Modern means of communications connect all corners of the earth. Internationally the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is in place to regulate Telecommunications. ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues, and the global focal point for governments and the private sector in developing networks and services. This Research Guide covers telecommunications law (satellites, radio and broadcasting), communications law, internet law and governance, information and communication technology (ict) and media law.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Communications. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → Public international law and subject heading (keyword) Telecommunications are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
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- Garzaniti , L., Telecommunications, broadcasting and the internet : E.U. competition law and regulation, 2000.
- Kennedy, C. and Pastor, M. An Introduction to International Telecommunications Law, Boston, MA etc. : Artech House, 1996.
- Tegge, A. , Die Internationale Telekommunikations-Union : Organisation und Funktion einer Weltorganisation im Wandel, 1994.
- Steinfield, C., Bauer, J., Caby, L., Telecommunications in transition : policies, services and technologies in the European Community, 1994
- Bernal, P., Internet Privacy Rights : Rights to Protect Autonomy, Cambridge, UK, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2014.
- Bernik, I., Cybercrime and Cyberwarfare, London, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 2014.
- Borges, G., Schwenk, J., Daten- und Identitätsschutz in Cloud Computing, E-Government und E-Commerce, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012.
- Colomo, P.I., European Communications Law and Technological Convergence: Deregulation, Re-regulation and Regulatory Convergence in Television and Telecommunications, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2012.
- DeNardis, L., The Global War for Internet Governance, London, Yale University Press, 2014.
- De La Brosse, R., Me´dias et de´mocratie en Afrique : l'enjeu de la re´gulation, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2013.
- Fidler, D., Internet governance and international law: the controversy concerning revision of the International Telecommunication Regulations, Washington, American Society of International Law, 2013.
- Heickerö, R. and M. Peterson, The Dark Sides of the Internet: On Cyber Threats and Information Warfare, Frankfurt am Main, Lang, 2013.
- Hill, R., The New International Telecommunication Regulations : a Commentary and Legislative History, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London, Springer, 2014.
- Kostopoulos, G., Cyberspace and Cybersecurity, Boca Raton, CRC, 2013.
- McCormick, P. and M. Mechanick, The Transformation of Intergovernmental Satellite Organisations: Policy and Legal Perspectives, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013.
- Packard, A., Digital Media Law, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.
- Prasad, R., Resolving Disputes in Telecommunications: Global Practices and Challenges, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2012.
- Radu, R., The Evolution of Global Internet Governance : Principles and Policies in the Making, Berlin, Springer, 2014.
- Spinello, R., Cyberethics: Morality and Law in Cyberspace, Chestnut Hill, Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2013.
- Walden, I., Telecommunications law and regulation, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.
- Weiße, G.K., Informationsoperationen weltweit : die Nachrichtendienste und ihre Fähigkeiten zur globalen Kommunikationsüberwachung, digitalen Datenerfassung und elektronischen Kriegsführung, Stuttgart, Ibidem-Verlag, 2015.
- Hinricher, J., "The Law-Making of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) : Providing a New Source of International Law?", in: 64 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (2004) 2, pp. 489-501
- Lin, C.H., "Comprehensive Review of Global Radiocommunication and Spectrum Management under Radio Regulations", in: Contemporary Issues on Public International and Comparative Law : Essays in Honor of Professor Christian Nwachukwu Okeke, Lake Mary, FL : Vandeplas, 2009, pp. 505-529
- Lyall, F., "The International Telecommunication Union and Space", in: Recent Trends in International Space Law and Policy, New Delhi : Lancers Books, 1997, pp. 255-268
- Marboe, I., "Rechtliche Aspekte der Kommunikation via Weltraum", in: Raumfahrt und Recht : Faszination Weltraum : Regeln zwischen Himmel und Erde, Wien etc. : Böhlau, 2007, pp. 130-150
- Plaidy, C., "Telecommunications Law and Policy around the World", in: 37 The International Lawyer (2003) 2, pp. 457-471
- Schmahl, S., "The United Nations Facing the Challenges of the 'Information Society'", in: 11 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (2007), pp. 197-231
- Collection of the Basic Texts of the International Telecommunication Union adopted by the Plenipotentiary Conference 2011
Periodicals, serial publications
- Beiträge zum Telekommunikationsrecht : Grundlagen und aktuelle Probleme des österreichischen und internationalen Telekommunikationsrechts
Marboe, I. (ed.), Small Satellites: Regulatory Challenges and Chances, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Small Satellites – Regulatory Challenges and Chances edited by Irmgard Marboe addresses the booming phenomenon of small satellites. The rapid innovation of technology has made it possible to develop, launch and operate small satellites at rather low costs. Universities, start-ups and also governments see the chance to access outer space more easily and inexpensively. Yet, the importance to comply with existing rules and regulations that are in place to ensure that outer space is used and explored in a safe and responsible manner is sometimes overlooked. The book addresses this challenge and shows how it can be met.
Batura, O., Universal Service in WTO and EU law : Liberalisation and Social Regulation in Telecommunications, The Hague, Asser Press, Berlin, Springer, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book is a systematic comparative study of WTO and EU law relevant for universal service provision, and a timely contribution to the ongoing scholarly and policy debates about the concept and scope of universal service. Universal service is one of the most significant regulatory issues worldwide and it is likely to remain so. The central question dealt with by the author is how the technologically intensive sector of telecommunications services can be regulated in a socially fair way in the light of liberalisation and the immense importance of ICTs in the Information Society. The author investigates whether the legal frameworks of WTO and EU can meet the challenges of the rapid and dramatic technological and social change and formulates relevant policy recommendations.
Trzaskowski, J., Introduction to EU Internet law, Copenhagen, Ex Tuto Publishing, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The Handbook questions the extent to which the Internet forces us to rethink existing legal concepts and institutions. It includes sections that correspond to the most disputed areas, looking consecutively at policy and governance, copyright, private international law, e-commerce, consumer protection and citizens and their position on the Internet. By highlighting the challenges that European law and policy-makers face when attempting to regulate the Internet, this Handbook raises important issues regarding free speech, accessibility and privacy.
Springer, P.J., Cyber Warfare : a Reference Handbook, Santa Barbara, California, ABC-CLIO, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This timely handbook traces the development of cyber capabilities from their roots in information warfare and cryptology to their potential military application in combat.Cyber warfare is gaining prominence as a serious tactic in military conflicts throughout the world. And, as the most network-dependent nation on earth, the United States is the most vulnerable. Military expert and author Paul J. Springer examines the many facets of cyber combat—from the threats of information exposure that American civilians encounter on a daily basis, to the concern of keeping up with the capabilities of China and Russia, to the inherent dangers in ignoring cyber threats. This essential reference—the only of its kind to include an overview of other cyber warfare literature—emphasizes the importance of cyber operations in modern conflicts, detailing the efforts that have been made by government agencies to create networks that are secure. Noted experts in the field weigh in on the problems of attribution during a cyber attack, the detection of cyber intrusions, and the possible solutions for preventing data breaches. The book features profiles of theorists, commanders, and inventors; as well as organizations dedicated to cyber attacks, including government and military operations, industrial cyber security companies, and academic centers.
Cugia di Sant'Orsola, F. (eds.), Communications and Competition law : Key Issues in the Telecoms, Media and Technology Sectors, Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands, Kluwer Law International, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book sheds clear light on the current international contours of competition law vis-à-vis communications, and provides deeply informed insight and lessons to be learned from experiences in several countries. With a primary focus on Brazil, which alone in the world to date has legislated what can be called an Internet Charter – the Net Mundial statement – the book discusses significant legislative, regulatory, and judicial developments in the United States, the European Union, Canada, China, Chile, Singapore, and elsewhere. With 31 contributions, it is based on debates triggered by two gatherings of regulatory lawyers of Communications and Competition IBA Committees, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2013 and in Prague in 2014. Among the issues and topics covered are the following: how regulatory changes reflect consolidation and convergence trends; data aggregation and consumer profiling; security threats of mass digital surveillance; search engine optimization; geolocalization services; cloud computing; mobile e-commerce; internet advertising; the human right to be forgotten; compulsory licensing of standards; strategic role of open sources; mobile banking and mobile payment; standard-essential patent enforcement; and regulatory policy.
Hofmann, M., Dispute Settlement in the Area of Space Communication : 2nd Luxembourg Workshop on Space and Satellite Communication Law, Baden-Baden, Nomos, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Which dispute settlement mechanisms are available in the area of space communication? Their choice is clearly determined by the legal character of those who are parties in the dispute – states, international intergovernmental organisations, private entities or even individuals. In this study the analysis of various dispute settlement mechanisms demonstrates that not all existing mechanisms are equally capable of serving this purpose. It appears that the parties to a dispute often prefer to search for a consensus and an arbitration procedure prior to taking part in international adjudication. The cases where formalised international courts are involved in this area have been relatively rare. Space communication disputes may often be similar to investment disputes; the decisive factors of this similarity are the high costs of investment, its international character, the necessity to maintain working relationships with the opposing party of the dispute after the conclusion of the dispute, the difficult technical background to the cases, little trust in court procedures, low indemnification and the fear of non-implementation of court decisions. As a consequence, it can be expected that mediation, negotiation and arbitration, but also alternative dispute settlement mechanisms will remain the main mechanisms of dispute settlement in the area of space communication in the near future.
Gutwirth, S., Reforming European Data Protection Law, Dordrecht, Springer, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book on privacy and data protection offers readers conceptual analysis as well as thoughtful discussion of issues, practices, and solutions. It features results of the seventh annual International Conference on Computers, Privacy, and Data Protection, CPDP 2014, held in Brussels January 2014. The book first examines profiling, a persistent core issue of data protection and privacy. It covers the emergence of profiling technologies, on-line behavioral tracking, and the impact of profiling on fundamental rights and values. Next, the book looks at preventing privacy risks and harms through impact assessments. It contains discussions on the tools and methodologies for impact assessments as well as case studies.The book then goes on to cover the purported trade-off between privacy and security, ways to support privacy and data protection, and the controversial right to be forgotten, which offers individuals a means to oppose the often persistent digital memory of the web. Written during the process of the fundamental revision of the current EU data protection law by the Data Protection Package proposed by the European Commission, this interdisciplinary book presents both daring and prospective approaches. It will serve as an insightful resource for readers with an interest in privacy and data protection.
Universe of Nonsense
In today’s malleable world of Big Data, wherein modern people use Google to know more but understand less, we risk forgetting how knowledge is created and how we can verify a fact. The internet would give us a more democratic and open media environment, but the opposite is true: we live in closed communities online, echo well show us what’s right, bubbles created algorithms which make us encounter only the news that confirms our worldview.This electronic world could lead to a feasible reality based on emotions, opinions, prejudices and places the truth based on objective facts more and more in the shade. All the battles for human rights and the call to freedom and justice will turn out meaningless.Read more
Vessel-Source Air Pollution Remains Global 'Blindspot'
Shipping is considered to be a significant source of global air pollution, both for conventional pollutants and greenhouse gases. Sulphur and black carbon, also called soot, are released in the air in large quantities because large (container and cruise) ships use heavy bunker oil. This is oil from the waste well of the oil industry, the cheapest and dirtiest thing you can get. Seventeen containerships emit as much sulfur as all the cars on the planet in one year. And one cruise ship emits a day as much soot as one million cars.Read more
Victory for Privacy in Europe again? ECJ 'torpedoes' Safe Harbor
Last Tuesday, October 6, the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg has declared the Safe Harbour Decision invalid. Mr Schrems, a frequent Facebook-user, lodged a complaint with the Irish supervisory authority because in his view leaks from Edward J. Snowden, the former contractor for the National Security Agency, made it clear that American intelligence agencies had almost unfettered access to the data, infringing on Europeans’ rights to privacy.Read more
Peace Weekend Celebrations – International Rule of Law?
This weekend The Hague will celebrate the International Day of Peace, September 21st, with a designated ‘Peace Weekend’.
The celebrations vary from a peace run (with a Peace Palace team) to The Hague Open Doors Event, where the Peace Palace Library, together with the other international organizations of The Hague, will open their doors to the public.Read more
The Data Retention Saga: Dutch Court Declared National Data Retention Law Invalid!
On March 11, 2015, the district court of The Hague in the Netherlands declared the country’s 2009 Telecommunications Data Retention Act invalid. This decision was a foreseeable effect because of a previous judgement of the Court of Justice of the European Union concerning the annulment of the European Directive on data retention on April 8, 2014. It seems now that European Member States are starting to face the consequences of that annulment. The cause of this is the fact that the European judgement did not automatically make national data retention legislation invalid. I will briefly discuss the case of the Dutch national data retention law.Read more
Exit Data Retention Directive: a Victory for Privacy in Europe!
Last Tuesday, April 8, the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg has declared the Data Retention Directive (Directive 2006/24/EC, 15 March 2006) invalid from the date on which the directive entered into force. In the view of the Court, the requirement in the Data Retention Directive for mobile operators and internet service providers to retain data interfered in a “particularly serious manner with the fundamental rights to respect for private life and to the protection of personal data”.Read more
Protecting Children from Cybercrime: Online Child Grooming
In the Netherlands a massive case of internet child abuse has been reveiled this week. A 48 year old man has been arrested and is suspected of online child grooming and sexually abusing hundreds of girls. At least 11 girls stated they have had a meeting with the man and were sexually abused by him. The Dutch police has found 26.000 videos and 144.000 photographs during a raid on his house. The man has been active for eight years. What is online child grooming and what is the International and European policy on combating this form of cyber crime and internet abuse?Read more
Education at a Distance : Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)
Dutch universities have discovered the opportunities of Massive Open Online Course too. Recently, Leiden University prof. dr. Stefaan van den Bogaert has launched a MOOC about The Law of the European Union – an Introduction. Where the capacity of the largest courseroom in Leiden gets close to 1000 students, prof. Van den Bogaert has been able to reach and teach about 50.000 students all over the world!!Read more
Internet governance 2012: Who should control the Internet?
In the last twenty years, the Internet has had a tremendous impact on society and the term “Internet governance” was introduced. At first it was mainly used to describe the technical management of the Internet such as domain names and internet protocols. Nowadays governance refers to questions like “Do we all accept our responsibilities to safeguard the continued development of the Internet as a global, open and safe virtual environment? and Who sets the rules? In this blog I will give a few highlights of the current developments of internet governance on an International and (as well as on) an European level.Read more
Picture this! The margins of media coverage of celebrities private lives, a balance between privacy and public interest
If you are a public figure and a celebrity, how much privacy can you expect? How far can a journalist probe into a celebrity’s private life to get news in order to fulfill ‘the right to know’ factor for the public interest?Read more
In recent years the balance between the media’s right to expression and an individual’s right to privacy has always been tricky and has therefore given rise to much debate. This blog will discuss two judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) on Februari 7th 2012,….
- Communications Law Research Guide (Georgetown Law Library)
- European Commission - Communication
- The European Telecommunications law Blog, by Laurent De Muyter
- International ICT Policy
- International Institute of Communications
- International Telecommunication Union
- Telecommunication Law - Guide to telecommunications law