Utilisation de la force

Introduction

Use of Force | Research Guide International law

Le Traité général de renonciation à la guerre, ou Pacte Briand Kellog, est la pierre d'angle de l'interdiction du recours à la force - devenu aujourd'hui un principe de droit international . Ce traité est entré en vigueur le 24 juillet 1929 et est encore en vigueur et largement accepté. Bien que le système de la Société des Nations n'interdise pas la guerre ou le recours à la force mais les restreignent à des niveaux tolérables, l'article 2(4) de la Charte des Nations Unies interdit l'utilisation de la force contre l'intégrité territoriale ou l'indépendance politique de tout État, ou de toute manière  incompatible avec les objectifs des Nations Unies. En cas d'agression d'un État par un autre, le Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies est autorisé par le chapitre VII de la Charte des Nations Unies à permettre à ses membres de prendre toutes les mesures nécessaires au maintien de la paix et de la sécurité internationales. Quelques exemples de l'utilisation de la force pour éviter la guerre : les sanctions économiques, le boycott, le blocus pacifique, l'embargo, les mesures de rétorsion et de représailles.

Le présent guide de recherche se veut un point de départ pour mener des recherches sur l'utilisation de la force. Il fournit les textes juridiques de base disponibles à la Bibliothèque du Palais de la Paix, qu'il s'agisse de documents imprimés ou de documents sous format électronique. La section intitulée "Bibliographie sélective" présente une sélection de manuels, d'articles importants, de bibliographies, de publications périodiques, de publications en série et de documents pertinents. Des liens permettent de rejoindre le catalogue PPL. Le code de classification de la bibliothèque 199. Causes de la guerre ; sa légalité ; théorie de l'agression et le mot-matière (mot-clef) Utilisation de la force sont des instruments permettant de faire une recherche dans le catalogue. Une attention particulière est prêtée à nos inscriptions aux bases de données, revues électroniques, livres électroniques et autres ressources électroniques. Enfin, le présent guide de recherche contient des liens vers des sites Internet pertinents et d'autres ressources en ligne présentant un intérêt particulier.

Bibliographie

Reference works

Books

Leading articles

Documents

New titles


1. Le ciblage extraterritorial au moyen de drones armés
Le ciblage extraterritorial au moyen de drones armés : quelques conséquences juridiques / Jelena Pejic In: International Review of the Red Cross = Revue internationale de la Croix-Rouge = ISSN 1560-7755: vol. 96, issue 1, page 69-110. - 2014
Keywords: Armed conflicts, Non-international armed conflicts, Wars, Unmanned vehicles, Targeting, Use of force, International humanitarian law,

2. Le consentement à l'accès humanitaire
Le consentement à l'accès humanitaire : une obligation déclenchée par le contrôle du territoire et non par les droits de l'État / Françoise Bouchet-Saulnier In: International Review of the Red Cross = Revue internationale de la Croix-Rouge = ISSN 1560-7755: vol. 96, issue 1, page 167-178. - 2014
Keywords: States, Sovereignty, Armed conflicts, Use of force, Humanitarian intervention, Responsibility to protect, International humanitarian law,

Choix de bibliothécaire

  • Due-Gundersen, N., The Privatization of Warfare and Inherently Governmental Functions: Private Military Companies in Iraq and the State Monopoly of Regulated Force, Cambridge; Antwerp; Portland, Intersentia, 2016.

    Since the 2003 U.S. led invasion of Iraq, the private military sector has seen the largest growth of profit for decades. As Iraq continues to be the focal point of private military clients, staff and related actors, the recurring issue of legitimacy must be addressed. While many texts focus only on existing or proposed legislation, this book analyses the public perception of private military companies (PMCs) and, of wider significance, how their use by states affects how the general public perceives state legitimacy of monopolizing force. Furthermore, this book provides a timely overview of how the energy sector and PMCs are challenging the established sovereignty of politically fragmented oil states, illustrating how energy firms may become as culpable as states in their partnerships with the private military sector and subsequent political ramifications.

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  • Yoo, J., Point of Attack: Preventive War, International Law, and Global Welfare, New York, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Yoo, J., Point of Attack : Preventive War, International Law, and Global Welfare, New York, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Point of Attack argues that the time has come to replace the international rules of war. Current law permits nations to resort to force only in self-defense or under UN authority, which perversely allows mass civilian killings, civil wars, weapons proliferation, and terrorism to run rampant. A new approach should allow the great powers to intervene when a war would benefit global welfare more than the costs.

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  • Roscini, M., Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law, New York, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Roscini, M., Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law, New York, Oxford University Press, 2014.

    The internet has changed the rules of many industries, and war is no exception. But can a computer virus be classed as an act of war? Does a Denial of Service attack count as an armed attack? And does a state have a right to self-defence when cyber attacked? With the range and sophistication of cyber operations against states dramatically increasing in recent times, Dr Marco Roscini’s timely book investigates the traditional concepts of ‘use of force’, ‘armed attack’ and ‘armed conflict’ and, through a comprehensive analysis of primary documents as well as through an extensive literature search, asks whether and how existing laws created in the analogue age can be applied in a digital age.

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  • Neri, K., L'emploi de la force en mer, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2013.

    Neri, K., L'emploi de la force en mer, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2013.

    Le droit international contemporain se trouve face à un défi majeur : assurer la sécurité et la liberté des espaces maritimes, alors que l’on y observe une recrudescence des activités illicites ou dangereuses. L’étude s’inscrit dans le cadre de ce défi et tente de cerner la problématique de l’emploi de la force en mer afin de lutter contre ces activités. Dans le contexte du développement et de la mise en oeuvre de pouvoirs de police dans les zones maritimes, l’ouvrage démontre l’ambivalence de la police internationale relative à la mer. Il est caractérisé par une double juxtaposition entre l’objet de l’emploi de la force en mer (activités illicites de personnes privées ou actes illicites des états) et entre les acteurs chargés de lutter contre l’illicite en mer.

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  • Alder, M.C., The Inherent Right of Self-Defence in International Law, Dordrecht, Springer, 2013.

    Alder, M.C., The Inherent Right of Self-Defence in International Law, Dordrecht, Springer, 2013.

    Also available as Fulltext e-book inside Peace Palace Library

    Determining the earliest point in time at which international law authorises a state to exercise its inherent right of self-defence is an issue which has been debated, but unsatisfactorily reasoned, by scholars and states since the 1960’s. Yet it remains arguably the most pressing question of law that faces the international community. This book unravels the legal and factual complications which have obscured the answer to this question. In contrast to most other works, it takes an historic approach by tracing the evolution of the rights, rules and principles of international law which have governed the use of force by states since the 16th century. Its emphasis on self-defence provides the reader with a new and complete understanding of how and why the international legal framework limits defensive force to repelling an imminent threat or use of offensive force which is directed at the territory of a state.

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Database

Blogs

  • Coalition against Islamic State: Too Many Obstacles?

    After weeks of fighting, Islamic State succeeded in taking over the Iraqi city of Ramadi and it currently controls large parts of the al-Anbar province, which borders on Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia. Almost 25,000 residents have fled Ramadi. This week Islamic State also overran Syrian government troops to seize Palmyra (Homs province, Syria), home to the ruins of a 2,000-year-old city that was one of the most important cultural centers of the ancient world.The U.N. human rights office in Geneva said a third of Palmyra’s 200,000 residents may have fled the fighting in the past few days.

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  • Drones Deployed during War raise Various Legal and Ethical Questions

    Drones can be used for many different purposes. The use of drones raises various legal and ethical questions ranging from humanitarian to privacy issues. The Peace and Security Salon of 9 April discussed these questions in the context of the deployment of armed drones and robots during wartime. Three specialists each discussed the use of drones from a different background.

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  • Drones and Robots as Means of Modern Warfare

    Several aspects of autonomous weapons systems and the deployment of drones during warfare will be discussed during the upcoming Peace and Security Salon: “Drones and Robots as means of modern warfare” which will be held at the Peace Palace Library on Thursday, the 9th of april. The use of drones as a weapons system has increased exponentially in recent years and this has given rise to a significant degree of controversy and a number of specific questions relating to their use. Questions which arise in relation to drones and autonomous weapons systems include whether they are in conformity with or potentially capable of complying with IHL requirements in conditions of contemporary warfare, issues of accountability and responsibility and ethical questions.

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  • Extending the Coalition against Islamic State

    Yesterday, Turkey’s parliament has backed a motion that could allow its military to enter Iraq and Syria to join the campaign against Islamic State (IS) militants. While Arab countries including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Bahrain and Qatar have quickly joined the bombing campaign, Washington’s traditional Western allies had been slow to answer the call from U.S. President Barack Obama. France was the first Western country to respond, but this week national parliaments in the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Australia have approved to join the global coalition against Islamic State too.

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  • Hague Academy Model United Nations on Drone Warfare and International Law

    Directed energy weapons, drones, self targeting bullets, mobile tactical high energy lasers, military robots, spy weapons, weapons undetectable under an x-ray scan, remote controlled insect armies, self driving tanks, robotic mules, thermal camouflage, surveillance technologies and autonomous unmanned systems are some examples of the high tech weapons and military technology that are now used during warfare. The use of this state of the art military technology raises serious ethical and legal questions: (when) is the use of drones acceptable?

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  • Hamas versus Israel : Gaza dangerzone again

    The military leader of the Palestinian militant group Hamas, Ahmed Jabari, has been assassinated in an Israeli air strike in Gaza. Who is the initial aggressor in this particular case? Peace negotiations with Hamas resulted in a ceasefire on November 21, at 9 pm., which has been respected so far.

    Both parties claim the victory.

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  • The Legality of Drone Attacks

    According to a recent report by Stanford and New York Universities’ law schools (Living Under Drones), the current US drone strike policy is counterproductive, has injured and killed civilians and undermines respect for international law. This blog explores briefly both the ius ad bellum and ius in bello implications of drone attacks.

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  • Conference about ICJ's judgment in the case between Nicaragua and the USA

    In 1986, the International Court of Justice issued its judgment on the merits in a dispute between Nicaragua and the United States of America. Twenty-five years later, members of the legal teams of both Nicaragua and the United States faced each other once again in the Peace Palace.

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See also

More Research guides on Guerre et Paix