Cartoon map of Europe at the beginning of World War I. The map is showing Austria-Hungary at the centre, depicted as the tragic and buffoonish Pierrot character of European pantomime, who eternally pines for an unrequited love. Is it Germany’s love that Austria pines for? While grasping itself to the German eagle, a brown bear (Russia) lashes out at both of them. A small dog (Serbia), dressed in the colours of Austria-Hungary, grasps him in his coat. Great Britain and France are ready to attack the eagle. France is represented as Marianne avec le Coq Galois, the two emblematic symbols of the French nation. Great Britain is represented as a man with his arms already bloodied from physical conflict. The blood is not his own. He marches toward the conflict armed with a sword and has the armies of Ireland, India, New Foundland and the ANZACS (Australia and New Zealand) behind him as support. He views the situation as ‘Business as usual’. In the south, Italy is depicted as an opera singer singing the lyrics “You made me love you. I didn’t want to do it”. Italy later backed out of the Triple Alliance. The Ottoman Empire is pushed, unwillingly it seems, towards the conflict by German interests. The smaller (neutral) countries of Europe watch intently from a distance, looking cautiously and nervous, with the maelstrom of European affairs surrounding them.
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A selection of relevant publications from the Peace Palace Library collection
- Garner, J.W., International Law and the World War, 2 vols., London, Longmans, Green and Co, 1920.
- Hankel, G., Die Leipziger Prozesse: Deutsche Kriegsverbrechen und ihre strafrechtliche Verfolgung nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg, Hamburg, Hamburger Edition, 2003.
- Hirschfeld, G., G. Krumeich and I. Renz (eds.), Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, Leiden, Brill, 2012.
- Hirschfeld, G. und G. Krumeich (Hrsg.), Enzyklopädie Erster Weltkrieg, Paderborn, Schöningh, 2009.
- Horne, J.N. and A.R. Kramer, German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2001.
- Joll, J.B., The Origins of the First World War, Harlow, Longman, 1984.
- MacMillan, M.O., The War that ended Peace: How Europe abandoned Peace for the First World War, London, Profile Books, 2013.
- Münkler, H., Der Große Krieg: die Welt 1914 bis 1918, Berlin, Rowohlt, 2013.
- Phillipson, C., International Law and the Great War, London, Fisher Unwin; Sweet and Maxwell, 1915.
- Pöhlmann, M., J.S. Corum and G. Hirschfeld (eds.), Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, Leiden, Brill, 2012.
- Stevenson, D., 1914-1918: the History of the First World War, London, Penguin, 2005.
- Storey, W.K., The First World War: a Concise Global History, Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.