The concept of 'transnational crime', from a criminological perspective, originates from the mid-1970s when the United Nations used the term in order to identify certain criminal activities which transcend national jurisdictions. In 1995, the United Nations identified eighteen categories of transnational - and mostly organized - criminality. Transnational crime was then defined as ‘offences whose inception, prevention and/or direct or indirect effects involved more than one country.’ (UN Doc. A.CONF. 169/15/Add.1 (1995)). The crimes listed included, among others, money laundering, terrorist activities, theft of art and cultural objects, theft of intellectual property, illicit arms trafficking, aircraft hijacking, sea piracy, insurance fraud, computer crime, environmental crime, trafficking in persons, trade in human body parts, illicit drug trafficking, fraudulent bankruptcy, infiltration of legal business, corruption and bribery of public or party officials. Transnational crime has spread exponentially with the development of globalization and it is only relatively recent that some progress has been made by states and international organizations in developing measures to combat this type of criminality.
This Guide is intended as a starting point for research in the field on Transnational Crime. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → Transnational crime and keyword Transnational Crime are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Allum, F., and S. Gilmour (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Transnational Organized Crime, London, Routledge, 2012.
- Beare, M.E. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Transnational Crime & Justice, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 2012.
- Boister, N., An Introduction to Transnational Criminal Law (3rd ed.), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.
- Boister, N., and R.J. Currie (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Transnational Criminal Law, London, Routledge, 2015.
- Kethineni, S. (ed.), Comparative and International Policing, Justice, and Transnational Crime, Durham, Carolina Academic Press, 2010.
- Obokata, T., Transnational Organised Crime in International Law, Oxford, Hart, 2010.
- Paoli, L., The Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.
- Reichel, P., and J.S. Albanese (eds.), Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 2014.
- Keren/Paz, T., Sex Trafficking: a Private Law Response, Abingdon, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2013.
- Battersby, P., The Unlawful Society: Global Crime and Security in a Complex World, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
- Chappell, D., and S. Hufnagel (eds.), Contemporary Perspectives on the Detection, Investigation and Prosecution of Art Crime : Australasian, European and North American Perspectives, Farnham, Surrey, Ashgate, 2014.
- Clifford, R.D. (ed.), Cybercrime: The Investigation, Prosecution and Defense of a Computer-related Crime, Durham, NC, Carolina Academic Press, 2011.
- Currie, R.J. (et al.), International & Transnational Criminal Law, Toronto, Irwin Law, 2013.
- Eckes, E., and T. Konstadinides (eds.), Crime within the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice: A European Public Order, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
- Faure, M. G., Les Mouvements Transfrontières de Déchets Dangereux, Brussels, Bruylant, 2015.
- Hufnagel, S. (et al.) (eds.), Cross-Border Law Enforcement: Regional Law Enforcement Cooperation : European, Australian and Asia-Pacific Perspectives, Abingdon, Routledge, 2012.
- Ioannides, E., Fundamental Principles of EU Law against Money Laundering, Farnham, Ashgate, 2014.
- Laverick, W., Global Injustice and Crime Control, Abingdon, Routledge, 2016.
- Luban, D. (et al.) (eds.), International and Transnational Criminal law, Austin, TX, Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2010.
- Manacorda, S., and D. Chappel (eds.), Crime in the Art and Antiquities World: Illegal Trafficking in Cultural Property, New York, NY, Springer, 2011.
- Mitsilegas, V., Alldridge, P. and Cheliotis, L. (eds.), Globalisation, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Theoretical, Comparative and Transnational Perspectives, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2015.
- Pereira, R. M., Environmental Criminal Liability and Enforcement in European and International Law, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2015.
- Rose, C. E., International Anti-Corruption Norms: Their Creation and Influence on Domestic Legal Systems, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015.
- Rothe, D. L. and Friedrichs, D. O., Crimes of Globalization, New York, NY, Routledge, 2015.
- Scharf, M. P. (et al.) (eds.), Prosecuting Maritime Piracy: Domestic Solutions to International Crimes, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2015.
- Boister, N., “The Cooperation Provisions of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime: A 'Toolbox' Rarely Used?”, International Criminal Law Review, 16 (2016), No. 1, pp. 39-70.
- Broome, J., “Laundering the Proceeds of Crime: A Global Overview”, in G. Rose (ed.), Following the Proceeds of Environmental Crime, London, Routledge, 2014, pp. 49-70.
- Demetis, D. S., “The Role of Information Systems in the Prevention and Detection of Transnational and International Crime”, in I. Bantekas and E. Mylonaki (eds.), Criminological Approaches to International Criminal Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 192-221.
- Dolliver, D. S., “Socio-Cultural Impacts on Drug Trafficking Trends in Europe”, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 23 (2015), No. 4, pp. 383-406.
- Geiß, R. and Wisehart, D., “’Concerned with the Health and Welfare of Mankind’: The UN Drug Conventions – A Suitable Legal Framework for the 21st Century?”, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, 18 (2014), pp. 368-404.
- Guilfoyle, D., “Transnational Crime”, in R. Warner and S. Kaye, Routledge Handbook of Maritime Regulation and Enforcement, London, Routledge, 2016, pp. 262-276.
- Kastner, P. and Mégret, F., “International Legal Dimensions of Cybercrime”, in N. K. Tsagourias and R. Buchan, Research Handbook on International Law and Cyberspace, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, pp. 190-207.
- Militello, V., “Transnational Organized Crime and European Union: Aspects and Problems”, in S. Ruggeri (ed.), Human Rights in European Criminal Law: New Developments in European Legislation and Case Law after the Lisbon Treaty, Cham, Springer, 2015, pp. 201-214.
- Occhipinti, J. D., “Transnational Criminality”, in J. Sperling (ed.), Handbook of Governance and Security, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2014, pp. 427-451.
- Passas, N., “Development and Anti-Corruption Agendas Aligned: The Contribution of the United Nations Convention against Corruption”, in C. R. Majinge (ed.), Rule of Law Through Human Rights and International Criminal Justice: Essays in Honour of Adama Dieng, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, pp. 401-430.
- Petrig, A., “Piracy”, in D. R. Rothwell (et al.) (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 843-865.
- Scharf, M. P., “Is There a Case for an International Piracy Court?: Conclusion”, in M. P. Scharf, M. A. Newton and M. Sterio (eds.), Prosecuting Maritime Piracy: Domestic Solutions to International Crimes, New York, YK, Cambridge University Press, 2015, pp. 350-355.
- Shaw, M. and Kemp, W. A., “Rethinking Multilateral Responses to Organized Crime”, in M. Cherif Bassiouni, Globalization and Its Impact on the Future of Human Rights and International Criminal Justice, Cambridge, Intersentia, pp. 327-348.
- Veres, Z., “The Fight Against Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Property: The 1970 UNESCO Convention and the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention”, Santa Clara Journal of International Law, 12 (2014), No. 2, pp. 91-116. [PDF]
- Wouters, J. (et al.), “The International Legal Framework against Corruption: Achievements and Challenges”, Melbourne Journal of International Law, 14 (2013), No. 1, pp. 205-280. [PDF]
- European Parliament Directorate-General for External Policies, Study: Trafficking in Human Organs, Brussels, 2015.
- Lawon, K. and Vines, A., Global Impacts of the Illegal Wildlife Trade, The Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 2014.
- United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime : a Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment, Geneva, 2010.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, National Anti-Corruption Strategies: A Practical Guide for Development and Implementation, New York, 2015.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Study on Firearms, Vienna, 2015.
- United Nations Development Programme, A Users' Guide to Measuring Corruption, Oslo, 2015.
- Sanden, J. van der, and W.J. van der Wolf (eds.), Mutual Legal Assistance in International Criminal Matters, The Hague, ICA, International Courts Association, 2012.
- Wise, E.M., E.S. Podgor and R.S. Clark, International Criminal Law: Cases and Materials (3rd ed.), New Providence, NJ, LexisNexis, 2009.
Periodicals, serial publications
- Crime, Law and Social Change: Table of Contents
- European Criminal Law Review: Table of Contents
- European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Table of Contents
- European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research: Table of Contents
- Global Crime: Table of Contents
- Journal of International Affairs: Transnational Organized Crime
- New Journal of European Criminal Law: Table of Contents
- The Norwich Review of International and Transnational Crime: The 2015 Inaugural Issue
- Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal: Table of Contents
- Bibliography on Organized Crime and Corruption, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, Turin, 2014.
Systematic classification → International Criminal Law
Updated every Friday morning.
The Peace Palace Library has a collection of over a million publications. Each week, about six hundred new titles are added to our collection: books, articles, documents, online publications, etc. On this page, access is provided to this week’s new titles on Transnational crime.
1. Historical perspectives on organized crime and terrorism
Keywords: Terrorism, Organized crime, Transnational crime, History,
2. Assesssing Militarised Responses to Transnational Organised Crime
Keywords: Organized crime, Transnational crime, Militaries,
3. Soldiers in a Storm: Why and How Do Responses to Illicit Economies Get Militarised?
Keywords: Organized crime, Transnational crime, Militaries,
4. Militarised Responses to the Illegal Wildlife Trade
Keywords: Wildlife, Smuggle, Transnational crime, Militaries,
5. Replicating Success?
Keywords: Somalia, Piracy, Transnational crime, Militaries,
6. Approaches to Piracy, Armed Robbery at Sea, and Other Maritime Crime in West and Central Africa
Keywords: West Africa, Central Africa, Piracy, Transnational crime, Militaries, Military co-operation,
7. South East Asia Piracy: Have We Learnt from Somali Counter-piracy Operations?
Keywords: Southeast Asia, Piracy, Transnational crime, Prevention,
8. Dangers of Success: the Economics of Somali Piracy
Keywords: Somalia, Piracy, Transnational crime, Militaries, Public-private partnership, Economic development,
9. Smugglers Inc.: the Illicit Industry in Human Migration
Keywords: Illegal immigrants, Human trafficking, Organized crime, Transnational crime,
10. Militarisation of the Drug War in Latin America: a Policy Cycle Set to Continue?
Keywords: Latin America, Drugs, Organized crime, Transnational crime, Militaries,
11. Beyond UNGASS 2016: Drug Control Multilateralism and the End to the War on Drugs
Keywords: United Nations, Drugs, Transnational crime, Prevention, Multilateralism,
12. The Development Impacts of the War on Drugs
Keywords: Drugs, Transnational crime, Prevention, Militaries, Economic development,
13. Responding to Drug Trafficking: a Question of Motives
Keywords: West Africa, Drugs, Organized crime, Transnational crime, Law enforcement,
14. Situating Militarisation as Part of an Integrated Response to Organised Crime
Keywords: Organized crime, Transnational crime, Prevention, Militaries,
- Arms Transfer Database, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
- Documentation and Information Centre, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
- The Corruption Perceptions Index, Transparency International
- The Global Regime for Transnational Crime, Council on Foreign Relations
- Grand Corruption Database, Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative
- International Money Laundering Information Network
- Organized Crime Research
- Sharing Electronic Resources and Laws on Crime, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
- Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessments, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
- Transnational Organized Crime: Data and Analysis, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
- Transnational Crime Intelligence, Havocscope: Global Black Market Information
- Wildlife Trafficking Statistics, Havocscope: Global Black Market Information
- Wildlife Trafficking in Africa: Endangered Security, European Parliamentary Research Service
- Wildlife Trafficking and Poaching, Library of Congress
Faking it to the Next Level: Are Deep Fakes Threatening Our Democratic Society?
On 31st July 2018, Facebook has posted an article in its Newsroom explaining how the platform is being used to manipulate the Facebook-community. 32 pages have been removed by Facebook and Instagram because they were found to be “involved in coordinated inauthentic behavior.” The manipulation of digital video and audio files, has become increasingly sophisticated and accessible. While the world is more or less accustomed to the idea of image manipulation through ‘photoshopping’, video or audio files that present people saying of doing things they never did nor said, pose a new kind of challenge to democracies and national security. Audio and video manipulation then enter a realm that is generally described as ‘deep fake’.Read more
Hide & Seek in the Art World
When we look at a piece of art, we enter the secret world of art. When we buy a piece of art, we enter the secret world of the art market. When anonymity in the art market is about protecting privacy, it’s a legitimate ground for secrecy. When secrecy paints a picture of a thinly regulated art trade where anonymity is used as playground to shield all kinds of doubtful behaviour and ownership, it is questionable. Law firms play a crucial role in this questionable secrecy in art market. Those law firms service their clients by incorporating and operating shell companies in ‘friendly’ jurisdictions and perform money laundering services as their core business. Law firms boost their client’s assets and inject them into the legal economy, through different money laundering schemes.Read more
Save Wildlife: Act Now or Game Over!
From 1-3 March 2016, 300 Representatives from Countries, Intergovernmental organisations, non-governmental organisations, business representatives and the broader civil society were gathered in The Hague, the Netherlands for the international wildlife conference: Save Wildlife: Act now or Game over. The conference was organized by the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the Netherlands, the Hague Institute for Global Justice and the Prince of Wales’s International Sustainability Unit. The conference has build on the London and Kasane Conferences on the illegal wildlife trade, and has set the stage for the Hanoi Conference, due to take place later in 2016.Read more
Mexico and the Drug Cartels: A History of Fascination
On January 9th, 2016, Rolling Stone published an interview between Sean Penn and Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman, head of the Mexican Sinaloa Cartel. The fascination that Hollywood, and thus a large part of the western world, has for the Mexican drug cartels and the drug war they are engaging in is anything but recent. Mexico’s drug cartels, as well as widespread violence, money laundering and corruption, are elements which are as closely linked to Mexico’s image as its ancient civilizations. This article will explore the history of Mexico’s drug cartels and the close relationship between drugs and Mexico’s development.Read more
South-Africa and the Future of (Il)legal Trade in Rhino Horn
On Sunday 22 November, zookeepers of the San Diego Zoo Safari Park put a 41-year old northern white rhinoceros named Nola to sleep. With the death of Nola, there are only three northern white rhinos left on the planet – which are unlikely to reproduce. Widespread poaching, as well as armed conflict, caused the extinction of northern white rhinos in the wild. Last Thursday, the High Court of Pretoria, South Africa, overturned the government’s ban on the domestic trade in rhino horn which was put in place in 2009.Read more
Honduras: A New Cocaine Trafficking Hub
Last week Honduras adopted a law allowing the government to shoot down planes suspected of trafficking illegal drugs through the country. International drug trafficking is probably the most well known transnational organized crime. How bad is the current situation in Honduras; is it a new cocaine trafficking hub?Read more
Protecting Children from Cybercrime: Online Child Grooming
In the Netherlands a massive case of internet child abuse has been reveiled this week. A 48 year old man has been arrested and is suspected of online child grooming and sexually abusing hundreds of girls. At least 11 girls stated they have had a meeting with the man and were sexually abused by him. The Dutch police has found 26.000 videos and 144.000 photographs during a raid on his house. The man has been active for eight years. What is online child grooming and what is the International and European policy on combating this form of cyber crime and internet abuse?Read more
Pirates, Buccaneers and Privateers : Concepts of International Law
Establishing an authoritative definition of “piracy” in international law has always been rather problematic. The definition is relevant, because any confusion in terminology invariably leads to debates between State sovereignty and universal jurisdiction over crimes at sea. The various international law meanings of piracy are derived from, among others, international treaties, and various municipal law meanings are defined by statutes and State practice.Read more
Victor Bout, arms dealer, extradited to USA
Victor Bout, an interpreter and a former Russian military airforce officer suspected of arms trafficking, has been extradited to the United States of America by Thailand. Bout, also called the ‘merchant of death’, is alleged of supplying illegal weapons to various groups and regimes, such as the Taliban, the Sierra leonean Revolutionary United Front, Charles Taylor and al-Qaida.Read more
Call for an UN Piracy Tribunal
Five Somalis are currently on trial in the Netherlands after they failed to hijack a freighter sailing under the Dutch Antilles flag in January. The pirates have expressed their satisfaction with their prison cells, and at least one of them has said he wants to stay in the Netherlands after he is released and hopes […]Read more
Remembrance Slave Trade and its Abolition
Saturday 23 August marks the UN nineth annual International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition.Read more
The history of piracy goes back in the library collection till 1816. Still the oceans are unsafe, especially the Somali coast is crowded with modern pirates with guns and grenades. As in the old days kidnapping and piracy are lucrative businesses, if a ransom is paid.Read more
- Council of Europe Group of States against Corruption (GRECO)
- European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF)
- Financial Action Task Force
- The Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime
- Global Organization of Parliamentarians against Corruption
- International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities
- International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime
- International Money Laundering Information Network
- Transparency International
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
- World Wide Fund for Nature
- Anti-Bribery Law in International Business, University of Richmond (Last updated: December 8, 2015)
- Corruption, United Nations Library Vienna (Last updated: October 16, 2015)
- Cybersecurity, Military Education Research Library Network (Last updated: October 27, 2015)
- Drug Trafficking, United Nations Library Vienna (Last updated: October 21, 2015)
- Firearms, United Nations Library Vienna (Last updated: October 21, 2015)
- International Arms Transfers, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Last updated: December 14, 2015)
- International Anti-Corruption Law, Georgetown Law Library (Last updated: December 8, 2015)
- Money-Laundering, United Nations Library Vienna (Last updated: October 16, 2015)
- Organized Crime, Questia (Last updated: 2015)
- Transnational Crime, Oxford Bibliographies (Last updated: December 14, 2009)
- Transnational Organized Crime, Organized Crime Research (Last updated: November 17, 2009)
Research and Academia
- Anti-Corruption Research Network, Transparency International
- Center for Cybercrime Studies, John Jay College College of Criminal Justice
- Centre for Information & Research on Organised Crime
- Computer Crime Research Center
- The International CyberCrime Research Centre, Simon Fraser University
- The International Anti-Corruption Academy
- Organized Crime, Institute for Security & Development Policy
- The Oxford Wildlife Trade Research Group
- Small Arms Survey
- Transcrime Joint Research Centre on Transnational Crime, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano
- Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center, George Mason University
- United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
- The Anticorruption Blog
- Anti Money Laundering Blog
- Arms Trade Treaty Legal Blog
- Control Arms Blog
- The Corruption Blog
- CyberCrime & Doing Time
- The Global Anticorruption Blog
- The Illegal Wildlife Trade Blog
- International & Transnational Criminal Law
- Space for Transparency
- Wildlife Crime Blog, World Wide Fund for Nature
- Wildlife Trafficking, DipNote: US Department of State Official Blog