In the 20th century science and technology changed the agricultural sector enormously in many industrialized countries. The implications for both developed and developing countries in the agricultural sector, rural development, food security, food safety, the Codex Alimentarius, the environment, the green revolution, Genetically Modified Food (GM Food or biotech foods), trade, etc., are the subject of this research guide.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Food. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → Public international law and subject heading (keyword) Food are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
1. Food, Security and Free Trade
Keywords: South Africa, India, Agriculture, Food, Free trade, Food security, World Trade Organization,
- Adam, É., Droit International de l'Agriculture: Sécuriser le Commerce des Produits Agricoles, Paris, L.G.D.J., 2012.
- Bodiguel, L. and M. Cardwell, The Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Approaches, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010.
- Costato, L. (ed.), European Food Law, Padova, Cedam, 2012.
- Karapinar, B. and Ch. Häberli, Food Crises and the WTO: World Trade Forum, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
- Masson-Matthee, M.D., The Codex Alimentarius Commission and its Standards, The Hague, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2007.
- Santilli, J. , Agrobiodiversity and the Law: Regulating Genetic Resources, Food Security and Cultural Diversity, Abingdon, Earthscan, 2012.
- Shiva, V., The Violence of the Green Revolution: Third World Agriculture, Ecology and Politics, London, Zed Books, 1991.
Books & Articles
- Anderson, K., The WTO and Agriculture, Cheltenham, Elgar, 2005.
- Akram-Lodhi, A.H., Hungry For Change: Farmers, Food Justice and the Agrarian Question, Halifax, Fernwood, 2013.
- Jack, B., Agriculture and EU Environmental Law, Farnham, Ashgate, 2009.
- Cotula, L., Gender and Law: Women's Rights in Agriculture, Rome, FAO, 2006.
- Fantu, C. and R. Modi, Agricultural Development and Food Security in Africa: the Impact of Chinese, Indian and Brazilian Investments, London, Zed Books, 2013.
- Grossman, M.R. (ed.), Agriculture and the Polluter Pays Principle, London, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 2009.
- Guneratne, C., Genetic Resources, Equity and International Law, Chelthenham, Elgar, 2012.
- Kugelman, M. and S.L. Levenstein (eds.), The Global Farms Race: Land Grabs, Agricultural Investment, and the Scramble for Food Security, Washington, DC, Island Press, 2013.
- Lambek, N., Rethinking Food Systems : Structural Challenges, New Strategies and the Law, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London, Springer, 2014.
- McMahon, J.A., EU Agricultural Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007.
- Meléndez-Ortiz, R., Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green Box: Ensuring Coherence with Sustainable Development Goals, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
- Mogele, R., and F. Erlbacher (eds.), Single Common Market Organisation: Article-by-Article Commentary of the Legal Framework for Agricultural Markets in the European Union, München/Oxford, Beck/Hart, 2011.
- Moscatelli, S., Il diritto all'alimentazione nel sistema dei diritti umani, Roma, Aracne, 2014.
- Orden, D., D. Blandford and T. Josling (eds.), WTO Disciplines on Agricultural Support: Seeking a Fair Basis for Trade, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
- Özerdem, A. and R. Roberts, Challenging Post-Conflict Environments: Sustainable Agriculture, Farnham, Ashgate, 2012.
- Paarlberg, R.L., Starved for Science: How Biotechnology is Being Kept out of Africa, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2008.
- Riches, G., Silvasti, T. (eds.), First World Hunger Revisited : Food Charity or the Right to Food? New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
- Shaw, D.J., Global Food and Agricultural Institutions, London, Routledge, 2009.
- Tofan, C. (ed.), Human Rights and the Right to Food, The Hague, International Courts Association, Separate Volumes, 2013.
- Verbruggen, P., Enforcing Transnational Private Regulation : a Comparative Analysis of Case Studies in Advertising and Food Safety, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2014.
- Walters, R., Eco Crime and Genetically Modified Food, Abingdon, Routledge, 2011.
- Winders, B., The Politics of Food Supply: U.S. Agricultural Policy in the World Economy, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 2009.
- Andersen, R, "The Plant Treaty: Crop Genetic Diversity and Food Security", in International Environmental Agreements: An Introduction, London, Routledge, 2012, pp. 134-150.
- Cunha, A. and A. Swinbank, "Exploring the Determinants of CAP Reform: A Delphi Survey of Key Decision-Makers", 47 Journal of Common Market Studies (2009), pp. 235-261.
- Grant, W.P. and T. Stocker, "Politics of Food: Agro-Industry Lobbying in Brussels", in Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors, and Issues, New York, NY, Nova Science Publishers, 2009, pp. 233-255.
- Holzhauser, U., "Agriculture Trade Liberalization: Prospects and Consequences for European Policies", in The European Union and the WTO Doha Round, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2007, pp. 63-78.
- Mechlem, K., "Agricultural Biotechnologies, Transgenic Crops and the Poor: Opportunities and Challenges", Human Rights Law Review (2010), pp. 749-764.
- O'Connor, B., "The Food Crisis and the Role of the EC's Common Agricultural Policy", in Food Crises and the WTO: World Trade Forum, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 187-219.
- Varsney, A., "Poverty and Famines", in Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honor of Amartya Sen, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 139-153.
- Young, L.M. and K.C. Hansen, "Disconnections in US and EU Agricultural Policy and Trade Negotiations: A Transaction Cost Politics Approach", 12 Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy (2011), pp. 12-28.
- "Agreement on Agriculture", in Agriculture in WTO Law, London, Cameron May, 2005, pp. 433-469.
- "Completing the Task: Cairns Group vision for the WTO Agriculture Negotiations: Cairns Group Ministerial Meeting, Sydney, Australia, 3 April 1998", in Reason versus Emotion, Seattle, WA, RIRDC, 1999, pp. 131-134.
Periodicals, serial publications
- Collection FAO: Questions d'éthique
- FAO Ethics Series
- Food and Agricultural Legislation
- San Joaquin Agricultural Law Review
- Hamel, H.H.R., R. Steenhard and H. Thyssen, "Selected Bibliography", in Food Security and Food Safety, Leiden, Nĳhoff, 2006, pp. 753-868.
- Palmer, R., Select Bibliography of Reports on Biofuels, Land Rights in Africa & Global land Grabbing, Oxfam, 2010.
1. Food, Security and Free Trade
Keywords: South Africa, India, Agriculture, Food, Free trade, Food security, World Trade Organization,
Maidana-Eletti, M. and P. Lang, Global Food Governance : Implications of Food Safety and Quality Standards in International Trade Law, Bern, Peter Lang, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
With increasingly globalised markets, changing consumer preferences and the steady development of technologies influencing food trade flows, safety and quality concerns have triggered the development of new forms of global (food) governance. Since its creation in 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has succeeded in providing a multilateral legal framework for the development of regulatory practices through its multiple agreements. Similarly, the continuing importance of regional and bilateral trade agreements, such as in the European Union and in Switzerland, has enhanced WTO's accomplishments through a comprehensive and dynamic set of international rules and standards for trade. However, the changing trends in the production and distribution of food products have questioned the effectiveness of the regulatory status quo. This book addresses the legal aspects of the current global architecture for food governance, particularly with regard to the role of international standards. In doing so, this work attempts at mapping the implications of domestic food measures in international trade law.
Norer, R., Genetic Technology and Food Safety, Cham, Springer, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The volume gives an overview on how legislators all over the world have come up with different legal solutions for governing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food security and provides a compact summary of the existing regulations in this field. In a comparative legal approach, a general report analyses and compares these various national and supranational legal systems. It closely follows the newest developments at the interface between genetic engineering law and food law. The emergence of a new technology usually leads to fundamental questions as to how the law should respond to it. The regulation of genetically modified organisms is a prime example, they have been discussed controversially ever since they were subject of legislation and regulation. In particular, this applies to the use of GMOs in food production. There is a variety of interesting legislations and a differentiated width of legal frameworks on international, supranational (EU) and national level to be found. The different regulations that thereby came to light are evidence of the various opinions and policies the societies and states have developed on this matter. It is this variety of regulations the volume examines, primarily on the basis of national reports that were handed in concerning the topic of genetic technology and food security at the occasion of the XIX International Congress of Comparative Law.
Lang, T., Food Wars : the Global Battle for Mouths, Minds and Markets, London, New York, Routledge, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
In the years since publication of the first edition of Food Wars much has happened in the world of food policy. This new edition brings these developments fully up to date within the original analytical framework of competing paradigms or worldviews shaping the direction and decision-making within food politics and policy.
The key theme of the importance of integrating human and environmental health has become even more pressing. In the first edition the authors set out and brought together the different strands of emerging agendas and competing narratives. The second edition retains the same core structure and includes updated examples, case studies and the new issues which show how these conflicting tendencies have played out in practice over recent years and what this tells us about the way the global food system is heading. Examples of key issues given increased attention include: nutrition, including the global rise in obesity, as well as chronic conditions, hunger and under-nutrition; the environment, particularly the challenges of climate change, biodiversity loss, water stress and food security; food industry concentration and market power; volatility and uncertainty over food prices and policy responses
- tensions over food, democracy and citizenship and social and cultural aspects impacting food and nutrition policies.
Kanalan, I., Die universelle Durchsetzung des Rechts auf Nahrung gegen transnationale Unternehmen, Tubingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
English summary: Is the right to food universally enforceable? Can it be enforced on transnational corporations? Ibrahim Kanalan critically discusses the justiciability of enforcing the right to food, as well as the accountability of such companies in terms of human rights, and shows ways to implement the right.
German description: Ibrahim Kanalan widmet sich der Bekampfung von Hunger. Er geht der Frage nach, ob das Recht auf Nahrung universell einklagbar ist und gegen transnationale Unternehmen durchgesetzt werden kann. Er setzt sich grundlegend mit den Einwanden auseinander, die gegen die universelle Justiziabilitat sozialer Menschenrechte eingebracht werden. Mit einer ausfuhrlichen Analyse der verschiedenen globalen Normen sowie der Rechtsprechung auf internationaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene zeigt der Autor, dass das Recht auf Nahrung universell einklagbar ist. Sodann systematisiert er die verschiedenen Rechtsanspruche in Auseinandersetzung mit der fragmentierten Spruchpraxis zahlreicher Gerichte und quasi-gerichtlicher Organe. Ibrahim Kanalan entwickelt ein neues und unkonventionelles Konzept, mit dem er die unmittelbare Bindung von Unternehmen an die Menschenrechte begrundet. Von einem rechtspluralistischen Verstandnis ausgehend analysiert er abschliessend verschiedene Moglichkeiten der transnationalen Durchsetzung des Rechts auf Nahrung.
MacMaolain, C., Food Law : European, Domestic and International Frameworks, Oxford, Portland, Oregon, Hart Publishing, 2015.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book provides a broad conspectus on the application of EU and international regulation of the food sector on English law. It is aimed at practitioners and students of this vital and emerging branch of law, and also all those involved or interested in the food industry who wish to familiarise themselves with how the law is applied in practice.The book commences with a short conceptual framework for the study of food law. It then provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of current English law, explaining how both international and national law and EU decision-making have impacted upon the production, sale and consumption of food in England. It describes in detail the roles of government, the Food Standards Agency and local enforcement authorities.The book contains full outlines of the developments in the most significant areas of food law. It concentrates specifically on topics such as food labelling and advertising, quality and compositional requirements, geographical food names, genetic modification, organic production, animal welfare and also the role of law in tackling poor health and obesity.The book sets out to explain and describe the impact of successive food crises on food safety and transparency requirements. It considers how the existing rules on the chemical and biological safety of food impact on our law and concludes with a review of the developing legal issues concerning the environmental impacts of current and proposed food law.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, by K. Mechlem.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Food, Right to, International Protection, by K. Mechlem.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, World Food Programme (WFP), by K. Mechlem.
Codex Alimentarius 50 years and Beyond!
This blog was written in honor of the farewell of Mr. Van Hoogstraten, General-Director of the Carnegie Foundation and Treasurer of The Hague Academy of International Law. Mr. Steven van Hoogstraten held the position of Director for Food Policy and Product Safety at the Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports (1990-2000). Additionally Steven van Hoogstraten represented the Netherlands in the Codex Alimentarius Commission. He stood at the cradle of the creation of Codex Alimentarius and its implementation in the Netherlands. Furthermore Steven van Hoogstraten was appointed as the Vice-president of the Codex for a few years and has comprehenisive understanding of the workings of the Commission.Read more
Wine and... European Law?!
At first glance wine and European Law don’t have to do much with each other. However, when one analyzes the relationship in depth, the legal aspects of wine have been (and still are) significantly important for the legal integration of the European Union and the creation of the common market. This blog focuses on these legal aspects in four judgments of the European Court of Justice and its predecessors.Read more
Bees under Bombardment : Time for Plan Bee
Current scientific evidence demonstrates that a sixth major extinction of biological diversity event is underway. The Earth is losing between one and ten percent of biodiversity per decade, mostly due to habitat loss, pest invasion, pollution, climate change, over-harvesting and disease. Certain natural ecosystem services, which are vital for human societies, are under stress.Read more
- World Food Programme
- Right to Food
- FAO on the Right to Food
- FAO - The Right to Food and Global Strategic Frameworks: a Window of Opportunity.
- FAO - Right to Food – Making it Happen. Progress and Lessons Learned through Implementation.
- UN on Food Security
- WHO on Food Security
- FAO: The State of Food Insecurity in the World
- FAO: A Special Programme for Food Security
- WFP on Food Security
- Global Food Security Index
- Food Security Portal - International Food Policy Research Institute
- GMO Compass
- EU and Genetically Modified Food and Feed
- WHO - Biotechnology (GM foods) and Nanotechnology
More Research guides on Special Topics
- Air and Space Law
- Cultural Heritage
- Law of the Sea
- Polar Regions