Major events in history tend to bring about or further major innovations in technology. The announcement of the then Prime Minister of the UK, David Cameron, in January 2013 that he wanted to organise an in- or out-referendum about British membership of the EU triggered the present author to start a series of blogs about Brexit on the website of this library. Blogs form a challenge for traditional academics inasmuch as they have to be short and sharp. The effect of the blog will be highlighted by the punch line in which it culminates. A blog, which solves an age-old conundrum, may turn out to be a greater leap forward in academic advancement than many contemplative books have been.
The tedious process of Brexit, which is still a work in slow progress six years after the start of Cameron’s adventure, coincided with my efforts to develop an own and distinct political philosophy for the European Union. It struck me that his insistence on deleting the term ‘ever closer union’ from the text of the Treaties touched the nerve of the process of European integration. For decades, the ‘determination to create an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe’ had been regarded as a steppingstone for the foundation of the European state, in which the member-states of the EU were to merge. The federal dream, however, faded away after the rejection of the so-called Constitution for Europe in 2005. The Lisbon Treaty, which came to replace the ill-conceived constitution in 2007, subsequently construed the EU as a democracy without turning the Union into a state. Thus, instead of creating a federal state, the term ever closer union proved to have paved the way for the emergence of a European democracy.
Obviously, European democracy is a new concept, which requires an own and distinct political philosophy. The insistence of Cameron & comrades on deleting the term ‘ever closer union’ prompted me to take stock of the democratic achievements, which the term has brought about over the last 70 years. While the EU has been criticised by Cameron for its undemocratic character and depicted by Johnson as a Fourth Reich, the Union constitutes the first organisation of democratic states in the world, which also aspires to function as a democracy of its own.
Consequently, the term ‘ever closer union’ is crucial for the theory of democratic integration (TDI), which I developed during the years of the Brexit-debate. The TDI suggests that the EU is currently evolving from a ‘union of democratic states’, as the then European Communities were described by the European Council in 1973, to a European democracy. Cameron and the Brexiteers want to reverse the process by returning to the concept of a conventional free trade association. The alternative for this Westphalian organisation of states is not a European SuperState, as they like to suggest, but a European democracy.
Although Brexit has not yet been completed and the corresponding debate still continues to divide if not paralyse the United Kingdom, its unintended consequence is that it has contributed to the development of an own and distinct political philosophy of the European Union. The theory of democratic integration will be published in the book European Democracy, which the present blogger will launch in the European Parliament in Brussels on the eve of Europe Day 2019. The book contains a distinct chapter, which contains a selection of the blogs, which he wrote for the Peace Palace Library. The blogs reflect the progress made on the path towards the construction of a post-Westphalian philosophy for the EU. Blogs are here to stay and to contribute to academic debates. Consequently, the book European Democracy bears the subtitle: Blogs, Tweets & Treatises.[i]
A selection of relevant publications from the Peace Palace Library collection
- Abdel Wahab, M.S., "Brexit's Chilling Effect on Choice of Law and Arbitration in the United Kingdom: Practical Reflections Between Aggravation and Alleviation", Journal of international arbitration, 33 (2016), pp. 463-481.
- Ahmed, M. and Beaumont, P., "Exclusive choice of court agreements: some issues on the Hague Convention on choice of court agreements and its relationship with the Brussels I recast especially anti-suit injunctions, concurrent proceedings and the implications of BREXIT", Journal of private international law, 13 (2017), No. 2, pp. 386-410. January 2018
- Ambos, K., "European Criminal Law and Brexit", in Böse, M. (et al.)(eds.), Justice without borders: essays in honour of Wolfgang Schomburg, Leiden : Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2018, pp. 1-22.
- Ambos, K., "Brexit und Europäisches Strafrecht", Juristenzeitung, 72 (2017), No. 14, pp. 707-713.
- Andreangli, A., "The consequences of Brexit for competition litigation: an end to a "success story"?", European competition law review: a quarterly review, 38 (2017), No. 5, pp. 228-236.
- Antoine, A., "Le Brexit et le droit constitutionnel britannique", Revue du droit public et de la science politique en France et à l'étranger, (2017), No. 2, pp. 261-280.
- Augenhofer, S., "Brexit - Marriage 'With' Divorce? - The Legal Consequences for Consumer Law", Fordham international law journal, 40 (2017), No. 5, pp. 1475-1504. January 2018
- Baker, D. & P.Schnapper, Britain and the crisis of the European Union, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Bar Council Brexit Working Group, The Brexit papers, [London], Bar Council Brexit Working Group, 2017.
- Barnard, C., "Brexit and Employment Law", in Dougan, M. (ed.), The UK after Brexit: legal and policy challenges, Cambridge : Antwerp : Portland, Intersentia, 2017, pp. 97-114.
- Basedow, J., "Brexit und das Privat- und Wirtschaftsrecht", Zeitschrift für europäisches Privatrecht, 24 (2016), No. 3, pp. 567-572.
- Beale, K., "The United Kingdom without the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union: Putting Down the Dog that Did not Bark", in Birkinshaw, P.J. and Biondi, A. (eds.), Britain Alone!: The Implications and Consequences of United Kingdom Exit from the EU, Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer, 2016, pp. 257-290.
- Bentzien, J., "Der Austritt Großbritanniens aus der Europäischen Union in luftrechtlicher Hinsicht", Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht: Vierteljahresschrift des Instituts für Luft- und Weltraumrecht der Universität Köln, 66 (2017), No. 2, pp. 202-211.
- Besch, S. and Black, J., "Brexit: What Have We Learned So Far?", Survival, 58 (2016), No. 5, pp. 59-67.
- Birkinshaw, P.J. and A. Biondi, (eds.), Britain Alone!: The Implications and Consequences of United Kingdom Exit from the EU, Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer, 2016.
- Birkinshaw P. J. and M. Varney, "Britain Alone Constitutionally: Brexit and Restitutio in Integrum", in Birkinshaw, P.J. and Biondi, A. (eds.), Britain alone!: the implications and consequences of United Kingdom exit from the EU, Alphen aan den Rijn: Wolters Kluwer, 2016, pp 13-37.
- Birkinshaw, P., "Brexit Editorial Vol 23 Is 1, Feb/March 2017", European public law, 23 (2017), No. 1, pp. 1–11.
- Birkinshaw, P., "Brexit Editorial Vol 23 Issue 3 September 2017", European public law, 23 (2017), No. 3, pp. 437–446.
- Block-Lieb, S., "The UK and EU Cross-Border Insolvency Recognition: From Empire to Europe to "Going It Alone"", Fordham international law journal, 40 (2017), No. 5, pp. 1373-1412.
- Blumann, C., "" Brexit": coup de tonnerre dans un ciel chargé", La semaine juridique: juris-classeur périodique, 90 (2016), No. 41, pp. 1878-1884.
- Bonasera, J., "Brexit and the European Arrest Warrant: The United Kingdom's Chance to Curtail Abuse of the Surrender System", Arizona journal of international and comparative law, 34 (2017), No. 3, pp. 637-658. June 2018
- Braakman, A.J., "Brexit and its consequences for containerised liner shipping services", The journal of international maritime law, 23 (2017), No. 4, pp. 254-265. January 2018
- Burgstaller, M. and Zarowna, A., "Possible Ramifications of the UK's EU Referendum on Intra- and Extra-EU Bits", Journal of international arbitration, 33 (2016), pp. 565-575.
- Cardwell, M., "Brexit and Agriculture: Implementing a New Legal Framework for Agricultural Support", The Cambridge yearbook of European legal studies, 19 (2017), pp. 311-335.
- Carmona Nunez, J., C-C. Cirlig & G. Sgueo, UK withdrawal from the European Union: legal and procedural issues, [Brussels], European Parliamentary Research Service, 2017.
- Carter, D., "Who is taking (back) control of Brexit?: assessing the implications of the UK Supreme Court decision in "Miller"", Ars aequi, 66 (2017), No. 4, pp. 301-306.
- Chae, H.B., "Brexit: Is Britain Coupable?", Journal of East Asia and international law, 10 (2017), No. 1, pp. 27-45. December 2017
- Circolo, A., "Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union: How to Understand the ‘Right’ of the Member State to Withdraw the European Union?", in Troitiño, D.R., Kerikmäe, T. and Chochia, A. (eds.), Brexit: history, reasoning and perspectives, Cham, Springer, 2018, pp. 199-214. May 2018
- Coll, A., "The EFTA Court's Role in Strengthening the Homogeneity Objective of the EEA Agreement: an Examination in Light of Brexit", International trade law & regulation, 22 (2016), No. 4, pp. 119-123.
- Coutron, L. et Dubos, O., "Le Royaume-Uni et l'Union européenne après le Brexit: une fâcheuse inconséquence", Revue du droit public et de la science politique en France et à l'étranger, (2017), No. 2, pp. 281-294.
- Craig, P., "The Process: Brexit and the Anatomy of Article 50", in The law & politics of Brexit, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 49-69. February 2018
- Craig, R., "Casting Aside Clanking Medieval Chains: Prerogative, Statute and Article 50 after the EU Referendum", The modern law review, 79 (2016), No. 6, pp. 1041-1063.
- Curtin, D., "Brexit and the EU Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice: Bespoke Bits and Pieces", in The law & politics of Brexit, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 183-200. February 2018
- Cuyvers, A., "Artikel 50 VEU en Brexit: de juridische contouren voor een politiek drama", Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, 22 (2016), No. 7, pp. 222-229.
- Dammann, J.C., "A Little Bit Brexit: An Analysis of the Rules Governing Post-Withdrawal Treaties", Texas international law journal, 53 (2018), No. 2, pp. 153-175. November 2018
- Davies, G., "Brexit and the Free Movement of Workers: a Plea for National Legal Assertiveness", European law review, 41 (2016), No. 6, pp. 900-924.
- Denman, D., "The EU's External Relations: a Question of Competence", in Birkinshaw, P.J. and Biondi, A. (eds.), Britain alone!: the implications and consequences of United Kingdom exit from the EU, Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer, 2016, pp. 159-164.
- Dickinson, A., "Close the Door on Your Way Out: Free Movement of Judgments in Civil Matters - A 'Brexit' Case Study", Zeitschrift für europäisches Privatrecht, 25 (2017), No. 3, pp. 539-568.
- Dougan, M., "An airbag for the crash test dummies? EU-UK negotiations for a post-withdrawal “status quo” transitional regime under Article 50 TEU", Common market law review, 55 (2018), No. 2-3, pp. 57–99. October 2018
- Dougan, M. (ed.), The UK after Brexit: legal and policy challenges, Cambridge : Antwerp : Portland, Intersentia, 2017.
- Dougan, M., "The ' Brexit' Threat to the Northern Irish Border: Clarifying the Constitutional Framework", in Dougan, M. (ed.), The UK after Brexit: legal and policy challenges, Cambridge : Antwerp : Portland, Intersentia, 2017, pp. 53-72.
- Douglas-Scott, S., "Brexit, Article 50 and the Contested British Constitution", The modern law review, 79 (2016), No. 6, pp. 1019-1040.
- Duff, A., After Brexit: a new association agreement between Britain and Europe, London, Policy Network, 2016.
- Edwards, L., "Brexit: You Don't Know What You've Got till It's Gone", Script-ed: a journal of law and technology, 13 (2016), No. 2, pp. 112-117.
- Eeckhout, P. and Frantziou, E., "Brexit and Article 50 TEU: A Constitutionalist Reading", Common market law review, 54 (2017), No. 3, pp. 695–733. [PDF]
- Elliott, M., "The Supreme Court's Judgment in Miller: In Search of Constitutional Prinicple", The Cambridge Law Journal, 76 (2017), No. 2, pp. 257-288.
- Fabbrini, F., The Law and Politics of Brexit, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017. February 2018
- Fabbrini, F., "Brexit and EU Treaty Reform: a Window of Opportunity for Constitutional Change?", in The law & politics of Brexit, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 267-291. February 2018
- Faull, J., "European Law in the United Kingdom", European law review, 43 (2018), No. 5, pp. 780-786. March 2019
- Ferreres Comella, V., "Does Brexit Normalize Secession?", Texas international law journal, 53 (2018), No. 2, pp. 139-151. November 2018
- Frattini, F., "Dopo la Brexit: quali implicazioni per Londra, l'Europa e l'Italia: il diritto di Londra di uscire e il dovere dell'UE di evitare la fuga generalizzata", La Comunità Internazionale: rivista trimestrale della Società Italiana per l'Organizzazione Internazionale, 71 (2016), No. 2, pp. 173-180.
- Freitag, R. and Korch, S., "Gedanken zum Brexit: mögliche Auswirkungen im Internationalen Insolvenzrecht", Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsrecht, 37 (2016), No. 39, pp. 1849-1856.