Investissement direct étranger
L'investissement direct étranger (IDE) est une catégorie d'investissements qui reflète l'intention d'une entreprise résidente dans un pays d'établir des relations durables avec une économie autre que la sienne. Ces intérêts durables nécessitent l'existence d'une relation à long terme entre l'investisseur direct et l'entreprise qui bénéficie de l'investissement direct, et un certain niveau d'influence sur la gestion de l'entreprise. La propriété directe ou indirecte de 10% ou plus des droits de vote d'une entreprise résidente dans une économie par un investisseur résident d'une autre économie est la preuve de l'existence d'une telle relation. Le Centre international de règlement des différends internationaux est une institution internationale indépendante créée en application de la Convention pour le règlement des différends relatifs aux investissements entre États et ressortissants d'autres États. Le principal objectif du CIRDI est de fournir des services de conciliation et d'arbitrage pour les différends relatifs aux investissements internationaux. La Convention CIRDI est un traité multilatéral rédigé par les directeurs exécutifs de la Banque internationale pour la reconstruction et le développement (la Banque mondiale). Il a été ouvert à la signature le 18 mars 1965 et est entré en vigueur le 14 octobre 1966. Aujourd'hui, le CIRDI est considéré comme le principal organisme d'arbitrage destiné au règlement des différends entre États et investisseurs.
Le présent guide de recherche se veut un point de départ pour mener des recherches relatives à l'investissement direct étranger (IDE). Il fournit les textes juridiques de base disponibles à la Bibliothèque du Palais de la Paix, qu'il s'agisse de documents imprimés ou de documents sous format électronique. La section intitulée "Bibliographie sélective" présente une sélection de manuels, d'articles importants, de bibliographies, de publications périodiques, de publications en série et de documents pertinents. Des liens permettent de rejoindre le catalogue PPL. Le code de classification de la bibliothèque 9i. Capitaux, Change, Crédit, Banque, Monnaie, Devise, etc. et mot-matière (mot-clef) Investissements directs à l'étranger permettent d'effectuer des recherches dans le catalogue. Une attention particulière est prêtée à nos inscriptions aux bases de données, revues électroniques, livres électroniques et autres ressources électroniques. Enfin, le présent guide de recherche contient des liens vers des sites Internet pertinents et d'autres ressources en ligne présentant un intérêt particulier.
- Douglas, Z., J. Pauwelyn, and J.E. Viñuales (eds.), The Foundations of International Investment Law : bringing Theory into Practice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.
- Grubenmann, B., Der Begriff der Investition in Schiedsgerichtsverfahren in der ICSID-Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit, Basel, Helbing Lichtenhahn, 2010.
- Hofmann, R. und C.J. Tams (Hrsg.), International Investment Law and General International Law: From Clinical Isolation to Systemic Integration?, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2011.
- Kahn, P. et T.W. Wälde, Les aspects nouveaux du droit des investissements internationaux, La Haye, Académie de droit international de La Haye, 2007.
- Schreuer, C.H., The ICSID Convention: A Commentary: A Commentary on the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
- Shan, W. (ed.), The Legal Protection of Foreign Investment: A Comparative Study, Oxford, Hart, 2012.
- Binder, C. (et al.) (eds.), International Investment Law for the 21st Century: Essays in Honour of Christoph Schreuer, New York, Oxford University Press, 2009.
- Bungenberg, M., J. Griebel and S. Hindelang, International Investment Law and EU Law, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011.
- Gaillard, E., La jurisprudence du CIRDI, Paris, Pedone, 2004.
- Gazzini, T., Interpretation of International Investment Treaties, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2016.
- Kalicki, J.E. and Joubin-Bret, A. (eds.), Reshaping the Investor-State Dispute Settlement System: Journeys for the 21st Century, Leiden, Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2015. [e-book]
- Lalani, S. and Polanco, R. (eds.), The Role of the State in Investor-State Arbitration, Leiden, Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2015. [e-book]
- Manciaux, S., Investissements étrangers et arbitrage entre états et ressortissants d'autres états: trente années d'activité du CIRDI, Paris, Litec, 2004.
- McLachlan, C., Shore, L. and Weiniger, M., International Investment Arbitration: Substantive Principles, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017.
Mitchell, A.D., Heaton, D. and Henckels, C., Non-discrimination and the Role of Regulatory Purpose in International Trade and Investment Law, Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA, USA : Edward Elga, 2016
- Sauvant, K.P. and L.E. Sachs, The Effect of Treaties on Foreign Direct Investment, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2009.
- Shan,W. and Su, J. (eds.), China and International Investment Law : Twenty Years of ICSID Membership, Leiden, Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2015.
- Sornarajah, M., The International Law on Foreign Investment, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
- Vandevelde, K.J., Bilateral Investment Treaties: History, Policy, and Interpretation, Oxford, Oxford University press, 2010.
- Wandahl Mouyal, L., International Investment Law and the Right to Regulate: a Human Rights Perspective, London, Routledge, 2016.
- Yen, T.H., The Interpretation of Investment Treaties, Leiden, Boston,Brill Nijhoff, 2014.
- Chaisse, J., "The Shifting Tectonics of International Investment Law - Structure and Dynamics of Rules and Arbitration on Foreign Investment in the Asia-Pacific Region", 47 (2015) The George Washington International Law Review, No. 3, pp. 563-638.
- Ding, J., "Enforcement in International Investment and Trade Law: History, Assessment, and Proposed Solutions", Georgetown Journal of International Law, 47 (2016), No.3, pp. 1137-1165.
- Hayek, I.E. and Gilles, A., "Multifaceted Settlement of International Investments Disputes: Thoughts about the Variety of Instuments Claiming Their Applicability to the Investment Dispute", ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law Journal, 29 (2014), No. 3, pp.567-594.
- Li, F., Safeguarding State Sovereignty : The Relevance of Post-Award Remedies in ICSID and Non-ICSID Arbitration, German Yearbook of International Law, 58 (2016), pp. 353-378.
- Manciaux, S., "The Representation of States Before ICSID Tribunals", Journal of International Dispute Settlement, 2 (2011), No. 1, pp. 87-96.
- Quick, R., "Why TTIP Should Have an Investment Chapter Including ISDS", Journal of world trade: law, economics, public policy, 49 (2015), No. 2, pp. 199–209.
- Robert-Cuende, S., "Crise ou renouveau du droit des investissements internationaux? Réflexions sur l'objet des mécanismes de protection des investisseurs étranger", Revue générale de droit international public, 120 (2016), No.3, pp. 545-578.
- Schill, S.W., The European Commission’s Proposal of an “Investment Court System” for TTIP: Stepping Stone or Stumbling Block for Multilateralizing International Investment Law? 20 ASIL Insights No. 9 (22 April 2016)
- Sornarajah, M., "The Past, Present and Future of the International Law on Foreign Investment", in: Wenhua Shan and Jinyuan Su (eds.), China and International Investment Law : Twenty Years of ICSID Membership (2015), 23-55.
- Titi, C., "Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment: Survival Clauses and Reform of International Investment Law", Journal of international arbitration, 33 (2016), No. 5, pp. 425-440.
- Trakman, L.E. and Musayelyan, D., "The Repudiation of Investor-State Arbitration and Subsequent Treaty Practice: The Resurgence of Qualified Investor-State Arbitration", ICSID review: foreign investment law journal, 31 (2016), No. 1, pp. 194-218.
- ICSID Convention, Rules and Regulations
- Paparinskis, M. (ed.), Basic Documents on International Investment Protection, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2012.
Periodicals, serial publications
- Arbitraje: Revista de arbitraje comercial y de inversiones
- ICSID Reports
- ICSID Review: Foreign Investment Law Journal
- Kost, I.L. and M. Statius Muller, "Selected Bibliography on International Investment Law", Austrian Review of International and European Law, 13 (2008), pp. 469-497.
- Statius Muller, M. and H. Thyssen, "Selected Bibliography on International Investment Law", New Aspects of International Investment Law, Leiden, Nĳhoff, 2007, pp. 853-987.
1. Der Verhältnismäßigkeitsgrundsatz im Recht der Auslandsinvestitionen unter Berücksichtigung der Änderungen durch den Lissabon-Vertrag
Keywords: Canada, United States of America, European Union, Free trade agreements, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, Foreign direct investment, Bilateral investment treaties, Proportionality, Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007),
2. Australia's Hybrid International Tax System
Keywords: Australia, Taxation, International fiscal law, Economic development, Foreign direct investment, Developing countries,
3. Recent Trends in Belgium's International Tax Policy
Keywords: Belgium, Taxation, International fiscal law, Economic development, Tax havens, Foreign direct investment,
4. Taxation and Development in Croatia
Keywords: Croatia, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment, Tax havens,
5. Tax Law Components to Provide Incentives for Investment
Keywords: Czech Republic, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment,
6. Structural and Temporary Tax Mechanisms to Promote Economic Growth and Development in France
Keywords: France, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment, Developing countries,
7. Current Issues in Cross Border Taxation and Investment in the State of Israel
Keywords: Israel, Taxation, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment,
8. How Italian Tax Policy Provides Incentives for Investment in Developing, Emerging, or Low-Income Countries
Keywords: Italy, Taxation, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment, Developing countries,
9. Taxation and Development
Keywords: Japan, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment, Developing countries,
10. The Maldives
Keywords: Maldiven, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment, Developing countries,
11. Extensive Treaty Network and Unilateral Credits Support Foreign Investment
Keywords: The Netherlands, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment, Developing countries,
12. Tax Incentives in the System of Direct Taxes in Poland
Keywords: Poland, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment,
13. Overview of Income and Investment Taxation in Portugal
Keywords: Portugal, Taxation, Income tax, Tax havens, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment,
14. Taxation and Development
Keywords: South Africa, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment,
15. International Taxation
Keywords: Uganda, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment,
16. Britain Open for Business
Keywords: Great Britain, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Tax havens, Foreign direct investment,
17. Taxation and Development
Keywords: United States of America, Taxation, Income tax, International fiscal law, Tax evasion, Tax havens, Foreign direct investment,
18. In Pursuit of a Modern Tax System to Accommodate Foreign Investment
Keywords: Venezuela, Taxation, International fiscal law, Foreign direct investment,
19. Exact Boundary Between Indirect Expropriation and Legitimate State Measures in Context of Interpretation of BITs and Arbitration Practice
Keywords: Foreign direct investment, Expropriation, Bilateral investment treaties, Investment arbitration, Property,
20. Interpretation of the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (1965) by ICSID Tribunals
Keywords: Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (Washington, D.C., 18 March 1965), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (Vienna, 23 May 1969), International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, Foreign direct investment, Interpretation, Investment treaties, Investment arbitration,
21. The European Union's Competence on Foreign Investment: New and Improved
Keywords: European Union, Member states, Foreign direct investment, Competence,
22. Africa and the Reform of the International Investment Regime
Keywords: Africa, Regionalism, Foreign direct investment, Investment treaties,
23. Bilateral Investment Treaties and Regional Investment Regulation in Africa
Keywords: Africa, Foreign direct investment, Bilateral investment treaties, Regionalism,
24. The 'Africanization' of International Investment Law
Keywords: Africa, African Union, Regionalism, Foreign direct investment, Investment treaties, Sustainable development,
25. The Role of African Regional Organizations in the Promotion and Protection of Foreign Investment
Keywords: Africa, Regional organizations, Foreign direct investment, Investment treaties, Sustainable development,
26. Investment Facilitation in Regional Economic Integration in Africa
Keywords: Africa, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, East African Community, Southern African Development Community, Foreign direct investment, Regionalism,
27. Fair and Equitable Treatment and (Full) Protection and Security in African Investment Treaties Between Generality and Contextual Specificity
Keywords: Africa, Foreign direct investment, Bilateral investment treaties, National treatment, Legal protection,
28. Canadian Investment Treaties with African Countries
Keywords: Canada, Africa, Foreign direct investment, Bilateral investment treaties, Investor-State dispute settlement,
Choix de bibliothécaire
Malintoppi, L. and Tan, C. (eds.), Investment Protection in Southeast Asia : a Country-by-Country Guide on Arbitration Laws and Bilateral Investment Treaties, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Investment Protection in Southeast Asia : a Country-by-Country Guide on Arbitration Laws and Bilateral Investment Treaties is a vital reference guide to investment protection in the region, providing succinct answers to the main questions that investors may consider in connection with investments in a given jurisdiction. Each country chapter covers arbitral legislation and institutions in the country, investment-related domestic laws, an analysis of its bilateral investment treaties, and a summary of investment cases involving the relevant State or its investors.
Collins, D., An Introduction to International Investment Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This insightful and accessible introduction provides students and practitioners with a comprehensive overview of the increasingly important discipline of international investment law. Focusing primarily on the legal principles contained in the growing body of international investment agreements, this book covers the core concepts of the discipline with attention given to their relation to each other and to the manner in which they have been developed through arbitration case law. The context of each legal principle is explored along with a consideration of some of the major debates and emerging criticisms. Avoiding extensive case extracts, this book adopts an engaging and succinct narrative style which allows readers to advance their understanding of the topic while examining the legal principles with academic rigour and discerning commentary.
Kinnear, M.N., G.R. Fischer, J. Mínguez Almeida, L.F. Torres Arias and M. Uran Bidegain (eds.), Building International Investment Law: the First 50 Years of ICSID, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) is the premier international investment arbitration facility in the world. This volume celebrates the first 50 years of ICSID by presenting the landmark cases that have been decided under its auspices. These cases have addressed every aspect of investment disputes: jurisdictional thresholds; the substantive obligations found in investment treaties, contracts, and legislation; questions of general international law; and a number of novel procedural issues. Each chapter, written by a knowledgeable expert on the chapter’s particular focus, looks at an international investment law topic through the lens of one or more of these leading cases, analysing what the case held, how it has been applied, and its overall significance to the development of international investment law.
Dumberry,P., The Formation and Identification of Rules of Customary International Law in International Investment Law, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Rules of customary international law provide basic legal protections to foreign investors doing business abroad. These rules remain of fundamental importance today despite the growing number of investment treaties containing substantive investment protection. In this book, Patrick Dumberry provides a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon of custom in the field of international investment law. He analyses two fundamental questions: how customary rules are created in this field and how they can be identified. The book examines the types of manifestation of State practice which should be considered as relevant evidence for the formation of customary rules, and to what extent they are different from those existing under general international law. The book also analyses the concept of States' opinio juris in investment arbitration. Offering guidance to actors called upon to apply customary rules in concrete cases, this book will be of significant importance to those involved in investment arbitration.
Lim, C.L. (ed.), Alternative Visions of the International Law on Foreign Investment : Essays in Honour of Muthucumaraswamy Sornarajah, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book is about the forces that are reshaping the international law on foreign investment today. It begins by explaining the liberal origins of contemporary investment treaties before addressing a current backlash against these treaties and the device of investment arbitration. The book describes a long-standing legal-intellectual resistance to a neo-liberal global economic agenda, and how tribunals have interpreted various treaty standards instead. It introduces our reader to the changes now taking place in the design of a range of familiar treaty clauses, and it describes how some of these changes are now driven not only by developing and emerging economies but also by the capital-exporting nations. Finally, it explores the life, career and writings of Muthucumaraswamy Sornarajah, a scholar whose work has been dedicated to the realisation of many of these changes, and his views about the hold global capital has over legal practice.
Hindelang, S. and Krajewski, M.(eds.), Shifting Paradigms in International Investment Law : More Balanced, Less Isolated, Increasingly Diversified, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
International investment law is in transition. Whereas the prevailing mindset has always been the protection of the economic interests of individual investors, new developments in international investment law have brought about a paradigm shift. There is now more than ever before an interest in a more inclusive, transparent, and public regime. Shifting Paradigms in International Investment Law addresses these changes against the background of the UNCTAD framework to reform investment treaties. The book analyses how the investment treaty regime has changed and how it ought to be changing to reconcile private property interests and the state's duty to regulate in the public interest. In doing so, the volume tracks attempts in international investment law to recalibrate itself towards a more balanced, less isolated, and increasingly diversified regime. The individual chapters of this edited volume address the contents of investment agreements, the system of dispute settlement, the interrelation of investment agreements with other areas of public international law, constitutional questions, and new regional perspectives from Europe, South Africa, the Pacific Rim Region, and Latin America.
Llamzon, A.P., Corruption in International Investment Arbitration, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This is the first comprehensive study of corruption in international investment arbitration. The book considers the limited effectiveness of efforts to combat transnational corruption in international law and the emergence of international investment arbitration as a singular means for effective control of corruption within the international legal order. The case law on corruption by investment tribunals is studied exhaustively, jurisprudential trends are identified, and reforms aimed at enhancing the effectiveness and fairness of investment arbitration as a mechanism to combat corruption are proposed. Divided into three parts, part I focus on the phenomenon of corruption in foreign investment and attempts at its control through international law. Part II analyses the available case law in international investment arbitration dealing with corruption. Llamzon identifies nine distinct trends emerging from the case law and provides a table summarizing the key areas of corruption decision-making and each relevant tribunal's approach, which is an invaluable tool for practitioners engaging in 'live' issues of corruption within arbitral proceedings. Part III reflects on the implications of these trends for both the 'supply' and 'demand' sides of corruption in international law, and proposes a integrative framework of decision for corruption issues in international investment arbitration.
Giorgetti, Ch. (ed.), Litigation International Investment Disputes : a Practitioner's Guide, Leiden, Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Each year a growing number of complex and distinctive cases are filed in diverse forums which specialize in international investment arbitration. Until now, however, no single manual has guided practitioners through the many complexities involved in international investment arbitration proceedings - from whether and how to initiate arbitral proceedings to the enforcement of the award and available post-award remedies. Litigating International Investment Disputes: A Practitioner’s Guide fills this lacuna by serving as a comprehensive resource for those who are new to international investment arbitration, as well as for the seasoned practitioners.
The diverse group of contributors are highly experienced experts and practitioners, who have acted as counsel and arbitrators, and served in institutions which routinely administer international investment arbitration proceedings.
Bonnitcha, J., Substantive Protection under Investment Treaties : a Legal and Economic Analysis, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Substantive Protection under Investment Treaties provides the first systematic analysis of the consequences of the substantive protections that investment treaties provide to foreign investors. It proposes a new framework for identifying and evaluating the costs and benefits of differing levels of investment treaty protection, and uses this framework to evaluate the levels of protection for foreign investors implied by different interpretations of the fair and equitable treatment and indirect expropriation provisions of investment treaties. The author examines the arguments and assumptions of both supporters and critics of investment treaties, seeks to test whether they are coherent and borne out by evidence, and concludes that the 'economic' justifications for investment treaty protections are much weaker than is generally assumed. As such, the 'economic' objectives of investment treaties are not necessarily in tension with other 'non-economic' objectives. These findings have important implications for the drafting and interpretation of investment treaties.
Douglas, Z., J. Pauwelyn and J.E. Viñuales (eds.), Foundations of International Investment Law: Bringing Theory into Practice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
International investment law is one of the fastest growing areas of international law. It has led to the signing of thousands of agreements, mostly in the form of investment contracts and bilateral investment treaties. Also, in the last two decades, there has been an exponential growth in the number of disputes being resolved by investment arbitration tribunals. Yet the legal principles at the basis of international investment law and arbitration remain in a state of flux. Perhaps the best illustration of this phenomenon is the wide disagreement among investment tribunals on some of the core concepts underpinning the regime, such as investment, property, regulatory powers, scope of jurisdiction, applicable law, or the interactions with other areas of international law. The purpose of this book is to revisit these conceptual foundations in order to shed light on the practice of international investment law. It is an attempt to bridge the growing gap between the theory and the practice of this thriving area of international law.
Treves, T., F. Seatzu and S. Trevisanut (eds.) Foreign Investment, International Law and Common Concerns, London, Routledge, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book explores from an international law perspective the complex relationship between foreign investments and common concerns, i.e. values that do not coincide, or do not necessarily coincide, with the interests of the investor and of the host state. It pays particular attention to the role of the main international development banks in reconciling the needs of foreign investors with the protection of common concerns, such as the environment, human rights and labour rights. Among its collection of essays, the volume asks how much "regulatory space" investment law leaves; whether international investment law is an effective means of balancing contrasting interests, and whether investment arbitration currently constitutes a mechanism of global governance.
In collecting the outlooks of various experts in human rights, environmental and international economic law, this book breaks new ground in exploring how attention to its legal aspects may help in navigating the relationship between foreign investment and common concerns. In doing so, the book provides valuable insights into the substantive issues and institutional aspects of international investment law.
Miles, K., The Origins of International Investment Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
International investment law is a complex and dynamic field. Yet, the implications of its history are under-explored. Kate Miles examines the historical evolution of international investment law, assessing its origins in the commercial and political expansionism of dominant states during the seventeenth to early twentieth centuries and the continued resonance of those origins within modern foreign investment protection law. In particular, the exploration of the activities of the Dutch East India Company, Grotius' treatises, and pre–World War II international investment disputes provides insight into current controversies surrounding the interplay of public and private interests, the systemic design of investor-state arbitration, the substantive focus of principles, and the treatment of environmental issues within international investment law. In adopting such an approach, this book provides a fresh conceptual framework through which contemporary issues can be examined and creates new understandings of those controversies.
- Chronological Listing International Investment Arbitral Awards
- Digest of International Investment Jurisprudence
- EISL Regulation on Foreign Investment
- International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), Database of Bilateral Investment Treaties
- Investment Arbitration Reporter (IA Reporter)
- Oxford Reports on International Law Investment Claims
- Investor-State LawGuide
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Investment
P.R.I.M.E. Finance : Open for business!
On 16 January 2012, the P.R.I.M.E. Finance Foundation has started its activities with an opening conference followed by seminars on Dispute Resolution in the Financial Markets in the Peace Palace in The Hague. The Foundation oversees the activities of its Panel of Recognized International Market Experts in Finance (P.R.I.M.E. Finance), chosen for their relevant experience in financial market practice or […]Read more
- International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
- International Investment Law Centre Cologne
- Investment Treaty Arbitration
- Foreign Trade Information System about Investment, National Legislation
- ISDS in the TTIP: the Devil is in the Details by E. Fabry and G. Garbasso (Jacques Delors Institute Policy Paper 122, 16 January 2016)