The Law of International Watercourses is evolving with increasing importance despite its relative youth as a subject of public international law and the fact that much of the law is emerging but not as yet well established law. From times of Antiquity, when early civilizations settled along the great rivers of the world, water has played an important role in economic and social development. Apart from domestic consumption, navigation was the most important use of water, and early doctrine and State practice reflect this. Following the Industrial Revolution, competition over the non-navigational uses of international watercourses spurred the development of international water law. In recent years rules have been developed and codified through the work of the United Nations, non-governmental organizations, institutions and associations for international law, including the International Law Association (ILA) and the Institut de droit international (IDI). Central is the work of the UN International Law Commission (ILC), which led to the adoption of the Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1997. The entry into force of this convention and the recent amendment of the UNECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Helsinki, 17 March 1992) to open it up to non-UNECE States have given a boost to this field of international law. As water scarcity and increasing environmental pollution will inevitably result in more disputes over international watercourses in the future and, at the extreme, in armed conflict, the further codification and progressive development of the law of international watercourses is essential to prevent this.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research in the field of the Law of International Watercourses. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → International waterways and subject heading (keyword) International Watercourses are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Boisson de Chazournes, L., Fresh Water in International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.
- Brown-Weiss, E., International Law for a Water-Scarce World, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013.
- Cuq, M., L'eau en droit international: convergences et divergences dans les approches juridiques, Bruxelles, Larcier, 2013.
- Dinar, A. (et al.) (eds.), Bridges over Water: Understanding Transboundary Water Conflict, Negotiation and Cooperation, Singapore, World Scientific, 2013.
- Boisson de Chazournes, L. and S.M.A. Salman (eds.), Water Resources and International Law, The Hague, Nijhoff, 2005.
- McCaffrey, S.C., The Law of International Watercourses, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007.
- Movilla Pateiro, L., El Derecho Internacional del Agua: los acuíferos transfronterizos, Barcelona, Bosch Editor, 2014.
- Sangbana, K., La protection des eaux douces transfrontières contre la pollution: dimensions normatives et institutionnelles, Genève; Zürich; Bâle, Schulthess, 2017.
- Schmeier, S., Governing International Watercourses: River Basin Organizations and the Sustainable Governance of Internationally Shared Rivers and Lakes, London, Earthscan from Routledge, 2013.
- Tanzi, A., The Consolidation of International Water Law: A Comparative Analysis of the UN and UNECE Water Conventions, Napoli, Editoriale Scientifica, 2017.
- Tanzi, A. (et al.) (eds.), The UNECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes: Its Contribution to International Water Cooperation, Leiden/Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2015.
Recent Books (2012-2018)
- Abukhater, A., Water as a Catalyst for Peace: Transboundary Water Management and Conflict Resolution, London, Earthscan, 2013.
- Boisson de Chazournes, L., C. Leb and M. Tignino (eds.), International Law and Freshwater: The Multiple Challenges, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2013.
- Bremer, N., The Regulation of the Non-Navigational Use of the Euphrates and Tigris River System: International Law Regulating the Distribution and Utilisation of the Water of Euphrates and Tigris illustrated by the Atatürk and Ilisu Dams, The Hague, Eleven International Publishing, 2017.
- Chellaney, B., Water, Peace and War: Confronting the Global Water Crisis, Lanham, MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2013.
- Cosens, B. (ed.), Transboundary River Governance in the Face of Uncertainty: The Columbia River Treaty, Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University Press, 2012.
- De Decker, M., Europees internationaal rivierenrecht, Antwerpen; Apeldoorn, Maklu, 2015.
- Earle, A. (et al.) (eds.), Transboundary Water Management and the Climate Change Debate, London; New York, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.
- Gao, Q., A Procedural Framework for Transboundary Water Management in the Mekong River Basin: Shared Mekong for the Future, Leiden; Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2014.
- Gray, J. (et al.) (eds.), Trans-jurisdictional Water Law and Governance, London; New York, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016.
- Jacobs, I.M., The Politics of Water in Africa: Norms, Environmental Regions and Transboundary Cooperation in the Orange-Senqu and Nile Rivers, London , Continuum, 2012.
- Jing, L., Preservation of Ecosystems of International Watercourses and the Integration of Relevant Rules: An Interpretative Mechanism to Address the Fragmentation of International Law, Leiden; Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2014.
- Leb, C., Cooperation in the Law of Transboundary Water Resources, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
- Magsig, B.-O., International Water Law and the Quest for Common Security, London; New York, Earthscan from Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.
- MacCaffrey, S.C. (eds.) (et al.), Promoting Equity, Cooperation and Innovation in the Fields of Transboundary Waters and Natural Resources Management: the Legacy of Dr. David J.H. Phillips, Leiden; Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2017.
- Mirumachi, N., Transboundary Water Politics in the Developing World, London; New York, Earthscan from Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.
- Murillo Chávarro, J., The Human Right to Water: A Legal Comparative Perspective at the International, Regional and Domestic Level, Cambridge; Antwerp; Portland, Intersentia, 2015.
- Rocha Loures, F., The UN Watercourses Convention in Force, London, Routledge, 2013.
- Sultana, F. and A. Loftus (eds.), The Right to Water: Politics, Governance and Social Struggles, London, Earthscan, 2012.
- Summitt, A.R., Contested Waters: an Environmental History of the Colorado River, Boulder, CO, University Press of Colorado, 2013.
- Temmerman, F., Trade in Water under International Law: Bulk Fresh Water, Irrigation Subsidies and Virtual Water, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017.
- Thielbörger, P., The Right(s) to Water: the Multi-Level Governance of a Unique Human Right, Heidelberg, Springer, 2014.
- Vajpeyi, D. (ed.), Water Resource Conflicts and International Security: A Global Perspective, Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2012.
- Wirsing, R.G., D.C. Stoll and C. Jasparro, International Conflict over Water Resources in Himalayan Asia, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
- Woldetsadik, T.K., International Watercourses Law in the Nile Basin: Three States at a Crossroads, London, Routledge, 2013.
- Ziganshina, D., Promoting Transboundary Water Security in the Aral Sea Basin through International Law, Leiden; Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2014.
- Brown-Weiss, E., "The Evolution of International Water Law", in: Recueil des Cours, Tome 331, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007, pp. 163-404.
- Caflisch, L.C., "The Law of International Watercourses: Achievements and Challenges", in Boisson de Chazournes, L., C. Leb and M. Tignino (eds.), International Law and Freshwater: The Multiple Challenges, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2013, pp. 24-34.
- Caflisch, L.C., "The Law of International Waterways and its Sources", in: Essays in Honour of Wang Tieya, Dordrecht, Nijhoff, 1994, pp. 115-129.
- Dellapenna, J.W., “The Law of Transboundary Groundwater”, in The Earth Charter, Ecological Integrity and Social Movements, London; New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 77-91.
- Fitzmaurice, M. and G. Loibl, "Current State of Development in the Law of International Watercourses", in International Watercourses Law for the 21st Century: the Case of the River Ganges Basin, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2005, pp. 19-43.
- Malla, K., "Current State of the Law of International Watercourses: Progress and Paradigm Shifts, 1815-2008", Nordic Journal of International Law, 77 (2008), No. 4, pp. 461-508.
- McCaffrey, S.C., “International Water Cooperation in the 21st Century: Recent Developments in the Law of International Watercourses”, in Review of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law, 23 (2014), No. 1, pp. 4-14.
- McCaffrey, S.C., "The Evolution of the Law of International Watercourses", Austrian Journal of Public and International Law, 45 (1993), No. 2, pp. 87-111.
- McCaffrey, S.C., "Some Developments in the Law of International Watercourses", in Promoting Justice, Human Rights and Conflict Resolution through International Law: Liber Amicorum Lucius Caflisch, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2007, pp. 781-798.
- Rieu-Clarke, A., "International Freshwater Law", in S. Alam (et al.) (eds.), Routledge Handbook of International Environmental Law, London, Routledge, 2013, pp. 243-257.
- Rieu-Clarke, A. and R. Kinna, “Can Two Global UN Water Conventions Effectively Co-Exist?: Making the Case for a "Package Approach" to Support Institutional Coordination”, in Review of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law, 23 (2014), No. 1, pp. 15-31.
- Wouters, P., "The International Law of Watercourses: New Dimensions", Collected Courses of the Xiamen Academy of International Law, Vol. 3, 2010, pp. 347-541.
- Tofan, C. and S. Strambu (eds.), International Water Law: Selected Documents concerning the International Rivers, Transboundary Groundwaters Lakes and Other Natural Resources, Nijmegen, Wolf Legal Publishers, 2008.
Periodicals, serial publications
- The Journal of Water Law
- Land and Water Law Review
- Land and Water Law Review (Online)
- Schrifttum und Rechtsprechung des Wasserrechts
- Water Law
- Water Law and Indigenous Rights Studies
- Water Series (UNECE)
- Zeitschrift für Wasserrecht
- Steenhard, R., International Water Law: Selective Bibliography 2014, The Hague, Peace Palace Library, 2014.
- Steenhard, R., International Water Law: Selective Bibliography 2013, The Hague, Peace Palace Library, 2013.
- Steenhard, R., International Water Law: Selective Bibliography 2012, The Hague, Peace Palace Library, 2012.
- Steenhard, R., International Water Law: Selective Bibliography 2011, The Hague, Peace Palace Library, 2011.
- Steenhard, R., "Selected Bibliography", in L. Boisson de Chazournes and S.M.A. Salman (eds.), Water Resources and International Law, The Hague, Nijhoff, 2005, pp. 605-756.
- Steenhard, R., Water Resources and International Law: Selective Bibliography, The Hague, Peace Palace Library, 2001.
Systematic classification → Territory and jurisdiction
Please, check our bibliographic updates on International Watercourses. Revised and updated, 17 July 2014:
- International Water Law: Selective Bibliography 2014.
- International Water Law: Selective Bibliography 2013.
- International Water Law: Selective Bibliography 2012.
- International Water Law: Selective Bibliography 2011.
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MacCaffrey, S.C. (eds.) (et al.), Promoting Equity, Cooperation and Innovation in the Fields of Transboundary Waters and Natural Resources Management: the Legacy of Dr. David J.H. Phillips, Leiden; Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Promoting Equity, Cooperation and Innovation in the Fields of Transboundary Waters and Natural Resources Management honours the memory and legacy of Dr. David J.H. Phillips, an extraordinary scientist, consultant and friend of the editors and contributors. He was a scientist of exceptional quality, dedicated to the practical study of aquatic environments, be they marine, freshwater or virtual. This volume contains excerpts from his meticulously researched work from a wide range of settings globally. Colleagues' essays provide insights to a man who lived life to the utmost, worked to the highest professional standards and had a unique gift in challenging situations to generate understanding and practical responses through his curiosity, remarkable ingenuity, and sheer hard work. His work opens many new paths of research and continues to inspire scientists and researchers in the fields of marine biology and pollution, fresh water issues, and conflict over transboundary water resources.
Bremer, N., The Regulation of the Non-Navigational Use of the Euphrates and Tigris River System: International Law Regulating the Distribution and Utilisation of the Water of Euphrates and Tigris illustrated by the Atatürk and Ilisu Dams, The Hague, Eleven International Publishing, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book analyses the distribution and utilisation of the water of the Euphrates and Tigris river system from the perspective of international law. It shows which international treaties and provisions of international customary law regulating the non-navigational use of international freshwater systems are binding for the riparian states, Iraq, Syria and Turkey, and how the distribution and utilisation of the waters of the river system are governed by these. this study uses two Turkish dams – the Atatürk Dam on the Euphrates and the Ilisu Dam on the Tigris – to illustrate which provisions of international law are binding and what problems arise concerning the application of these principles.
Temmerman, F., Trade in Water under International Law: Bulk Fresh Water, Irrigation Subsidies and Virtual Water, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Freshwater is an increasingly scarce resource globally, and effective sustainable management will be absolutely crucial in the future. This timely book sets out future scenarios of international trade in both ‘real’ and ‘virtual’ water, examining the relationship between climate change, water scarcity, the human right to water and World Trade Organization law. Trade in Water Under International Law addresses questions of global importance such as: how can international trade in bulk water contribute to the advancement of the human right to water? Are ‘green-boxed’ irrigation subsidies disturbing the markets? Should water-footprint process and production methods allow for a different treatment of otherwise ‘like’ products? From examining the impact of water law on small-scale farmers in developing countries, to the broader issue of global environmental responsibility, Fitzgerald Temmerman explores the options available for fair resource allocation through international law arrangements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. By taking a wide-reaching and non-technical approach, this book will capture the attention not only of international trade law professionals, but of all stakeholders in the field. With such relevance to contemporary environmental issues, this book will also be of interest to non-legally qualified individuals who want to comprehend the future possibilities of fair water trade.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, International Watercourses, by Stephen C. McCaffrey.
- United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law, Lecture Series on International Watercourses
The Lecture Series contains a permanent collection of lectures of enduring value on virtually every subject of international law given by leading international law scholars and practitioners from different regions, legal systems, cultures and sectors of the legal profession. Lectures on the Law of International Watercourses by Stephen C. McCaffrey, Salman M.A. Salman, Chusei Yamada and Eyal Benvenisti.
UPEACE/Peace Palace Library Lecture: Judge Kenneth Keith and PCA Legal Counsel Judith Levine on International Water Disputes
On Wednesday January 28, 2015, the fourth of a series of Lectures on Peacebuilding in Progress was held at the Academy Building of the Peace Palace, The Hague. The lectures on Peacebuilding are organised by the UPEACE Centre The Hague and the Peace Palace Library.Read more
International Water Law: Recent Developments
International water law is on the move. It is evolving with increasing importance despite its relative youth as a subject of public international law. The entry into force of the 1997 Watercourses Convention and the recent amendment of the 1992 Water Convention to open it up to non-UNECE States have given a boost to this field of international law. It is important and encouraging to see that the recently established universal norms have been nurturing each other and have inspired new agreements on individual river basins and aquifers. Further cooperation is still needed, however. International law is a recognized means for supporting and developing this.Read more
Two big canal digging plans are under way: the Interoceanic-Nicaragua Canal and the Istanbul Canal. The construction of this new canal brings into focus the 1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regimes of the Straits, which regulates the transit through the Straits Region. Will this new Canal undermine the principles of transit and transportation liberty, as is stipulated in Article 1 and 2. Is it time to revise the Montreux convention adapting it to modern views and situations?Read more
40 Years of the Ramsar Convention : Appraisal and Outlook
On 2 February 1971, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands was adopted. The original Contracting Parties of the Convention were driven by an anxiety that migratory waterbirds were in increasing danger because of loss of their habitats. And yet in their wisdom they created a convention focused on wetland ecosystems rather than just wetland birds.Read more
Scheldt River Dispute (Part II) : Hedwige Polder
The Scheldt is a transboundary river which originates in North-Western France and runs through Western Belgium and the South-West of the Netherlands. The Scheldt Estuary is shared between Belgium and the Netherlands. Since the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands in 1839, the free navigation of the Scheldt and the maintenance and improvement of the navigation channel have been a bone of contention and legal controversy.Read more
Transboundary Water Cooperation in the Newly Independent States
With the emergence of the Newly Independent States (NIS) in the 1990s, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, new borders cut through Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. As a result, many water allocation and pollution problems that were previously national issues within the Soviet Union have become transboundary issues.Read more
- African Water Issues Research Unit
- American Bar Association - International Environmental Law Committee
- Arab Water Academy
- Centre for Energy, Petroleum, & Mineral Law & Policy: Water Law & Policy Programme
- Commission on Environmental Co-operation under the North America Free Trade Agreement
- Global International Waters Assessment
- Global Water Information Network
- Great Lakes Commission
- Inter-American Water Resources Network
- International Boundary & Water Commission
- International Committee of the Red Cross Water and Habitat Unit
- International Environmental Resources by Country - The George Washington University Green University Initiative
- International Joint Commission - United States and Canada
- International Rivers Network
- International Union for the Conservation of Nature Environmental Law Programme-Water and Wetlands
- International Water Law Project
- International Water Law Research Institute - University of Dundee, Scotland
- International Waters Resource Centre
- Nile Basin Society
- Ramsar Convention on Wetlands Website of the Ramsar Convention Bureau
- Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database
- United Nations Secretariat of the Convention to Combat Desertification
- United Nations Environmental Program Vital Water Graphics
- United Nations Environmental Program Freshwater Portal
- Water and Conflict
- Water Portal of the Americas
- The Water Page
- Wikiverse.org - International Waters
- World Commission on Dams
- World Water Council
- Water Policy and Law Group
- Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization
- Autonomous Binational Authority of the Basin of Lake Titicaca
- Border River Commission between Finland and Sweden
- Finnish Norwegian Transboundary Water Commission
- Genevese Aquifer Management Commission
- Great Lakes Commission
- Guadiana River Commission
- Guarani Aquifer System
- Intergovernmental Coordinating Committee of the River Plate Basin Countries
- International Boundary and Waters Commission
- International Commission for the Protection of Lake Geneva
- International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River
- International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe
- International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine
- International Joint Commission
- International Meuse Commission
- International Sava River Basin Commission
- Interstate Commission for Water Coordination of Central Asia
- Joint Rivers Commission
- Lake Chad Basin Commision
- Lesotho Highlands Water Project
- Mekong River Commission
- Moselle Commission
- Niger Basin Authority
- Nile Basin Initiative
- Organization for the Development of the Senegal River
- Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation
- Uruguay River Management Commission
More Research guides on Special Topics
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- Water Framework Directive
- Water law
- Water management
- Water politics
- Water pollution
- Water quality
- Water quantity
- Water rights
- Water use