Foreign Direct Investment

Introduction

Foreign Direct Investment - Research Guide International Law

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a category of investment that reflects the objective of establishing a lasting interest by a resident enterprise in one economy in an enterprise that is resident in an economy other than that of the direct investor. The lasting interest implies the existence of a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the direct investment enterprise and a significant degree of influence on the management of the enterprise. Basic forms of FDI are investment made to develop a production or manufacturing plant from the ground up (“greenfield investments”), mergers and acquisitions, and joint ventures. Three components of FDI are usually identified: equity capital, reinvested earnings, and intracompany loans.

FDI is considered to be both an important indicator and a driving force of what is called economic globalization. The growth of FDI has been facilitated by various political actors, including national governments and international organizations. FDI inflow is considered as a crucial presupposition of economic development. FDI has potentially both positive and negative effects on host economies. These effects depend on a number of factors, including a host economy’s level of development, the type of investment, and the position of the particular investment site in the investor’s business strategy.

The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) is an autonomous international institution established under the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States. The primary purpose of ICSID is to provide facilities for conciliation and arbitration of international investment disputes. The ICSID Convention is a multilateral treaty formulated by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank). It was opened for signature on March 18, 1965 and entered into force on October 14, 1966.

Although ICSID is considered to be the leading international arbitration institution devoted to investor-State arbitration, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement between the European Union and the United States included an investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism, whereby individual foreign investors may bring claims against host state governments for breach of the TTIP’s investment protection standards. This ISDS system is comparable to what has been included in agreements such as the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the EU and Canada, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA 'Chapter 11'), and the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR).

This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research in the field of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → Public international law and subject heading (keyword) Foreign Direct Investment are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.

 

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Bibliography

Reference works

Books

Leading articles

Documents

Periodicals, serial publications

Bibliographies

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As we are right in the middle of moving to a new library system, it is not yet possible to automatically collect new titles for this Research Guide.

Librarian's choice

  • Islam, R., The Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET) Standard in International Investment Arbitration: Developing Countries in Context, Springer, 2019.

    Islam, R., The Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET) Standard in International Investment Arbitration: Developing Countries in Context, Springer, 2019.

    This book presents comprehensive information on a range of issues in connection with the Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET) standard, with a particular focus on arbitral awards against host developing countries, thereby contributing to the available literature in this area of international investment law. It examines in detail the interpretation of the FET standard of key arbitral awards affecting host developing countries, demonstrating the full range of interpretation approaches adopted by the current investment tribunals. At the same time, the book offers valuable practical guidance for counsels/scholars representing host developing countries in investment arbitration, where balancing the competing interests of the foreign investors and the host developing countries in investment disputes poses a complex challenge.

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  • Malintoppi, L. and Tan, C. (eds.), Investment Protection in Southeast Asia : a Country-by-Country Guide on Arbitration Laws and Bilateral Investment Treaties, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2017.

    Malintoppi, L. and Tan, C. (eds.), Investment Protection in Southeast Asia : a Country-by-Country Guide on Arbitration Laws and Bilateral Investment Treaties, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2017.

    Investment Protection in Southeast Asia : a Country-by-Country Guide on Arbitration Laws and Bilateral Investment Treaties is a vital reference guide to investment protection in the region, providing succinct answers to the main questions that investors may consider in connection with investments in a given jurisdiction. Each country chapter covers arbitral legislation and institutions in the country, investment-related domestic laws, an analysis of its bilateral investment treaties, and a summary of investment cases involving the relevant State or its investors.

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  • Collins, D., An Introduction to International Investment Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017.

    Collins, D., An Introduction to International Investment Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017.

    This insightful and accessible introduction provides students and practitioners with a comprehensive overview of the increasingly important discipline of international investment law. Focusing primarily on the legal principles contained in the growing body of international investment agreements, this book covers the core concepts of the discipline with attention given to their relation to each other and to the manner in which they have been developed through arbitration case law. The context of each legal principle is explored along with a consideration of some of the major debates and emerging criticisms. Avoiding extensive case extracts, this book adopts an engaging and succinct narrative style which allows readers to advance their understanding of the topic while examining the legal principles with academic rigour and discerning commentary.

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  • Kinnear, M.N., G.R. Fischer, J. Mínguez Almeida, L.F. Torres Arias and M. Uran Bidegain (eds.), Building International Investment Law: the First 50 Years of ICSID, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2016.

    Kinnear, M.N., G.R. Fischer, J. Mínguez Almeida, L.F. Torres Arias and M. Uran Bidegain (eds.), Building International Investment Law: the First 50 Years of ICSID, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2016.

    The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) is the premier international investment arbitration facility in the world. This volume celebrates the first 50 years of ICSID by presenting the landmark cases that have been decided under its auspices. These cases have addressed every aspect of investment disputes: jurisdictional thresholds; the substantive obligations found in investment treaties, contracts, and legislation; questions of general international law; and a number of novel procedural issues. Each chapter, written by a knowledgeable expert on the chapter’s particular focus, looks at an international investment law topic through the lens of one or more of these leading cases, analysing what the case held, how it has been applied, and its overall significance to the development of international investment law.

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Database

Blogs

  • Investment Protection: ISDS or ICS?

    In the 1990s, European member states have concluded about 200 bilateral investment treaties (BITs) with Eastern European countries. For example, the Netherlands has BITs with Poland, the Baltic States, Slovakia and Czech Republic. Now most of these Eastern European countries are member states of the European Union themselves, the European Commission wants to put an end to the intra-EU bilateral investment treaties (BITs): agreements concluded between EU member states. If these agreements are terminated, there is a risk that European investors will not be strongly and adequately protected under the provisions currently included in the single market.

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  • P.R.I.M.E. Finance : Open for business!

    On 16 January 2012,  the P.R.I.M.E. Finance Foundation has started its activities with an opening conference followed by seminars on Dispute Resolution in the Financial Markets in the Peace Palace in The Hague. The  Foundation oversees the activities of its Panel of Recognized International Market Experts in Finance (P.R.I.M.E. Finance),  chosen for their relevant experience in financial market practice or […]

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