Organisation Mondiale du Commerce

Introduction

World Trade Organization - Research Guide International Law

La naissance de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) a marqué la fin d'une période dans laquelle le commerce international était régi par l'Accord général sur les tarifs et le commerce (AGTC - GATT) de 1947. Avec le refus du congrès des États-Unis de ratifier la Charte de l'Organisation internationale du commerce (Charte de La Havane), le GATT de 1947 restait le seul moyen pour permettre la régulation des relations commerciales internationales. Il avait été initialement conçu pour être un accord multilatéral provisoire sur les réductions tarifaires sans référence à aucun système institutionnel. En dépit de ses nombreuses imperfections, le GATT de 1947 est graduellement devenu une organisation internationale de fait qui a permis d'établir un système de commerce multilatéral fort et prospère grâce à des rounds de négociations commerciales. Bien que le GATT de 1947 ait repris son statut originel d'accord multilatéral, l'histoire de ces décisions, procédures et pratiques coutumières constitue toujours un élément important d'interprétation et de compréhension de l'OMC et de ses décisions. L'Organisation mondiale du commerce est la seule organisation internationale mondiale s'occupant des règles commerciales entre les nations. Les accords de l'OMC, négociés et signés par la plupart des nations commerçantes du monde et ratifiés par leurs parlements constituent le cœur du système. Le but est d'aider les producteurs de biens et services, les exportateurs et les importateurs à mener leurs affaires.

Le présent guide de recherche se veut un point de départ pour mener des recherches sur l'Organisation mondiale du commerce. Il fournit les textes juridiques de base disponibles à la Bibliothèque du Palais de la Paix, qu'il s'agisse de documents imprimés ou de documents sous format électronique. La section intitulée "Bibliographie sélective" présente une sélection de manuels, d'articles importants, de bibliographies, de publications périodiques, de publications en série et de documents pertinents. Des liens permettent de rejoindre le catalogue PPL. Le code de classification de la bibliothèque 140a. GATT/OMC et le mot-matière (mot-clef) Organisation mondiale du commerce sont des instruments permettant de faire une recherche dans le catalogue. Une attention particulière est prêtée à nos inscriptions aux bases de données, revues électroniques, livres électroniques et autres ressources électroniques. Enfin, le présent guide de recherche contient des liens vers des sites Internet pertinents et d'autres ressources en ligne présentant un intérêt particulier.

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  • Limenta, M., WTO Retaliation: Effectiveness and Purposes, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2017.

    Limenta, M., WTO Retaliation: Effectiveness and Purposes, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2017.
    This book highlights the significance in identifying the purposes of retaliation prior to evaluating its effectiveness. Put differently, it refers to the purpose-based approach of effectiveness. It is a common understanding that the purpose of WTO retaliation is to induce compliance. This book, nevertheless, argues in favour of coexistence of the multiple purposes of retaliation, including reaching a mutually agreeable solution. These views are based on the extensive research conducted on the purposes of WTO retaliation, namely through interpreting Article 22 of the DSU; examining the remedies rules within the frameworks of public international law, and law and economics; and assessing the academic writings/debates as well as the statements of arbitrators.
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  • Messenger, G., The Development of World Trade Organization Law: Examining Change in International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016.

    Messenger, G., The Development of World Trade Organization Law: Examining Change in International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016.

    The Development of World Trade Organization Law: Examining Change in International Law examines the development of WTO law through an analysis of competing global actors, norms, and institutions. Taking a different approach to social-scientific or traditional legal models, this book argues that such globalized actors are the driving force behind the development of WTO law yet not in control of it. Identifying causal language as key to understanding this development, the volume examines three different causal influences: instrumental, systemic, and constitutive. It applies this causal methodology to three key areas of WTO law: safeguard measures, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, and subsidies. The volume provides detailed explanations of why the law has developed as it has and offers insights into the future functioning of the WTO system.

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  • Jemielniak, J., L. Nielsen and H. Palmer Olsen (ed.), Establishing Judicial Authority in International Economic Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2016.

    Jemielniak, J., L. Nielsen and H. Palmer Olsen (ed.), Establishing Judicial Authority in International Economic Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2016.

    Part I. Courts in International Economic Law – Emergence, Interplay and Proliferation: 1. Assessing the impact of WTO and regional dispute resolution mechanisms on the world trading system David A. Gantz; 2. Establishing permanent regional good offices for trade disputes in Asia Chang-fa Lo; 3. African regional judiciaries and their jurisprudence in trade law matters Amos Saurombe; 4. Coordinated actions in international economic law as illustrated by investment treaty arbitration and World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes Greg Tereposky and Laura Nielsen; Part II. The Development and Usage of Precedents in International Economic Law: 5. Minority rules: precedent and participation before the WTO Appellate Body Joost Pauwelyn; 6. The welfare implications of precedent in international law Krzysztof J. Pelc; 7. Features of trade law adjudication and their impact on the development of legal concepts and precedents Anton K. Schnyder and Stefanie Pfisterer; Part III. Legitimating Decisions in International Economic Law: 8. Judicial ethics in international economic law: what standards of independence and impartiality apply to arbitrators and panelists? Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer; 9. Judicial authority and styles of reasoning: self-presentation between legalism and deliberation Ingo Venzke; 10. Global citizens in international commercial arbitration and WTO dispute resolution Joanna Jemielniak and Laura Nielsen; 11. Proportionality analysis and international commercial arbitration: the example of public policy and domestic courts Benedikt Pirker.

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  • Kennedy, M., WTO Dispute Settlement and the TRIPS Agreement: Applying Intellectual Property Standards in a Trade Law Framework, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2016.

    Kennedy, M., WTO Dispute Settlement and the TRIPS Agreement: Applying Intellectual Property Standards in a Trade Law Framework, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2016.

    The TRIPS Agreement was implemented in the WTO to gain access to a functioning dispute settlement mechanism that could authorize trade sanctions. Yet TRIPS and the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding are based on systems that developed independently in WIPO and GATT. In this book, Matthew Kennedy exposes the challenges created by the integration and independence of TRIPS within the WTO by examining how this trade organization comes to grips with intellectual property disputes. He contrasts the way intellectual property disputes between governments have been handled before and after the establishment of the WTO. Based on practical experience, this book provides a comprehensive review of the issues that arise under the DSU, TRIPS, GATT 1994 and other WTO agreements in intellectual property matters. These range from procedural pitfalls to substantive treaty interpretation and conflicts as well as remedies, including cross-retaliation.

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  • Hodu, N.Y. and Z. Qi, The political economy of WTO implementation and China's approach to litigation in the WTO, Cheltenham, UK : Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016.

    The concept of compliance with World Trade Organization law as part of international economic law is examined in this discerning book. Cognisance of the key conceptual issues that continue to dominate contemporary debates around rule-making in the world trading system, this must-read text approaches the issue of international norm compliance from a broad perspective. In view of China's role in shaping the political economy of the world trading system in recent years, this book places the discussion within the context of Chinese Confucian values

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  • Cook, G., A Digest of WTO Jurisprudence on Public International Law Concepts and Principles, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 2015.

    In its first twenty years, the WTO dispute settlement system generated over 350 decisions totalling more than 60,000 pages. These decisions contain many statements by WTO adjudicators regarding the law of treaties, state responsibility, international dispute settlement, and other topics of general public international law. This book is a collection of nearly one thousand statements by WTO adjudicators relating to admissibility and jurisdiction; attribution of conduct to a State; breach of an obligation; conflicts between treaties; countermeasures; due process; evidence before international tribunals; good faith; judicial economy; municipal law; non-retroactivity; reasonableness; sources of international law; sovereignty; treaty interpretation; and words and phrases commonly used in treaties and other international legal instruments. This comprehensive digest presents summaries and extracts organized systematically under issue-specific sub-headings, making this jurisprudence easily accessible to students and practitioners working in any field of international law.

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  • Charnovitz, S. The Path of World Trade Law in the 21st Century, Singapore, World Scientific Publishing, 2015.

    The advent of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 transformed international economic law for states, enterprises, and nongovernmental organizations. This book analyzes how the WTO is changing the path of international trade law and examines the implications of these trends for the world economy and the global environment. Containing 18 essays published from 1999 to 2011, the book illuminates several of the most complex issues in contemporary trade policy. Among the topics covered are: Is there a normative theory of the WTO's purpose? Can constitutional theory provide guidance to keep the WTO's levers in balance? Should the WTO use trade sanctions for enforcement? What can the WTO do to enhance sustainable development and job creation?

    Charnovitz, 2015
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  • Qureshi, A.H., Interpreting WTO Agreements: Problems and Perspectives, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015.

    This book was first published in 2006. The case law of the World Trade Organization is now extensive, running into over one hundred cases and thousands of pages. The interpretative process involved in this jurisprudence constitutes a form of legislative activity, and is therefore of great significance not only to the parties to disputes, but to the membership of the WTO. Qureshi sets out here to identify some of the underlying problems of interpreting WTO agreements, within the context of different issues, problems, objectives and disciplines, and to comprehensively examine the underlying conditions for the interpretation of WTO agreements. He focuses on: the apparatus of interpretation in the WTO; the manner of interpreting institutional norms, national measures, and exceptions; the manner of facilitating the development objective; the manner of reconciling conflicting norms through interpretation; and finally the manner of interpreting the trade remedies agreements. Various perspectives on interpretation are proffered, particularly that of justice and development.

     

    Qureshi, A.H., 2015
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