings, significance and consequences. The author also explores methodological and epistemological challenges related to studying and understanding intrastate war. A range of questions and debates are addressed. What is the current knowledge regarding the causes and nature of armed intrastate conflict? Is it possible to produce general, cross-national theories on civil war which have broad explanatory relevance? Is the concept of ‘civil wars’ empirically meaningful in an era of globalization and transnational war? Has intrastate conflict fundamentally changed in nature? Are there historical patterns in different types of intrastate conflict? What are the most interesting methodological trends and debates in the study of armed intrastate conflict? How are narratives about the causes and nature of civil wars constructed around ideas such as ethnic conflict, separatist conflict and resource conflict? This book will be of much interest to students of civil wars, intrastate conflict, security studies and international relations in general.

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  • Tuck, C., Understanding Land Warfare, London; New York, I.B. Tauris, 2014.

    Tuck, C., Understanding Land Warfare, London; New York, I.B. Tauris, 2014.

    Understanding Land Warfare provides a thorough grounding in the vocabulary, concepts, issues and debates associated with modern land warfare. The book is a thematic, debate-driven analysis of what makes land warfare unique; how it interacts with the other environments; the key concepts that shape how it is executed; the trade-offs associated with its prosecution; and the controversies that continue to surround its focus and development. Understanding Land Warfare contains several key themes: the difficulty of conducting land warfare, the interplay between change and continuity, the growing importance of co-operation, the variety of ways in which land warfare is fought; the competing theoretical debates; the tensions and trade-offs. This book will be essential reading for military personnel studying on cadet, intermediate and staff courses. In addition, it will also be of use to undergraduate and postgraduate students of military history, war studies and strategic studies.

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  • Barash, D.P. and C.P. Webel, Peace and Conflict Studies, Los Angeles, CA, Sage, 2014.

    Barash, D.P. and C.P. Webel, Peace and Conflict Studies, Los Angeles, CA, Sage, 2014.

    This thoroughly revised Third Edition of Peace and Conflict Studies sets the gold standard as an accessible introduction and comprehensive exploration of this vital subject. The authors share their vast knowledge and analysis of 21st-century world events—including new coverage on timely topics such as the scope and history of peace and conflict studies, the nature of violence and nonviolence, cutting-edge military technologies, the rise of the “BRIC” countries, and the US and Global Peace Indexes. With an encyclopedic scope, this introductory text chronicles a plethora of important global topics from pre-history to the present.

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  • Gillespie, A., The Causes of War, Volume I - 3000 BCE to 1000 CE, Oxford, Hart, 2013.

    Gillespie, A., The Causes of War, Volume I - 3000 BCE to 1000 CE, Oxford, Hart, 2013.

    This is the first volume of a projected four-volume series charting the causes of war from 3000 BCE to the present day, written by a leading international lawyer, and using as its principal materials the documentary history of international law largely in the form of treaties and the negotiations which led up to them. These volumes seek to show why millions of people, over thousands of years, slayed each other. In departing from the various theories put forward by historians, anthropologists and psychologists, Gillespie offers a different taxonomy of the causes of war, focusing on the broader settings of politics, religion, migrations and empire-building. These four contexts were dominant and often overlapping justifications for the first four thousand years of human civilisation, for which written records exist.

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  • Lang, A.F. (et al.) (eds.), Just War: Authority, Tradition, and Practice, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2013.

    Lang, A.F. (et al.) (eds.), Just War: Authority, Tradition, and Practice, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2013.

    The just war tradition is central to the practice of international relations, in questions of war, peace, and the conduct of war in the contemporary world, but surprisingly few scholars have questioned the authority of the tradition as a source of moral guidance for modern statecraft. Just War: Authority, Tradition, and Practice brings together many of the most important contemporary writers on just war to consider questions of authority surrounding the just war tradition. Authority is critical in two key senses. First, it is central to framing the ethical debate about the justice or injustice of war, raising questions about the universality of just war and the tradition’s relationship to religion, law, and democracy. Second, who has the legitimate authority to make just-war claims and declare and prosecute war? Such authority has traditionally been located in the sovereign state, but non-state and supra-state claims to legitimate authority have become increasingly important over the last twenty years as the just war tradition has been used to think about multilateral military operations, terrorism, guerrilla warfare, and sub-state violence. The chapters in this collection, organized around these two dimensions, offer a compelling reassessment of the authority issue’s centrality in how we can, do, and ought to think about war in contemporary global politics.

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  • Waldman, T., War, Clausewitz and the Trinity, Farnham, Ashgate, 2013.

    Waldman, T., War, Clausewitz and the Trinity, Farnham, Ashgate, 2013.
    Today, the ideas of Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) are employed almost ubiquitously in strategic studies, military history and defence literatures, but often in a manner which distorts their true meaning. In this book, Waldman explores Clausewitz’s central theoretical device for understanding war – the ‘remarkable trinity’ of politics, chance and passion. By situating the great Prussian in historical context, he presents a conception truer to Clausewitz’s intention. Seeking to achieve this through an in-depth reinterpretation of On War and Clausewitz’s other writings, conducted through the prism of the trinity, this book draws on existing studies but argues that there is room for clarification. It presents fresh perspectives into aspects of Clausewitz’s thought and emphasises elements of his theory that have often been neglected. Furthermore, it provides a solid basis from which debate on the nature of modern war can move forward.
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Database

Blogs

  • Peace Palace Carnegie Wateler Peace Prize 2012 awarded to War Child

    On November 15 2012 War Child received the Carnegie Wateler Peace Prize.

    The Carnegie Foundation awarded the Carnegie Wateler Peace Prize to War Child for the global efforts that War Child has made on behalf of children and young people in (former) conflict.

    War Child is an independent humanitarian organization that since 1995 has committed itself to helping children and youngsters that have been affected by war to attain a peaceful future. With a creative approach War Child helps children and teens deal with their war experiences.

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  • The Body Counts : Civilian Casualties in War

    Throughout the post Cold War period there has been a widespread view that war and armed conflict have changed radically since the First World War to the point where some 80-90% of war victims are now civilians. Many modern wars have been accompanied by significant depopulations, along with destruction of infrastructure and resources.

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  • “Resistance is Futile”

    Many people have expressed their concern over this futuristic way of Predator warfare as practized by the U.S. in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Amongst others, Philip Ashton, United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial executions, presented a critical report on the secrecy of the US drone program and its legal basis.

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  • Cyberwar: from fiction to fact

    Computers rather than missiles could pose the biggest security threat of the future with nations able to cripple rivals by using cyberwarfare. Computer strikes could damage a country’s infrastructure as well as defence equipment, cutting off communications, power supplies and military command systems. Major interference on a large scale can be generated by computer viruses. [...]

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