Air and Space Law
The spectacular fast developments in aircraft technology in the beginning of the 20th century, made law-making necessary in this new field of transportation, in peace and in war. In 1910 the first conference on an international air law code took place in Paris. International air law now deals with many topics, such transport responsibility, safety of passengers, airplanes and luggage, airport-regulations, hijacking, air pollution, and aerial warfare. The collection of international air law in the Peace Palace Library covers all the aspects of this (public and private) international law subject, including the historical part, the sources of international air law, the international organizations involved and the numerous international conventions: Chicago Convention 1944, Warsaw Convention 1929, and the Montreal Convention 1999.
Space law is a relatively new branch of law, roughly starting in 1957 with the launch of the Sputnik I, the first satellite in space. Space law consists of international space law, governing the activities of States and international intergovernmental organizations, and national space law, governing the activities of individual countries and their nationals. Advancing technology and scientific progress extend human activities in space more and more. These developments will require new regulations of business activities, space tourism, traffic rules, the problem of dangerous space debris, rescue missions, contracts for mining expeditions, property rights on celestial bodies and encounters with alien entities.
For example: Who owns the Moon?
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Air and Space Law. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → Public international law and subject headings (keyword) Air Law and Space Law are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Diederiks-Verschoor, I.H.P., An Introduction to Air Law, Alphen aan de Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2012.
- Doo Hwan Kim, Essays for the study of the international air and space law, Paju: Korean Studies Information Company, 2008.
- Dunk, F. von der and Tronchetti, F. (eds.), Handbook of Space Law, Cheltenham,UK, Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015.
- Dupont, P.M., Manuel de droit aérien: souveraineté et libertés dans la troisième dimension, Paris, Editions Pedone, 2015.
- Havel, B.F., G.S.Sanchez, The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
- Hobe, S. (Hrsg.), Kölner Kompendium des Luftrechts, Köln: Heymanns Verlag, 2009-2015.
- Hobe, S. (ed.), Pioneers of Space Law, Leiden, Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013. [e-book]
- Milde, M., International Air Law and ICAO, The Hague, Eleven international publishing, 2016.
- Abeyratne, R., Megatrends and Air Transport: Legal, Ethical and Economic Issues, Cham, Springer, 2017. [e-book]
- Abeyratne, R., Rulemaking in Air Transport: a Deconstructive Analysis, Cham, Springer, 2016. [e-book]
- Al-Ekabi, C. (ed.), European Autonomy in Space, Cham, Springer, 2015. [e-book]
- Bobek, M. and J. Prassl (eds.), Air Passenger Rights: Ten Years On, Oxford and Portland, Oregon, Hart Publishing, 2016.
- Cachard, O., Le transport international aérien de passagers, Académie de droit international de La Haye, Recueil des cours, 2015, pp. 9-216.
- Cheng, Ch.-J., (ed.), The Use of Airspace and Outer Space for all Mankind in the 21st Century (Proceedings of the international conference on air transport and space application in a new world, held in Tokyo from 2-5 june 1993), The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 1995.
- Cruzen, C., Schmidhuber, M., Lee, Y.H. and Kim, B. (eds.), Space Operations: Contributions from the Global Community, Cham, Springer Nature, 2017.
- Dupont, P.M., Manuel de droit aérien: souveraineté et libertés dans la troisième dimension, Paris, Editions A. Pedone, 2015.
- Havel, B,S., G.S.Sanchez, The Priniciples and Practice of International Aviation Law, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
- Lee, R.J., Law and Regulation of Commercial Mining of Minerals in Outer Space, Dordrecht, Springer, 2012. [e-book]
Lee, J.W., Regional Liberalization in International Air Transport: towards Northeast Asian Open Skies, The Hague, Eleven international publishing, 2016.
- Mendes de Leon, P., Introduction to air law, Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer, 2017.
- Oduntan, G., Sovereignty and Jurisdiction in the Airspace and Outer Space: Legal Criteria for Spatial Delimitation, London, Routledge, 2012.
- Pop, V., Who owns the Moon? Extraterrestrial Aspects of Land and Mineral Resources Ownership, Berlin, Springer, 2009. [e-book]
- Sundahl, M., The Cape Town Convention: its Application to Space Assets and Relation to the Law of Outer Space, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013. [e-book]
- Almond, R., Clearing the Air above the East China Sea: The Primary Elements of Aircraft Defense Identification Zones, Harvard National Security Journal, 7 (2015), No. 1, pp. 126-198.
- DiPaolo, A.J., "The Definition and Delimitation of Outer Space: the Present Need to determine where 'Space Activities' begin", Annals of Air and Space Law, 39 (2014), pp. 623-644.
- Freeland, S., "Applying the Jus in Bello to Military Uses of Outer Space: A Square Peg in a Round Hole?", in Sterns, P.M., Tennen, L.I. and Fasan, E. (eds.), Private law, public law, metalaw and public policy in space: a liber amicorum in honor of Ernst Fasan, [Cham], Springer, 2016, pp. 109-122.
- Hobe, S., "The International Institute of Space Law adopts Position Paper on Space Resource Mining", Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht: Vierteljahresschrift des Instituts für Luft- und Weltraumrecht der Universität Köln, 65 (2016), No. 2, pp. 204-209.
- Kim, H.T., "Fundamental Principles of Space Resources Exploitation: a Recent Development of International and Municipal Law", Journal of East Asia and international law, 11 (2018), No. 1, pp. 35-52.
- Knittlmayer, N., Völkerrechtliche Pflicht zur Sperrung des Luftraums über "Konfliktzonen"? Erörterung am Beispiel des Abschusses von Flug MH17, Zeitschrift fur Luft- und Weltraumrecht, 65 (2016), No. 1, pp. 44-66.
- Kurlekar, A., "Space - The Final Frontier: Analysing Challenges of Dispute Resolution Relating to Outer Space", Journal of international arbitration, 33 (2016), No. 4, pp. 379-416.
- Monks, S.., "Flight MH370: International Law and How We Use It", Australian International Law Journal, 21 (2014), pp. 101-124.
- Monserrat Filho, J., "Outer Space as Private Property and Theater of War?", in Sterns, P.M., Tennen, L.I. and Fasan, E. (eds.), Private law, public law, metalaw and public policy in space: a liber amicorum in honor of Ernst Fasan, [Cham], Springer, 2016, pp. 123-144.
- Stotler, C., "The Effects of the Fragmentation of International Law on Aerospace Regulation", Proceedings of the International Institute of Space Law, 58 (2016), pp. 53-77.
- Soucek, A., "Legal and Practical Questions in Applying Articles II and IV of the Registration Convention", Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht: Vierteljahresschrift des Instituts für Luft- und Weltraumrecht der Universität Köln, 65 (2016), No. 1, pp. 22-43.
- Böckstiegel, K.-H., M. Benkö and S. Hobe (eds.), Space Law: Basic Legal Documents, Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff, 1990 – …
Shawcross and Beaumont: Air Law (4th ed.); with a chapter on the law of aviation insurance by R.D. Margo, London : Butterworth 4 Volumes + Looseleafs
Periodicals, serial publications
- Air & Space Law
- Air & Space Law (Online)
- Annals of Air and Space Law
- Cologne Commentary on Space Law
- ECSL News: Bulletin of the European Centre for Space Law
- Essential Air and Space Law
- Forum for Air and Space Law
- Journal of Air Law and Commerce
- Journal of Space Law
- Korean Journal of Air and Space Law
- Proceedings of the … Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space
- Revue française de droit aérien et spatial
- Schriften zum Luft- und Weltraumrecht
- Utrecht Studies in Air and Space Law
- Yearbook of Air and Space Law
- Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht
- Baranes, B., "Bibliography of Space Policy Publications 2014", in Al-Ekabi, C. (et al.)(eds.), Yearbook on Space Policy 2014: the Governance of Space, Wien, Springer, 2016, pp. 303-316.
- Heere, W.P., "Bibliography of Air Law 2016", Air & space law, 42 (2017), No. 6, pp. 639-659.
- Heere, W.P., "Bibliography of Air Law 2015", Air & Space Law, 41 (2016), No. 4-5, pp. 397-415.
- Li, K.L., World Wide Space Law Bibliography, Toronto, Carswell, 1978-1987.
- Ridderhof, R.J.W, Buisman, H.P.C. and Looney, R., Fifty years of space law – space law in 50 years: selected bibliography = Cinquante ans de droit de l'espace - le droit de l'espace dans 50 ans: bibliographie sélective, The Hague, Peace Palace Library, 2017.
- White, I.L., C.E. Wilson and J.A. Vosburgh, Law and Politics in Outer Space: A Bibliography, Tucson, AZ, University of Arizona Press, 1972.
1. The Fault Is Not in Our Stars: Avoiding an Arms Race in Outer Space
Stubbe, P., State Accountability for Space Debris: a legal Study of Responsibility for Polluting the Space Environment and Liability for Damage caused by Space Debris, Leiden, Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2018.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
In State Accountability for Space Debris Peter Stubbe examines the legal consequences of space debris pollution which, he argues, is a global environmental concern. The study finds that the customary ‘no harm’ rule and Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty obligate States to prevent the generation of debris and that the international community as a whole has a legitimate interest in their compliance. A breach of these obligations entails the responsibility of a State and compensation must be provided for damage caused by space debris. The author treats responsibility and liability separately and thoroughly scrutinizes both legal regimes with the help of common analytical elements. Finally, Peter Stubbe argues that a comprehensive traffic management system is required so as to ensure the safe and sustainable use of outer space.
Leepuengtham, T., The Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Outer Space Activities, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book considers the intellectual property issues which are raised by space activities. While outer space itself remains out of reach for most of us, the results of space activities and developments from space technology are becoming ever-more integrated in our daily lives. Despite this, there is often little understanding of the importance of space technologies, how existing legal rules may apply in terms of protecting the technology, or whether legal protection, such as copyright, may be enforced if the unauthorised use takes place beyond conventional territorial borders in outer space.
Dempsey, P.S. and Jakhu, R.S. (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Public Aviation Law, London, Routledge, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Comprehensive analysis of Public Aviation Law - principally international, but also domestic law in a comparative context. International Law is pervasive in Aviation Law, and is incorporated into a number of major multilateral treaties (e.g., the Chicago Convention of 1944, for Public International Air Law). States then implement these international obligations in domestic laws that create aviation regulatory administrations that, in turn, promulgate regulations.Bringing together leading scholars in the field, this prestigious reference work provides a comprehensive and comparative overview of Public Aviation Law.
Jakhu, R.S., Pelton, J.N. and Nyampong, Y.O.M., Space Mining and Its Regulation, Switzerland, Springer, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book addresses the complex technical challenges presented by remote space mining in terms of robotics, remote power systems, space transport, IT and communications systems, and more. It also addresses the difficult oversight and regulatory issues that face states and non-state enterprises that would take on the perilous task of obtaining natural resources from the Moon and asteroids. An increasing number of countries are becoming involved in space-related activities that were previously carried out primarily by the United States and the USSR (now the Russian Federation). How these regulatory endeavors might be handled in international treaties, standards, codes of conduct or other means have become a truly international political issue. And there is yet another issue.
Malinowska, K., Space Insurance: International Legal Aspects, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book focuses on the legal aspects of space insurance, in the contractual context, analysing the theory of space risk insurance, as well as the insurance terms used in the market. Insurance related to outer space activities, has been around since the 1960s, but has become vastly more significant with the increased commercial use of satellites. In light of this increasing significance, this book offers the first in-depth coverage, both practical and theoretical, of space insurance from an international law perspective. The author emphasises the need to understand the various insurance risks facing particular types of commercial space activities, including pre-launch, launch, satellite operation and communications, satellite navigation, satellite remote sensing and space station operation.
Flight MH17 and Legal Remedies
On 17 July 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 crashed in Donetsk Oblast, Eastern Ukraine. All 298 people on board MH17, which was en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, died. It claimed the lives of 193 Dutch nationals, 43 from Malaysia, and 27 from Australia. Other victims came from a variety of countries including Indonesia, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany and the Philippines. From the start, both the investigation into the cause of the crash and the criminal investigation into the downing of Flight MH17 were severely challenged due to the ongoing armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine between pro-Russian separatists, supported by the Russian Federation, and the Ukrainian government.Read more
Satellite Data in International Law
The use of data acquired through earth observation satellites has become commonplace. The use of satellite data has even expanded as an extremely useful tool to implement international law since it provides factual, relevant and up-to-date information. Further technological developments will steadily increase the range of data which can be collected through Earth Observation and further enhance its accuracy. Therefore, satellite data can be used to monitor compliance with obligations contained within international agreements or to resolve disputes before an international court.Read more
Aviation Safety: too Tired to Fly?
Pilot fatigue has long been stated as a concern in the airline industry. The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has previously proposed setting limits on the duration that pilots can fly. Fatigue leads to slower reaction times and impaired concentration and decision making.Read more
18 February 2016, new EASA Flight Time Limitations (FTL) rules (EU Regulation 83/2014) come into effect.
The aviation industry shifts to a fully harmonised European set of rules aimed at preventing air crew fatigue from constituting a risk to flight safety. Aviation accidents are still extremely rare, but when they have occurred, figures show that 80% are a result of human error, with pilot fatigue accounting for 15-20% of human error in fatal accidents.
Space Mining and (U.S.) Space Law
On November 25, 2015, President Obama signed into law the US Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act (H.R. 2262). As far as space mining is concerned, this legislation will give US space firms the rights to own and sell natural resources they mine from bodies in space, including asteroids. But does the new law risk privatizing a realm that is meant to belong to all of humanity? Is there a violation of international law? Is an international space exploitation regime preferable?Read more
Happy Retirement Ingrid!
[On the retirement of our curator Ingrid Kost; blog in Dutch] Vandaag 15 januari 2015 is een memorabele dag voor de bibliotheek van het Vredespaleis. Wij nemen na 39 jaar afscheid van onze collega Ingrid Kost. Zij zal genieten van een welverdiend pensioen. Tijd om andere dingen te gaan doen, zoals oppassen op de kleinkinderen en bijenhouden. Wij zullen haar deerlijk missen als collega en als mens. Alvorens vandaag afscheid te nemen, spraken wij met haar en haalden herinneringen op.Read more
Asteroid(s) coming in at Collision Course
How to handle an incoming asteroid? What does Don Quijote have to do with it? Movies like “Deep Impact” and “Armageddon” make it seem so easy. But in reality there are many technological, legal and political obstacles to cope with. From 15-19 April, 2013, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) will hold its third Planetary Defence Conference “Gathering for Impact!” in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.Read more
The Moon Agreement of 1979: What Relevance to Space Activities ?
Years of negotiations in the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and vigorous drafting and re-drafting of an international treaty to govern the activities of States on the Moon, culminated in an unanimous acceptance of the Moon Agreement (or Moon Treaty) by the UN General Assembly in 1979. The Agreement applies to the Moon and all other celestial bodies within the solar system other than the Earth, including orbits or other trajectories to or around them. It turns over jurisdiction to the international community.Read more
- European Centre for Space Law
- Forum on Air and Space Law, American Bar Association
- Global Space Institute
- Institut für Österreichisches und Internationales Luftfahrtrecht
- Institut für Luft- und Weltraumrecht, Universität zu Köln
- Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University
- International Aviation Law Institute, DePaul University
- International Civil Aviation Organization
- International Institute of Air and Space Law, Leiden University
- International Institute of Space Law
- Jaxa legal database
- Space Law and Policy Library
- Space Law and Space Resources, by Philip Harris
- Space Law Committee, International Law Association
- United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs