International relations can be defined as political activities and other kinds and aspects of interactions among two or more states. The academic field of international relations is a branch of political science that is concerned with the study of relations between states, the foreign policy of nation-states, and the mechanisms and institutions (such as international organisations, inter-governemental organisations, international and national non-governmental organisations and multinational corporations) through which states interact. The study of international relations involves many subjects such as international and regional peace and security, international organizations, nuclear proliferation, globalization, human rights, economic development, intervention, international financial relations, and international trade relations.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on International Relations. It provides the basic materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → Public international law and subject heading (keyword) International Relations are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
1. El estudio de Medio Oriente en la disciplina de relaciones internacionales en México
Keywords: Middle East, Mexico, International relations, Foreign policy,
2. La politique étrangère d'Obama
- Alden, C. and A. Amnon, Foreign Policy Analysis: New Approaches, London, Routledge, 2012.
- Armstrong, A., T. Farrell and H. Lambert, International Law and International Relations, 2012.
- Blachèr, P., Droit Des Relations Internationales, Paris, LexisNexis, 2011.
- Boniface, P. et H. Védrine, Atlas des Crises et des Conflits, 2009.
- Carlsnaes, W., Handbook of International Relations, London, SAGE, 2013.
- Evans, G., The Dictionary of World Politics: A Reference Guide to Concepts, Ideas and Institutions, New York, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990.
- Frangi, M., Droit des Relations Internationales: Lexique, Paris, Dalloz, 1995.
- Ku, C., International Law, International Relations, and Global Governance, London, Routledge, 2012.
- Reus-Smit, C. and D. Snidal (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Relations, 2008.
- Trouillon, J.-L., Dictionnaire de Géopolitique et Relations Internationales: Français-Anglais, Anglais-Français, 2006.
- Vaisse, M., Dictionnaire des Relations Internationales de 1900 à Nos Jours, Paris, Armand Colin, 2009.
- Viotti, P.R, and M.V. Kauppi, International Relations and World Politics, Boston, MA, 2013.
- Arenal, C. del (et al.), Teorías de las Relaciones Internacionales, Madrid, Tecnos, 2015.
- Di Nolfo, E., Storia Delle Relazioni Internazionali, Roma, GLF Editori Laterza, 2015.
- Di Nolfo, E., Storia Delle Relazioni Internazionali ; II: Gli Anni Sella Guerra Fredda, 1946-1990, Roma, GLF Editori Laterza, 2015.
- Di Nolfo, E., Storia delle relazioni internazionali ; I: Dalla pace di Versailles alla conferenza di Potsdam, 1919-1945, Roma, GLF Editori Laterza, 2015.
- Goertz, G., The Puzzle of Peace : the Evolution of Peace in the International System, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016.
- Hellmann, G., Theorizing Foreign Policy in a Globalized World, Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Jonas, M., Stabilität durch Gleichgewicht? : Balance of Power im Internationalen Sytem der Neuzeit,
Paderborn, Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015.
- Karlsrud, J., Norm change in International Relations : Linked Ecologies in UN Peacekeeping Operations, London, Routledge, 2016.
- Kavalski, E. (ed.), Encounters With World Affairs: An Introduction to International Relations, Farnham, Ashgate, 2015.
- Kolb, R., Réflexions sur les Politiques Juridiques Extérieures, Pedone, 2015.
- Lawson, S., Theories of International Relations : Contending Approaches to World Politics, Cambridge, Polity, 2015.
- Paech, N., Völkerrecht und Machtpolitik in den Internationalen Beziehungen : Ein Studienbuch, Hamburg, VSA-Verlag, 2013.
- Vaisse, M., Les Relations Internationales Depuis 1945, Paris, Armand Colin, 2015.
- Dos Reis, F. and O. Kessler, "Constructivism and the Politics of International Law", In: Orford, A. and F. Hoffmann, The Oxford Handbook of the Theory of International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016.
- Hasenclever, A. and A. Schramm, "Do We Need a World State? : the Prospects of Multilevel Global Governance for the Organization of Peace in the 21st Century", In: Justenhoven, H.-G, and M. E. O'Connell (eds.), Peace Through Law, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2016.
- Hobson, J.M. and G. Lawson, "What is History in International Relations?", Millennium, 37 (2008), No. 2, pp. 415-435.
- Kavalski, E., "What Next for the Study and Practice of World Affairs?", in: Kavalski, E. (ed.), Encounters With World Affairs: An Introduction to International Relations, Farnham, Ashgate, 2015.
- Keukeleire, S., and S. Schunz, “Analysing Foreign Policy in a Context of Global Governance”, In: Hellmann G., and E.K. Jørgensen (eds.), Theorizing Foreign Policy in a Globalized World, Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Larkin, S. P., "The Age of Transparency: International Relations Without Secrets", In: Foreign Affairs, vol. 95, No. 3 (may-jun), pag. 136-146, 2016.
- Lutz-Bachmann, M., "Does "Ius Cogens" Exist in International Relations? : Philosophical Remarks to the Encyclical "Pacem in Terris"", In: Justenhoven, H.-G, and M. E. O'Connell (eds.), Peace Through Law, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2016.
- Mathias A. and S. Stetter “Actorhood in World Politics : The Dialectics of Agency/Structure within the World Polity”, In: Hellmann G., and E. Knud Jørgensen (eds.), Theorizing Foreign Policy in a Globalized World, Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Neumann, I.B. ,“Foreign Policy in an Age of Globalization”, In: Hellmann G., and E. Knud Jørgensen (eds.), Theorizing Foreign Policy in a Globalized World, Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Reder, M., "Global Governance vs. Global Government : Political Philosophy in Times of Globalisation", In: Justenhoven, H.-G, and M. E. O'Connell (eds.), Peace Through Law, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2016.
- British and Foreign State Papers
- Papers relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States with the Annual Message of the President
Periodicals, serial publications
- Aktuelle Analysen
- Annuaire français de relations internationales
- Cooperation and Conflict: Nordic Studies in International Politics
- The Cyprus Yearbook of International Relations
- Defensor pacis
- Düsseldorfer Schriften zu Internationaler Politik und Völkerrecht
- The Emirates Occasional Papers
- Ethics and Foreign Policy Series
- Ethics and International Affairs
- Foreign Affairs
- Foreign Affairs Malaysia
- Harvard Studies in International Affairs
- History of International Relations, Diplomacy, and Intelligence
- International Affairs
- International Affairs Review Supplement
- International Conciliation
- International Journal
- International Politics
- International Studies
- Internationale Politik
- Internationale spectator
- IP Global Edition
- Politique étrangère
- Relations internationales
- The Round Table
- Studies in International Affairs
- The Yearbook of the Swedish Institute of International Affairs
1. El estudio de Medio Oriente en la disciplina de relaciones internacionales en México
Keywords: Middle East, Mexico, International relations, Foreign policy,
2. La politique étrangère d'Obama
Baldwin, D. A., "Power and International Relations : a Conceptual Approach", Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Contrary to conventional wisdom, the concept of power has not always been central to international relations theory. During the 1920s and 30s, power was often ignored or vilified by international relations scholars—especially in America. Power and International Relations explores how this changed in later decades by tracing how power emerged as an important social science concept in American scholarship after World War I. Combining intellectual history and conceptual analysis, David Baldwin examines power's increased presence in the study of international relations and looks at how the three dominant approaches of realism, neoliberalism, and constructivism treat power.
The clarity and precision of thinking about power increased greatly during the last half of the twentieth century, due to efforts by political scientists, psychologists, sociologists, economists, philosophers, mathematicians, and geographers who contributed to "social power literature." Baldwin brings the insights of this literature to bear on the three principal theoretical traditions in international relations theory. He discusses controversial issues in power analysis, and shows the relevance of older works frequently underappreciated today.
Focusing on the social power perspective in international relations, this book sheds light on how power has been considered during the last half century and how it should be approached in future research.
Klabbers, J., Advanced introduction to the law of international organizations, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This highly readable introduction gives a nuanced overview of the legal mechanisms behind the operation of international organizations such as the UN, the EU and the World Bank. It offers perceptive insights by placing the law of international organizations in a political context and presents a systematic discussion of a variety of relevant legal notions, ranging from the powers of international organizations to mechanisms of accountability. Written by a leading authority on the topic, it provides a concise and accessible examination of this developing facet of international law.
Krieger, J. (Ed.), The Oxford companion to international relations, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
International Relations has long been a core discipline within Political Science, one of vast importance for understanding social, cultural, economic and political exchanges across national boundaries. Every dimension of human experience falls within the scope of the field, making it applicable to psychologists, historians, anthropologists, and others across a wide swath of academia. The two-volume Oxford Companion to International Relations would be one of the first reference works to make this field clear and comprehensible to both specialists and non-specialists.
Entries are mostly thematic in content, rather than site-specific, permitting the work to have value and currency for years to come. The numerous theories and applications of IR are comprehensively covered, as would controversies related to the field, prominent figures, and ways IR has shaped political history. There are revised & updated entries derived from the Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, while the rest would be newly commissioned and authored by the foremost IR scholars around the world. New entries cover institutional developments (for instance, the creation and operation of the International Criminal Court, the governance of the Internet, and the various changes in the international monetary architecture since the beginning of the economic crisis); significant events that were not covered in the older volume (the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the challenges facing new democratic regimes in Eastern Europe and Africa); and advances in IR scholarship, especially in the fields of terrorism and international security. Fifteen interpretive essays are interspersed throughout the A-Z text, encouraging further scholarship and dialogue between readers.
Beeson, M. and F. Li, China's regional relations : evolving foreign policy dynamics, Boulder, Beeson, Lynne Rienner Publishing, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Has China’s much-discussed “charm offensive” come to an end? Are fears about the country’s more assertive foreign policies justified? How will a rising China interact with its regional neighbors? Mark Beeson and Fujian Li address these questions by comprehensively exploring the nature, effectiveness, and implications of China’s foreign policy strategy in Asia and Australia.
McLachlan, C., Foreign relations law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
What legal principles govern the external exercise of the public power of states within common law legal systems? Foreign Relations Law tackles three fundamental issues: the distribution of the foreign relations power between the organs of government; the impact of the foreign relations power on individual rights; and the treatment of the foreign state within the municipal legal system. Focusing on the four Anglo-Commonwealth states (the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand), McLachlan examines the interaction between public international law and national law and demonstrates that the prime function of foreign relations law is not to exclude foreign affairs from legal regulation, but to allocate jurisdiction and determine applicable law in cases involving the external exercise of the public power of states: between the organs of the state; amongst the national legal systems of different states; and between the national and the international legal systems.
Heilmann, S. and D.H. Schmidt, China's Foreign Political and Economic Relations: An Unconventional Global Power, Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This balanced and thoughtful book presents a thorough analysis of the dynamics of China s foreign relations. Sebastian Heilmann and Dirk H. Schmidt provide a comprehensive and discriminating view of the complex, often competing factors (domestic influences, regional tensions, global uncertainties) that shape Chinese foreign policy. They portray the PRC as a land of multiple identities-a nation that is becoming more assertive in East Asia as it explores novel approaches to its foreign economic policies, while simultaneously displaying thin-skinned sensitivities when confronted with international criticism. The authors argue that unconventional approaches to foreign relations-in particular a unique combination of long-term strategies with multilevel policy experiments-are driving Chinese global expansion. The provocative and challenging final chapter, designed to spur discussion, considers China s imperial identity warring against the decentralized activities conducted in the shadow of the empire. Illicit transnational guerilla-like networks have thus become powerful driving forces behind the continued development of China s foreign policy as well as its foreign-trade relations. The authors contend that the activities of these niche nomads, with their largely invisible or chameleon-like presence, constitute the most alarming dimension of China s foreign relations as they gain ground and resources in many parts of the world with the potential to shake the very foundations of other societies.
Murithi, T., Handbook of Africa's International Relations, New York, Routledge, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Africa’s international relations have often been defined and oriented by the dominant international and geopolitical agendas of the day. In the aftermath of colonialism the Cold War became a dominant paradigm that defined the nature of the continent’s relationship with the rest of the world. The contemporary forces of globalization are now exerting an undue influence and impact upon Africa’s international relations. Increasingly, the African continent is emerging as a vocal, and in some respects an influential, actor in international relations. There is a lack of analysis and research on this emerging trend. This timely book fills this analytical gap by engaging with a wide range of issues, with chapters written by experts on a variety of themes.
The emerging political prominence of the African continent on the world stage is predicated on an evolving internal process of continental integration. In particular, there are normative and policy efforts to revive the spirit of Pan-Africanism: the 21st century is witnessing the evolution of Pan-Africanism, notably through the constitution and establishment of the African Union (AU). Given the dearth of analysis on this phenomemon, this volume also examines the notion of Pan-Africanism through various lenses – notably peace and security, development, the environment and trade.
The volume will also engage with the emerging role of the AU as an international actor, e.g. with regard to its role in the reform of the United Nations Security Council, climate change, the International Criminal Court (ICC), the treaty establishing Africa as a nuclear-free zone, Internally Displaced Persons, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), international trade, the environment, public health issues, security, and development issues. This book will assess how the AU’s role as an international actor is complicated by the difficulty of promoting consensus among African states and then maintaining that consensus in the face of often divergent national interests. This book will in part assess the role of the AU in articulating collective and joint policies and in making interventions in international decision and policy-making circles.
The Handbook will also assess the role of African social movements and their relationship with global actors. The role of African citizens in improving their own conditions is often underplayed in the international relations discourse, and this volume will seek to redress this oversight. Throughout the book the various chapters will also assess the role that these citizen linkages have contributed towards continental integration and in confronting the challenges of globalization.
Ismael, T.Y. and G.E. Perry (eds.), The International Relations of the Contemporary Middle East : Subordination and Beyond, Ismael, London, Routledge, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The Middle East, a few decades ago, was seen to be an autonomous subsystem of the global international political system. More recently, the region has been subordinated to the hegemony of a singular superpower, the US, bolstered by an alliance with Israel and a network of Arab client states.
The subordination of the contemporary Middle East has resulted in large part from the disappearance of countervailing forces, for example, global bipolarity, that for a while allowed the Arab world in particular to exercise a modicum of flexibility in shaping its international relations.The aspirations of the indigenous population of the Middle East have been stifled by the dynamics of the unequal global power relationships, and domestic politics of the countries of the region are regularly subordinated to the prerogatives of international markets and the strategic competition of the great powers.
Employing the concept of imperialism, defined as a pattern of alliances between a center (rulers) in the Center (developed) country and a center (client regime) in the Periphery (underdeveloped country) - as an overall framework to analyse the subordination of the region, this book is essential reading for students and scholars of the Middle East, International Relations, and Politics in general.
Bueno de Mesquita, B., Principles of International Politics, Washington, DC, CQ Press, 2014.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Renowned scholar Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, who set the standard for the scientific approach to international relations and transformed the field, has returned with a reformulated fifth edition based on extensive reviewer feedback and guided by an emphasis on questions about the causes and consequences of war, peace, and world order. More than ever before, the strategic perspective in international relations is examined with complete clarity, precision, and accessibility. What hasn't changed is Bueno de Mesquita's commitment to covering the fundamentals of IR. The foundational topics and examination are all there: the major theories of war, the domestic sources of international politics, an exploration of the democratic peace, the problems of terrorism, the role of foreign aid, democratization, international political economy, globalization, international organizations, international law, and the global environment. No other introductory text delivers such an easily-understood contemporary explanation of international politics, while truly enabling students to learn how to mobilize the key concepts and models themselves-thus develop a new method for thinking about world affairs. More than ever before, Principles provides a comprehensive evaluation of all aspects of international affairs, systematically compares the accuracy of competing approaches to international relations, and walks students through the simple, intuitive models and games that capture the essence of the strategic, selectorate viewpoint.
Dunoff, J.L. and M.A. Pollack (eds.), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations: the State of the Art, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
International Law and International Relations: Synthesizing Insights from Interdisciplinary Scholarship brings together the most influential contemporary writers in the fields of international law and international relations to take stock of what we know about the making, interpretation, and enforcement of international law. The contributions to this volume critically explore what recent interdisciplinary work reveals about the design and workings of international institutions, the various roles played by international and domestic courts, and the factors that enhance compliance with international law. The volume also explores how interdisciplinary work has advanced theoretical understandings of the causes and consequences of the increased legalization of international affairs.
Viotti, P.R. and M.V. Kauppi, International Relations and World Politics, Boston, MA, Pearson, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Updated in its 5th edition, International Relations and World Politics is a toolkit that offers an authoritative survey of the field and practical ways to analyze current and future world problems. Drawn from the authors' experience as scholars and practitioners, this new edition was completely rewritten to focus on an enduring teaching and learning goal-how individuals can apply theory, history, geography, and more for a lifetime of understanding politics in a globalized world. Whether as actors themselves in world politics, participants in the global economy, or simply readers of world news, those reading International Relations and World Politics not only get more help to master the field's concepts but also get more help to understand that these are real-world ideas with real-world implications.
Aleppo, Ankara and Berlin: Atrocities, Violence and Terror
Humanitarian Crisis in Syria. In the eastern part of Aleppo, a Syrian city held by rebels, thousands of civilians were trapped. People were being executed in those parts of Aleppo that had been retaken by Assad forces. Recently the trapped residents that were stuck in a small area with no safe zones posted final “goodbye” messages, pictures and tweets on social media. They have thanked supporters, and questioned how the world allowed the situation in Aleppo to happen. The situation in Syria has been described as a “stain on the world’s collective conscience”.Read more
Wake up call for Europe
Last Thursday, June 23, the British people voted to leave the European Union in an unprecedented referendum about membership of the European Union. According to the official result 51.9% of the registered voters choose to leave against 48.1% who wanted the United Kingdom to remain a member of the European Union. This blog will assess certain aspects of the outcome of the referendum and will try to clarify what the next steps of the so-called Brexit are.Read more
Dutch Referendum on the EU’s Association Agreement with Ukraine
Today, Wednesday April 6th, citizens in the Netherlands can cast their votes in an unprecedented advisory referendum. The question put to a vote is whether the Dutch government should ratify the European Union’s Association Agreement with Ukraine or not. This blog provides some background of the EU’s Association Agreement with Ukraine and the lead up to today’s referendum.Read more
Concretizing Transnational Democracy
In his Models of Democracy, initially published in 2006, David Held submitted that in the 21st century democratic institutions must be developed at regional and global levels as a necessary complement to those at the level of the nation-state. A few years earlier Tony McGrew distinguished in his seminal essay on Transnational Democracy between four different accounts of transnational democracy rooted in the distinctive traditions of democratic thought, namely liberal-internationalism, radical democratic pluralism, cosmopolitanism and deliberative democracy. Whereas Held and McGrew discussed transnational democracy primarily as abstract concepts, Habermas suggested in 2014 that the European Union has to become a transnational democracy.Read more
The Eurasian Economic Union as a Geopolitical and Economic Counterweight to the European Union: the Case of Armenia
The Eurasian Economic Union is the next step in Eurasian economic integration. It will function as a common market with a customs union and has the aim of providing the free movement of goods, services, capital and workforce and conducting common policies in key economic sectors, such as energy and agriculture. The EEU was established in 2014 between Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. A the treaty to enlarge the EEU by including Armenia was signed in October. In this blog we’ll discuss the main reasons for Armenia to join the EEU instead of choosing the path of closer cooperation with the European Union.Read more
The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 and the Roadmap to Israeli-Palestinian Permanent Peace!
Between 11 and 18 October the Youth Peace Initiative 2014 took place in The Hague, international City of Peace and Justice. The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 (YPI 2014) has been set up to get Israeli and Palestinian youth involved with the current peace negotiations between their nations. The YPI 2014 participants discussed and deliberated a whole week to achieve consensus on ideas and solutions for the peace process.Read more
Interview: Dr. Christian Noack
This month, our first time guest editor and colleague, Ms. Anna Duszczyk, invited Dr. Christian Noack from the University of Amsterdam, for an in-depth interview on the current crisis in Ukraine. Dr. Noack is an expert on Eastern European History, Media Studies and Slavonic Studies. In this interview, he will discuss his views on the current political situation in Ukraine and the role of Russia and the European Union in the crisis.Read more
Nuclear security: Dangers and Achievements
Nuclear security is generally accepted to mean “the prevention of, detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities”. In short it is about preventing terrorists from acquiring radioactive material or attacking nuclear facilities. Since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, nuclear security concerns have been heightened, but how real is the danger and what are the legal instruments to combat nuclear terrorism?Read more
A Justification for Russia’s Intervention?
In the last week Russian military forces have occupied Crimea, the Ukrainian Black Sea peninsula where the majority of the population is ethnic Russian and the Russian Black Sea Fleet is deployed in the city of Sevastopol. In the Russian constitution a few articles describe circumstances where a primacy of Russian constitutional law above international law may occur. How does Russia legally justify its intervention? Guest Blog by Anna K. Duszczyk.Read more
Ukraine, Moving East or West?
Although Yanukovych has claimed many times to seek good ties with Russia and the EU simultaneously, it seems that by refusing to sign the Association Agreement (AA) and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with the EU last November, the power balance is tipping towards Russia. As an alternative to further EU integration, Russia has been actively promoting Ukraine to join the Russian-led Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, which in the future could progress towards a further integrated Eurasian Union.Read more
Unresolved Territorial Disputes: The Tunbs and Abu Musa in the Gulf
Last week, the Foreign Minister of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed, renewed his country’s demand for the restoration of sovereignty over three islands in the Persian Gulf region. Responding to the statement by the UAE, Iran’s representative reiterated his country’s full sovereignty over the islands and categorically rejected any claims to the contrary. The legal dispute about ownership and sovereignty of the three islands is based on rival historical claims by both sides.Read more
ARGO and the Follow-Up: Iran and the United States
33 Years after the event, Hollywood has turned its attention to an episode that traumatized the United States for months: the seizure of the American Embassy in Tehran. As the US Embassy falls to a group of Islamist students and militants in support of the Iranian revolution and in retaliation for the USA’s sheltering of the recently deposed Shah, six diplomats slip out and seek sanctuary in the Canadian’s ambassador’s residence. It is up to the CIA’s Tony Mendez (Ben Affleck) to extract them from the country before they are discovered by the Revolutionary Guards. The plan? Create a fake movie, called Argo, and pretend they’re the crew.Read more
South Sudan: Birth Of A Nation
On 9th July 2011, South-Sudan finally gained independence from Sudan after 50 years of conflicts in Northeasteren Africa. This blog will briefly discuss the most important obstacles that will lie ahead for the people of South-Sudan.Read more
North Korea Confirms Nuclear Test
North Korea has conducted its second nuclear test, the country’s state news agency KCNA announced today. The nuclear test was expected. Earlier this year North Korea conducted a failed intercontinental missile test.Read more
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