Réfugiés

Introduction

Refugees - Research Guide International Law

La Convention des Nations Unies relative au statut des réfugiés de 1951 définit le réfugié comme toute personne qui " craignant avec raison d'être persécutée du fait de sa race, de sa religion, de sa nationalité, de son appartenance à un certain groupe social ou de ses opinions politiques, se trouve hors du pays dont elle a la nationalité et qui ne peut ou, du fait de cette crainte, ne veut se réclamer de la protection de ce pays". La définition du réfugié a été étendue par le Protocole de 1967 à la Convention et par des conventions régionales en Afrique et en Amérique latine, pour inclure des personnes qui ont fui la guerre et la violence dans leur propre pays. Il est important de noter que l'article 33 de la Convention prévoit le principe de non-refoulement, ce qui signifie qu'aucun État signataire peut expulser ni refouler un réfugié de quelque manière que ce soit vers des territoires où sa vie ou sa liberté seraient menacées. Les conditions dans lesquelles une personne se voit accorder le statut de réfugié sont laissées à la discrétion des États. Le Bureau du Haut Commissaire des Nations Unies pour les Réfugiés (UNHCR) est le principal organe de l'ONU à protéger et apporter son soutien aux réfugiés. L'UNHCR assiste les réfugiés pour leur réinstallation ou leur retour, et trouve des solutions à leur situation critique. Au niveau international, le débat se poursuit à propos de la nature de la protection qui devrait être accordée aux réfugiés, des obligations des pays d'accueil et du rôle de la communauté internationale à l'égard des réfugiés.

Le présent guide de recherche se veut un point de départ pour mener des recherches sur les réfugiés. Il fournit les textes juridiques de base disponibles à la Bibliothèque du Palais de la Paix, qu'il s'agisse de documents imprimés ou de documents sous format électronique. La section intitulée "Bibliographie sélective" présente une sélection de manuels, d'articles importants, de bibliographies, de publications périodiques, de publications en série et de documents pertinents. Des liens permettent de rejoindre le catalogue PPL. Le code de classification de la bibliothèque 160c. Autres questions administratives, sociales et humanitaires et le mot-matière (mot-clef) Réfugiés sont des instruments permettant de faire une recherche dans le catalogue. Une attention particulière est prêtée à nos inscriptions aux bases de données, revues électroniques, livres électroniques et autres ressources électroniques. Enfin, le présent guide de recherche contient des liens vers des sites Internet pertinents et d'autres ressources en ligne présentant un intérêt particulier.

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Bibliographie

Online publications (open access), 2016.

Reference works

 Books/papers

Recent articles

Documents

Periodicals, serial publications

Refugee Law Course

 

 

New titles

As we are right in the middle of moving to a new library system, it is not yet possible to automatically collect new titles for this Research Guide.

Choix de bibliothécaire

  • Ghezelbash, D., Refuge Lost : Asylum Law in an Interdependent World, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2018.

    Ghezelbash, D., Refuge Lost : Asylum Law in an Interdependent World

    As Europe deals with a so-called 'refugee crisis', Australia's harsh border control policies have been suggested as a possible model for Europe to copy. Key measures of this system such as long-term mandatory detention, intercepting and turning boats around at sea, and the extraterritorial processing of asylum claims were actually used in the United States long before they were adopted in Australia. The book examines the process through which these policies spread between the United States and Australia and the way the courts in each jurisdiction have dealt with the measures. Daniel Ghezelbash's innovative interdisciplinary analysis shows how policies and practices that 'work' in one country might not work in another. This timely book is a must-read for those interested in preserving the institution of asylum in a volatile international and domestic political climate.

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  • Heschl, L., Protecting the Rights of Refugees Beyond European Borders : Establishing Extraterritorial Legal Responsibilities, Cambridge, Intersentia, 2018.

    Heschl, L., Protecting the Rights of Refugees Beyond European Borders : Establishing Extraterritorial Legal Responsibilities, Cambridge, Intersentia, 2018.

    The European migration and asylum policy has been shaped by efforts to establish an efficient migration management system in order to protect the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice from the new security threat of ‘irregular migration’. The extraterritorialisation of immigration control measures beyond territorial borders form part of this strategy and the EU-Turkey deal and the call for an increased cooperation with Northern Africa are but two examples. Pre-border control mechanisms composed of administrative, legislative and operational measures, are largely perceived as effective means to channel flows of migrants avoiding logistical and financial burdens for Member States. However, from a legal perspective, this shift to extraterritorial activities raises important questions related to the creation of zones in which responsibilities for legal norms related to the protection of refugees may be circumvented by States or any other actors involved in migration control activities. Protecting the Rights of Refugees Beyond European Borders tries to reconcile the motives behind extraterritorialisation strategies with actual legal consequences. It carefully examines the legal frameworks that govern situations in which a migrant meets an authority in the context of extraterritorial immigration control measures. The book approaches the topic from the hypothesis that international and European obligations do not only constrain extraterritorial acts of States or specialised agencies, but give rise to concrete legal responsibilities deriving from different legal regimes such as general international law, human rights law and EU law. In addition, it takes a more practical approach going beyond the normative establishment of legal responsibilities by investigating the actual possibilities to invoke eventual responsibilities for violations of fundamental guarantees occurring in the context of extraterritorial immigration control measures.

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Database

Blogs

  • The EU Migration Crisis and Moral Obligations

    The European Union is currently coping with the world’s biggest migrant crisis since World War II. A record number of 107,500 migrants reached the EU’s borders last month.Large numbers of desparate migrants and refugees from the Middle East and Africa are trying to enter the European Union every day. Apart from this there are also many illegal immigrants who have entered the EU undetected. A conserable number of them have died during their attempt. According to a report of the UNHCR, around 2500 migrants who were trying to reach and enter the European Union have died or gone missing in the past year.

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  • Climate Change and Forced Migration : A Gap in Protection

    The barely-above-sea-level, coral-dependent Maldives are sinking into the Indian Ocean. The apocalyptic fate is due to climate-change induced temperature increases, which have resulted in rising sea levels and dying coral reefs. In response, the state has built artificial islands—to accommodate the rising sea levels that may render previous places of residence inhabitable—and The Great Male Sea Wall—to protect Male from imposing storms. Many people have already been evacuated from their homes, temporarily housed in camps elsewhere in the Maldives. However, eventually the Maldives may become completely submerged and inhospitable. If the Maldives become a casualty of climate change, as has been predicted, people will be forced to flee from the islands altogether, potentially becoming stateless. They will have to seek protection elsewhere.

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  • Mixed Migration Flows Across the Mediterranean: The EU Agenda on Migration

    Wars, conflict and persecution have forced more people than at any other time in history to flee their homes and seek refuge and safety elsewhere, according to UNHCR’s annual Global Trends Report: World at War, released on June 18, two days before world refugee day. One of the most recent and highly visible consequences of the world’s conflicts and the terrible suffering they cause has been the dramatic growth in the numbers of refugees seeking safety through dangerous sea journeys, including on the Mediterranean, in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, and in Southeast Asia.

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  • Borders Beyond Control?

    In my previous blogpost “Feigning Immigration Control”, I argued that politicians are often busy with feigning immigration control while in reality they often can or want to do little about it. What do we actually know about the effects of immigration policies? In order to answer this question, I have conducted a research project on the ‘Determinants of International Migration’ (DEMIG) at the International Migration Institute at Oxford University. One of the main insights of the project is that while immigration restrictions often reduce immigration, these effects tend to be rather small. In addition, restrictions often have a four potential side-effects (‘substitution effects’) which further undermine their effectiveness or can even make them counter-productive.

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  • Border Controls and Human Rights: Migration in the Central Mediterranean

    The Central Mediterranean has, in the last years, turned into the epicentre of human (migrant) disasters. The Central Mediterranean route refers to the migratory flow coming from Northern Africa towards Italy and Malta through the Mediterranean Sea. Here, Libya often acts as nexus point where migrants from the Horn of Africa and Western African routes meet before embarking on their journey towards the EU.

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  • First Global Forum on Statelessness - "New Directions in Statelessness Research and Policy"

    From 15 to 17 September 2014, 3 institutions (the UNHCR, the agency mandated by the General Assembly to help states to address statelessness, and the Statelessness Programme of Tilburg University) co-hosted the first held Global Forum on Statelessness. The three-day event took place in the Academy building of the Peace Palace of The Hague, the Netherlands.

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  • International Refugee Law blog series I: Exclusion of Refugee Status: The Criminal Refugee

    In the western world it is possible you live next to a war criminal, or your child might be playing with the daughter of a war criminal at school. It is also possible to live there without a real prospect of obtaining a form of legal status and without being held criminally responsible for the alleged crime. Who are these people living in legal limbo? why are they still here? The exclusion of refugee status (1F Refugee Convention) and its consequences will be dealt with in this blog.

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International organisations

Europe

Research and academia

Blogs and commentary on immigration, refugees and asylum.

 Interactive

See also

More Research guides on Les individus et le droit international

Other suggestions

  • Guest Post: Too Much Information? (There has been an exponential expansion in the amount of information and analysis on refugee-related issues over the past 30 years. But has quantity outstripped quality? Jeff Crisp provides this commentary.)

In the Spotlight: REFUGEE 'CRISIS'

In response to the refugee crisis in Europe, Oxford University Press has made more than 30 book chapters, journal articles, and pieces of content from online resources freely accessible to assist those working with refugees on the ground, as well as anyone who would like to know more about the framework of rights and obligations concerning refugees. The materials are structured around four key questions: who is a refugee, what rights do they have, what are transit states’ obligations, and what are the duties of the state where a refugee applies for asylum. See http://opil.ouplaw.com/page/refugee-law. See also the Oxford Human Rights Hub Blog Series on Human Rights and the Refugee Crisis in Europe and this blog by James Hathaway

Multimedia:

 Statistics:

Annual Report on the Situation of Asylum in the European Union 2014

EASO, Latest Asylum Trends - 2015 overview.

Eurostat, Asylum in the EU 2015.

UNHCR Mid-Year Trends 2015

UNHCR Asylum Trends 2014

UNHCR Statistical Yearbook 2014

FRAN QUARTERLY – NUMBER OF ILLEGAL BORDER-CROSSINGS AT RECORD HIGH IN Q4, 2015.