Today sports have an increasing influence within society and commerce. Major sports events like the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup are watched by billions of people around the world, causing a social and economic impact globally. International sports federations (ISFs) govern and control international sport. They cannot be regulated by national courts or governments. In Sports Law a distinction has to be made between global sports law and international sports law and sports-related national law. Examples of Lex Sportiva are the FIFA Regulations governing International Matches and the IOC Code of Ethics.
The role of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), seated in Lausanne, is more important than ever. The CAS routinely decides on the most important disputes stemming from international sporting competitions and their organisation. The very public controversies over international transfers in football, anti-doping bans, or sporting governance are usually played out on its playground.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research in the field of Sports Law. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → Public international law and subject heading (keyword) Sports are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
Hendrickx, F, Sports Law: International encyclopaedia of laws (R. Blanpain), The Hague, Kluwer Law International.
- Mavromati, D. and Reeb, M, The Code of the Court of Arbitration for Sport: Commentary, Cases and Materials, Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer, Law & Business, 2015.
- Reeb, M., Recueil des sentences du TAS, The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 2004.
- Steiner, U. und Walker, W.-D. (eds.), Von "Sport und Recht" zu "Faszination Sportrecht": ausgewählte Schriften von Klaus Vieweg, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 2016.
- Wax, A., Internationales Sportrecht : unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Sportvölkerrechts, Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2009
- Weger, F. de, The Jurisprudence of the FIFA Dispute Resolution Chamber, The Hague, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2016. [e-book]
- Wild, A., CAS and Football: Landmark Cases, The Hague, Asser, 2012.
- Blackshaw, I., International Sports Law: an introductory guide, The Hague, Asser Press, 2017. [e-book] November 2017
- Bogaert, S. van den, Practical Regulation of the Mobility of Sportsmen in the EU Post Bosman, The Hague : Kluwer Law International, 2005
- Brunk, A., Der Sportler und die institutionelle Sportschiedsgerichtsbarkeit: zur Wirksamkeit erzwungener Schiedsvereinbarungen im Sport und dem Gebot unabhängiger und überparteilicher Rechtspflege am Beispiel des Tribunal Arbitral du Sport (TAS) und des Deutschen Sportschiedsgerichts (DSS), Baden-Baden, Nomos , 2016.
- Buy, F. (et al.), Droit du sport, Paris : L.G.D.J, 2009
- David, P., A Guide to the World Anti-Doping Code: the Fight for the Spirit of Sport, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017. [e-book] November 2017
- Eichel, B., Der Sport im Recht der Europaischen Union: rechtliche Wirkungen der Unionskompetenz aus Art. 165 AEUV für die Regelungsbefugnisse von Mitgliedstaaten und Sportverbänden, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2013.
- Greppo, E. e Vellano, M. (eds.), Diritto internazionale dello sport, Torino : Giappichelli, 2010
- Haas, U. and Healey, D. (eds.), Doping in Sport and the Law, Portland, Oregon : Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016.
- Lewis, A. and Taylor, J., Sport: Law and Practice, Haywards Heath, Bloomsbury Professional, 2014.
- McNamee, M. and Møller, V., Doping and Anti-Doping Policy in Sport: Ethical, legal and social perspectives, London, Routledge, 2011
- Miège, C., Sport et droit européen, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2017. April 2018
- Palomar Olmeda, A. (ed.), Régimen jurídico del deportista profesional, Cizur Menor, Aranzadi Thomson Reuters, 2016.
- Parrish, R. and MIETINNEN, S., The Sporting Exception in European Union Law, The Hague : T.M.C. Asser Press, 2008
- Karaquillo, J-P., Droit international du sport, Recueil des Cours 309, La Haye : Académie de droit international de La Haye, 2006
Robina Blanco-Morales, Á., El dopaje en el deporte: la Ley frente al dopaje, Madrid, Dykinson, S.L, 2016.
- Rigozzi, A., Sprumont, D. et Hafner, Y. (éds.), Citius, altius, fortius: mélanges en l'honneur de Denis Oswald, Bâle : Helbing Lichtenhahn, 2012
- Tomlinson, A., FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) : the Men, the Myths and the Money, London, Routledge, 2014.
- Vieweg, K. (ed.), Lex Sportiva, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 2015.
- Viret, M., Evidence in Anti-Doping at the Intersection of Science and Law, The Hague, Asser Press 2016.
- Weatherill, S., Principles and Practice in EU Sports Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017.
- Wollmann, A.S., Nationality requirements in Olympic sports, Oisterwijk, Wolf Legal Publishers, 2016. February 2018
Journal articles and book-items
- Bondulich, J.R., "Rescuing the "Supreme Court" of Sports: Reforming the Court of Arbitration for Sport Arbitration Member Selection Procedures", Brooklyn journal of international law, 42 (2016), No. 1, pp. 275-328.
- Casini, L., "The Making of a 'Lex Sportiva' by the Court of Arbitration for Sport", in Armin von Bogdandy and Ingo Venzke (eds.), International Judicial Lawmaking : on Public Authority and Democratic Legitimation in Global Governance, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012, pp. 439-469
- Cernic, J.L., "Fair Trial Guarantees before the Court of Arbitration for Sport", Human Rights & International Legal Discourse, 6 (2012), No. 2, pp. 259-283
- Cox, T.W., "The International War against Doping: Limiting the Collateral Damage from Strict Liability", Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 47 (2014), No. 1, pp. 295-329.
- DiCenso, M.B., "A Long-Awaited Reboot: The FIFA Scandal and Its Repercussions for Football's Governing Body", Boston College international and comparative law review, 40 (2017), No. 1, pp. 115-139.
- Duval, A., Not in my name! Claudia Pechstein and the post-consensual foundations of the Court of Arbitration for Sport, Heidelberg, Max Planck Institute for comparative public law and international law, 2017. September 2018
- Duval, A., "Lex Sportiva: A Playground for Transnational Law", European Law Journal, 19 (2013), No. 6, pp. 822-842.
- Ebner, H. and Schneider, G., "Grundrechte und Sportschiedsgerichtsbarkeit", in Marhold, F. and Schneider, G. (eds.), Österreichisches Sportrecht, Wien, Jan Sramek Verlag, 2017, pp. 23-48. November 2017
- Foster, K., "Is There a Global Sports Law?", Entertainment and Sports Law Journal, 2 (2003), No. 1, pp. 1-18
- García Silvero, E.A., "La disciplina deportiva en las federaciones deportivas internacionales: algunos aspectos básicos para su adecuada comprensión", Revista española de derecho sportivo, 35 (2015), No. 1, pp. 79-102.
- Haas, U., "Role and Application of Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights in CAS Procedures", International Sports Law Review, 12 (2012), pp. 43-60.
- Kehrli, K., "The Unspecified Specificity of Sport: a Proposed Solution to the European Court of Justice's Treatment of the Specificity of Sport", Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 39 (2014), No.1, pp.403-441.
- Kornbeck, J., "The EU, the Revision of the World Anti-Doping Code and the Presumption of Innocence", International Sports Law Journal, 15 (2016), No. 3-4, pp. 172-196. [e-article]
- Łukomski, J., "Arbitration Clauses in Sport Governing Bodies' Statutes: Consent or Constraint? : Analysis from the Perspectives of Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights", The International Sports Law Journal (2013), No. 1-2, pp. 60-70.
- Luz, C. K. da, "A ordem transnacional da "lex sportiva" e os megaeventos da FIFA", Revista de direito constitucional e internacional, 89 (2014), pp. 277-300.
- Maisonneuve, M., "Le Tribunal arbitral du sport et les droits fondamentaux des athlètes", La revue libanaise de l'arbitrage arabe et international, 77 (2016), pp. 21-36. November 2017
- Nafziger, A.R., "The Principle of Fairness in the Lex Sportiva of CAS Awards and Beyond", The International Sports Law Journal (2010), No. 3-4, pp. 3-9
- Orth, J.F., "Striking down the "Osaka Rule" : An unnecessary departure", The International Sports Law Journal (2012), No. 3-4, pp. 28-34
- Panagiotopoulos, D., "Sporting Jurisdictional Order and Arbitration", US-China Law Review, 10 (2013), No.2, pp.130-140. [PDF]
- Parrish, R., "Article 17 of the FIFA Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players : Compatibility with EU Law", Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 22 (2015), No. 2, pp. 256-282.
- Pearson, G., "Sporting Justifications under EU Free Movement and Competition Law: The Case of the Football ‘Transfer System’", European Law Journal, 21 (2015), No. 2, pp. 220-238.
- Pérez González, C., "Un Derecho internacional del deporte? Reflexiones en torno a una rama del Derecho internacional público in statu nascendi", Revista española de derecho internacional, 69 (2017), No. 1, pp. 195-217.
- Pijetlovic, K., "Fundamental Rights of Athletes in the EU Post-Lisbon", in Tanel Kerikmäe (ed.) Protecting Human Rights in the EU : Controversies and Challenges of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, Heidelberg, Springer, 2014, pp. 161-186.
- Ram, H., "Proportionality and the Application of the World Anti-Doping Code", The International Sports Law Journal (2012), No. 3-4, pp. 8-11
- Rose, C., The FIFA Corruption Scandal from the Perspective of Public International Law, 19 ASIL Insights (2016), No. 23 (23 October 2016)
- Youd, K., "The Winter's Tale of Corruption: The 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar, the Impending Shift to Winter, and Potential Legal Actions against FIFA", Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business, 35 (2014), No. 1, pp. 167-197.
- Anderson, J. (ed.), Leading Cases in Sports Law, The Hague, Asser, 2013
- Code du sport : commenté, Paris, Dalloz, 2012
- Convention on an integrated safety, security and service approach at football matches and other sports events, Council of Europe, 2016.
- European Sport Charter 2001
- Lisbon Treaty and EU Sports Policy (September 2010) by Richard Parrish (et al.) on behalf of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies (European Parliament)
- Report on the Autonomy of Sport in Europe (1 December 2008) by Jean-Loup Chappelet on behalf of the Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport (EPAS)
- UNESCO Charter of Physical Education and Sports (21 November 1978)
Periodicals, serial publications
- African Sports Law and Business journal
- ASSER International sports law Series
- Beiträge zum Sportrecht, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot
- Causa Sport : die Sport-Zeitschrift für nationales und internationales Recht sowie für Wirtschaft
- Entertainment and Sports Law Journal
- Entertainment and Sports Lawyer
- International Sports Law Journal
- International Sports Law Review
- Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport
- Revue juridique et economique du sport
- Schriftenreihe Causa Sport
- Zeitschrift für Sport und Recht SpuRt
- Georgetown Library Olympics and International Sports Law Research Guide
- International Sports Law : A Research Guide on International Sports Law - Update, by Amy Burchfield
- University of Ottawa Library: Research Guide on Sports Law
- University of Washington School of Law Gallagher Law Library: Research Guide on Sports Law
Seems like there are no recent acquisitions right now''.
Freeburn, L., Regulating International Sport Power, Authority and Legitimacy, Leiden, Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2018.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
In a fresh and original account, Lloyd Freeburn challenges the conventional conception of contracts as the consent-based legal foundation of international sports law. The prevailing legal orthodoxy is shown to be untenable, failing to explain or justify international sports governing bodies’ regulatory power or their control over the livelihoods and liberty of participants in sport. The non-consensual jurisdiction of the Court of Arbitration for Sport is similarly tainted. But this significant challenge is not made simply to undermine international sport’s regulatory regime. A sound legal foundation for regulatory authority in sport is both desirable and necessary. Consequently, effective reform is urgently required to support the regime’s legality and to give it legitimacy by resolving the regime’s democratic deficit
De Marco, N. (ed.), Football and the Law, Haywards Heath, Bloomsbury Professional, 2018.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Football and the Law is the first comprehensive review of the law relating to all aspects of football, including the main regulatory and commercial aspects of the sport. With contributions from more than 50 of the leading experts in the field, Football and the Law is a valuable resource for lawyers and others active in the football industry, as well as a vital source of material for students, legal practitioners and others who wish to learn more about the area. The work refers to the key legal principles, cases and regulatory materials relevant to football.
David, P., A Guide to the World Anti-Doping Code: the Fight for the Spirit of Sport, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
The law relating to anti-doping changes rapidly. The World Anti-Doping Code was first adopted in 2003 to provide a common set of anti-doping rules applicable across all sport worldwide. The Code has evolved and changed significantly through two major processes of review. This third edition provides essential guidance and commentary on the 2015 Code which replaces the 2009 Code. The 2015 Code contains many significant changes in the core Articles of the Code, particularly in the regime on sanctions for anti-doping rule violations, and in the amended International Standards. The text outlines how the current law has developed from anti-doping rules and principles in operation before the Code and explains the central role of the Court of Arbitration for Sport in this development and in applying the current Code. This third edition will be an important single resource for any reader working or studying in the field.
Weatherill, S., Principles and Practice in EU Sports Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Principles and Practice in EU Sports Law provides an overview of EU sports law. In particular it assesses sporting bodies' claims for legal autonomy from the 'ordinary law' of states and international organizations. Sporting bodies insist on using their expertise to create a set of globally applicable rules which should not be deviated from irrespective of the territory on which they are applied. The application of the lex sportiva, which refers to the conventions that define a sport's operation, is analysed, as well as how this is used in claims for sporting autonomy. The lex sportiva may generate conflicts with a state or international institution such as the European Union, and the motives behind sporting bodies' claims in favour of the lex sportiva's autonomy may be motivated by concern to uphold its integrity or to preserve commercial gain. Stephen Weatherill's text underlines the tense relationship between lex sportiva and national and regional jurisdictions which is exemplified with specific focus on the EU.
Haas, U. and Healey, D. (eds.), Doping in Sport and the Law, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This unique international legal and cross-disciplinary edited volume contains analysis of the legal impact of doping regulation by eminent and well known experts in the legal fields of sports doping regulation and diverse legal fields which are intrinsically important areas for consideration in the sports doping landscape. These are thoughtful extended reflections by experts on theory and policy and how they interact with law in the context of doping in sport. It is the first book to examine the topical and contentious area of sports doping from a variety of different but very relevant legal perspectives which impact the stakeholders in sport at both professional and grass roots levels. The World Anti-Doping Code contains an unusual mix of public and private regulation which is of more general interest and fully explored in this work.
Geeraert, A., The EU in International Sports Governance: a Principal-Agent Perspective on EU Control of FIFA and UEFA, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book demonstrates that the European Union (EU) can curtail the autonomy of FIFA and UEFA by building upon insights from the principal-agent model. The book analyses the levels of influence that the European Union (EU) has over sport governing bodies (SGBs). Contrasting with the US authorities’ decisive action, the EU seemed largely absent from the 2015 FIFA corruption saga. Even though the EU has established itself as an actor in its own right in international sports governance, there is still a lack of clarity over its capabilities to control SGBs. By employing a triangular principal-agent model, and by focusing on the case of EU control of FIFA and UEFA, the author demonstrates that the EU holds significant opportunities to control SGBs through both law and policy.
Moston, S. and Engelberg, T., Detecting Doping in Sport, London, New York, Routledge, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This is a book about the detection of doping in sport. A recurring theme in this book is that the detection of doping has hitherto been conducted in ways that effectively ensure that doping will not be detected. This failure reflects a combination of both accidental and deliberate factors, leading to one inescapable conclusion: in most countries and in most sports, efforts to detect doping are more concerned with the need to appear to be doing something, rather than to be doing something that works. This particular idea is not new, and has even been voiced by many of those charged with leading anti-doping bodies. It would be fair to say that the inability to detect and deter doping has prompted a world-weariness among many leading scholars, such that their preferred solution is to abandon anti-doping altogether. However, while such sentiments might be roundly endorsed at conferences or in academic publications, they are essentially just background noise. Athletes, sporting bodies, sponsors and the public do not want athletes to be doping. It may be worth noting that few of those stakeholders could probably articulate what it is that they object to, and many would offer somewhat contradictory and even incoherent reasons for opposing doping, but the core opposition to doping by athletes is entrenched and shows no sign of changing.
Weger, F. de, The Jurisprudence of the FIFA Dispute Resolution Chamber, The Hague, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book addresses the most important judicial aspects in relation to the FIFA Dispute Resolution Chamber (DRC), as well as the different categories of disputes, inter alia, the termination of player contracts, the amount of compensation, sporting sanctions, training compensation and the solidarity mechanism. The DRC was established in 2001 by FIFA for the purpose of resolving disputes regarding the international status and transfer of players. Since then the DRC has developed into a major and influential alternative resolution body, with an impressive and ever-increasing caseload. In this updated and revised Second Edition the most important decisions of the DRC as of the date of its establishment in 2001 until 2016 are analysed. It is a reference work for those with a legal and financial interest in professional football, such as lawyers, agents, managers and administrators, but is also aimed at researchers and academics.
Trunz, M., Ein globaler Lösungsansatz zur Bekämpfung der Spiel- und Wettspielmanipulation im Sport, Stuttgart, Boorberg Verlag, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Spiel- und Wettspielmanipulationen haben sich in den vergangenen Jahren zu einer der größten Gefahren für den modernen Sport entwickelt. Sie verletzen nicht nur die Integrität des Sports, sondern führen letztlich dazu, dass die Gesellschaft das Vertrauen in einen fairen, manipulationsfreien Sport verliert. Die Dissertation präsentiert einen weltweit praktikablen Lösungsansatz für die Bekämpfung der Spiel- und Wettspielmanipulation im Sport. In einem ersten Schritt erklärt die Verfasserin hierzu das Phänomen der Spiel- und Wettspielmanipulation und zeigt die Gefahren, die davon ausgehen, auf. Im zweiten Teil werden sowohl die verbandsrechtlichen als auch die staatlichen und überstaatlichen Maßnahmen zur Bekämpfung der Spiel- und Wettspielmanipulation im Sport dargelegt. Einen globalen Lösungsansatz zur Bekämpfung der Spiel- und Wettspielmanipulation im Sport stellt die Autorin im dritten Teil vor.
Duval, A. and Rompuy, B. van (eds.), The Legacy of Bosman : Revisiting the Relationship between EU Law and Sport, The Hague, Asser Press, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
In December 1995, the Court of Justice of the European Union delivered its judgment in its most famous case to date: the Bosman case. Twenty years later, this book explores in detail how this landmark judgment legally and politically transformed the relationship between the European Union and sport. This book starts by outlining the reasons for exploring the legal and political transformations triggered by the Bosman judgment over the last 20 years and beyond. Most importantly, we argue for a shift in the way the ruling is commonly interpreted. The Bosman decision of the CJEU is widely perceived in the literature and in public opinion as a deregulatory intervention by the Court. This, in our view, is a misconception that necessitates a re-reading of the ruling. We suggest that the Bosman case is displaying a democratic ethos. The duty of justification it imposes on the transnational private regulations of sports governing bodies is of a genuine ‘counter-democratic’ nature.
- Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) case law
- Infosport - Acteurs du sport (magazine)
- International Platform of Sports Law Journals
- Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches and internationales Privatrecht : Sportrecht
- University of Washington School of Law Gallagher Law Library: Research Guide on Sports Law
Football Leaks and Financial Fair Play
Recently, Football Leaks revealed that Gianni Infantino, currently president of the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), during negotiations with Manchester City and Paris St. Germain, in his capacity as general secretary of European football’s governing body UEFA in 2014 agreed on reduced punishments: Manchester City and PSG overvalued sponsorship deals to help meet UEFA’s Financial Fair Play (FFP) rules. The latest documents provide insight into the activities of wealthy Gulf individuals and organisations, who have become increasingly influential in soccer and other businesses in Europe and beyond; the nature of the huge sums flowing through some leading clubs; and the uneven way soccer authorities have dealt with application of the sport’s rules.Read more
World Cup Football and the Phantom of Doping
On the eve of the 2018 World Cup finals football, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) in agreement with the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), has closed its investigation into possible anti-doping rule violations by Russian football-players selected in the 2018 World Cup squad after finding ‘insufficient evidence’ to assert that players had broken rules. Russian national football-players will have to fight against two opponents: the challenging football team and the phantom of doping. But Russia has the home advantage and FIFA will be on their side.Read more
Russia at the 2018 Winter Olympics?
Russia has been banned from the Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, which begin on 9 February 2018. September 2017, the world’s leading anti-doping agencies have come together to demand Russia be banned from the Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang next year and to warn the International Olympic Committee it must stop paying lip service to the fight against doping. In november 2017, the IOC’s Oswald Commission sanctioned 25 Russian athletes for using doping at the XXll Olympic Winter Games in Sochi, in 2014. The Russian athletes have been declared ineligible to be accredited in any capacity for all editions of the Games of the Olympiad and the Olympic Winter Games subsequent to the Sochi Olympic Winter Games.Read more
Ambush Marketing: ‘Drinking Coca-Cola, wearing Adidas’
Why is such attention being paid by the organizers of the London 2012 Games to the brand of footwear being worn by participants and to the drinks they will take? The answer lies in the fear of ambush marketing. This means that at the moment in London, the action on the roads, in the rings and on the courts is not the only competition. For every Olympics, and other major sporting events, ambush marketing, unfortunately, provides a sideshow.Read more
Olympic Games and the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)
This evening the XXX Olympic Games will start in London. London has organized the Olympic Games twice: in 1908 and 1948. How will the Court of Arbitration for Sports be involved in Olympic Games in general and in the London Olympics in particular? “Because the IOC and each IF seek to apply and enforce a set of uniform rules consistently […]Read more
Football players do not make war, but big money!
With the European Championships Football about halftime now, this is a blog about football, football players, football players’ contracts and the increasing influence of money in professional football.Read more
Athletes and whereabouts
Whereabouts are information provided by a limited number of top elite athletes about their location to the International Sport Federation or National Anti-Doping Organization that included them in their respective registered testing pool as part of these top elite athletes’anti-doping responsibilities. What does that mean? Anti-Doping Organizations are required to have out-of-competition testing on top […]Read more
Juan Antonio Samaranch (1920-2010)
Former International Olympic Committee president Juan Antonio Samaranch has died in hospital after being taken ill at the weekend. The Spaniard was widely regarded as the most powerful man in sport when he headed the IOC from 1980 to 2001.Read more
His successor Jacques Rogge stated: “I cannot find the words to express the distress of the Olympic family (…) Thanks to his extraordinary vision and talent, Samaranch was the architect of a strong and unified Olympic Movement.
EURO 2008 and Hooliganism
The European Football Championship, Euro 2008, will start on 7 June and finish on 29 June. This football tournament will be hosted by Austria and Switzerland.Read more
Thousands of fans will support their teams, celebrate victory and mourn defeat. Often these huge and massive emotions of joy and grief will result in violent clashes with supporters of rival teams and even lead to fights with the local police.
Literature on this dark side of football can be found in the Peace Palace Library collection under the keyword hooliganism
- Asser International Sports Law Blog
- Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)
- FIFA and Dispute Resolution Chamber (DRC)
- Marquette University Law School: National Sports Law Institute (USA)
- Sport in the EU
- Sport and the EU Treaties
- The International Centre for Sports Studies (CIES), Neuchatel, Switzerland
- The International Sports Law Centre at the T.M.C. Asser Institute
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