International Peace and Security
Nowadays many international or regional organizations are involved in peacemaking, peace-enforcing and peacekeeping activities: United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, African Union, European Union, etc. In fact, they send multinational forces to the various conflict areas. While the expression ‘collective security’ does not occur in the United Nations Charter, it is often used to refer to the system for the maintenance of international peace and security under the UN Charter and the corresponding provisions of regional organizations. According to the UN Charter the United Nations have the primary responsilibility ‘[t]o maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace…’ (Art. 1 (1) UN Charter). If it determines, in accordance with Art. 39 UN Charter, the existence of a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, the UN Security Council may make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken by members of the UN to maintain or restore international peace and security.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research in the field of International Peace and Security. It provides the basic materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → International peace and security and subject heading (keyword) International Peace and Security are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Benner, T., S. Mergenthaler and P. Rothmann, The New World of UN Peace Operations: Learning to Build Peace?, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Isely, E.R. (ed.), United Nations Peacekeeping in the 21st Century, New York, NY, Nova Science Publishers, 2011.
- Kawamura, N., Y. Murakami and S. Chiba (eds.), Building New Pathways to Peace, Seattle, WA, University of Washington Press, 2011.
- Martel, G., Twentieth-Century War and Conflict: A Concise Encyclopedia, Chichester, Wiley Blackwell, 2015.
- Orakhelashvili, A., Collective Security, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Ángeles Cano Linares, M. de los, Orígenes y fundamentos prácticos del mantenimiento de la paz en Naciones Unidas: las posiciones durante el período de la Guerra Fría, Madrid, Dykinson, 2011.
- Bellamy, A.J. and Paul D. Williams, Providing Peacekeepers : the Politics, Challenges, and Future of United Nations Peacekeeping Contributions, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.
- Gaese, L.-M., Zwangsmaßnahmen des Sicherheitsrates bei völkerrechtskonformem Staatenverhalten?, Hamburg : Kovač, 2013.
- Hehir, A., N. Kuhrt and A. Mumford (eds.), International Law, Security and Ethics: Policy Challenges in the Post-9/11 World, New York, Routledge, 2011.
- Mangala, J. (ed.), New Security Threats and Crises in Africa: Regional and International Perspectives, New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
- Nasu, H., International Law on Peacekeeping: a Study of Article 40 of the UN Charter, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2009.
- Peou, S., Peace and Security in the Asia-Pacific: Theory and Practice, Santa Barbara, CA, Praeger Security International, 2010.
- Tshiyembe, M., Le droit de la sécurité internationale, Paris, l'Harmattan, 2010.
- Winther, D., Regional Maintenance of Peace and Security under International Law : the Distorted Mirrors, London, Routledge, 2014.
- Apostolidis, C., "Le souverain, la regle, l'exeption", Revue ge´ne´rale de droit international public, 117 (2013), No. 4, pp 795-831.
- Carswell, A.J., "Unblocking the UN Security Council : the Uniting for Peace Resolution", Journal of conflict and security law, 18 (2013), No. 3, pp. 453-480.
- Corso, N., "À propos de l'applicabilité du droit de l'occupation militaire aux forces des Nations Unies", Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur internationales und europaisches Recht, 23 (2013), No. 4, pp. 609-638.
- Daillier, P., "Les opérations multinationales consécutives à des conflits armés en vue du rétablissement de la paix", 314 Recueil des cours, The Hague, Hague Academy of International Law, 2005, pp. 233-431.
- Feldman, D., "The Role of Constitutional Principles in Protecting International Peace and Security through International, Supranational and National Legal Institutions", in C. Geiringer and D.R. Knight (eds.), Seeing the World Whole: Essays in Honour of Sir Kenneth Keith, Wellington, Victoria University Press, 2008, pp. 17-47.
- Khan, R., "United Nations Peace-Keeping in Internal Conflicts: Problems and Perspectives", Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, 4 (2000), pp. 543-581.
- Hampson, F.O., "The Evolution of Security in a Globalizing World", in G. Finizio and E. Gallo (eds.) Democracy at the United Nations : UN Reform in the Age of Globalisation, Bruxelles, Lang, 2013, pp. 217-229.
- Schmalenbach, K., "Der Schutz der Zivilbevölkerung durch UN-Friedensmissionen und die Rechtsfolgen bei Mandatsversagen", Archiv des Volkerrechts, 51 (2013), No.2, pp. 170-200.
- Juma, M. (ed.), Compendium of Key Documents relating to Peace and Security in Africa, Pretoria, Pretoria University Law Press, 2006.
- Weijers, H. (ed.), North Atlantic Treaty Organisation: 60th Anniversary : Selected Basic Documents and Background Materials, Nijmegen, Wolf Legal Publishers, 2009.
Periodicals, serial publications
- International Peacekeeping
- Journal of Conflict & Security Law
- Journal of International Peacekeeping
- Vierteljahreszeitschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden (S+F)
Systematic classification → Peace and Security, Intervention, Use of Force
1. The Kremlin strikes back
Keywords: West, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Crimea, Annexation, Territorial sovereignty, International relations, Economic sanctions, Economic policy,
Keywords: United States of America, Intelligence agencies,
3. Der Ukraine-Konflikt, Russland und die europäische Sicherheitsordnung
Keywords: Europe, Russian Federation, Ukraine, European security, International crises,
4. Von Selbstreflexion zu Hegemonieselbstkritik
Keywords: Hegemony, International peace and security, Foreign policy, Conflicts, Colonialism, Decolonization, Violence,
5. The Limits and Unintended Consequences of UN Peace Enforcement: The Force Intervention Brigade in the DR Congo
Keywords: Congo (Kinshasa), United Nations, Peacekeeping,
6. The Responsibility to Protect and the Use of Force: An Assessment of the Just Cause and Last Resort Criteria in the Case of Libya
Keywords: Libya, Human rights, Responsibility to protect, Humanitarian intervention, Use of force,
7. Intermediaries of Intervention: How Local Power Brokers Shape External Peace- and State-Building in Afghanistan and Congo
Keywords: Afghanistan, Congo (Kinshasa), Intervention, Intermediary,
Keywords: Security sector reform, Peacebuilding, State-building,
9. Is the Future of SSR non-linear/
Keywords: Security sector reform, Peacebuilding, State-building,
10. Security Sector Reform and the Challenge of Vertical Integration
Keywords: Security sector reform, State-building,
11. Adapting Security Sector Reform to Ground-Level Realities
Keywords: Security sector reform, State-building, Peacebuilding, Fragile States,
12. Examining the Links between Security Sector Reform and Peacekeeping Troop Contribution in Post-conflict States
Keywords: Post-conflict reconstruction, Security sector reform, Armed forces, Peacekeeping,
13. Domino Effect of Negative Hybrid Peace in Kosovo's Peacebuilding
Keywords: Kosovo, Peacebuilding,
14. Die Krise in der Ukraine - Auswirkungen auf die europäische Sicherheitspolitik
Keywords: Europe, Russian Federation, Ukraine, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, European security,
15. Die Ukraine, Russland und der Westen
Keywords: Europe, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Crimea, European security, Geopolitics, International crises,
16. Über Putin hinausdenken - zur Zukunft der NATO-Russland-Beziehungen
Keywords: Russian Federation, Ukraine, European security, International relations,
17. Russland, die Ukraine und die europäische Sicherheitsordnung
Keywords: Europe, Russian Federation, Ukraine, European security,
18. Staatlicher und institutioneller Verfall
Keywords: Russian Federation, Ukraine, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, International crises, European security,
19. Introduction: Complexity, Resilience and the Local Turn in Counterinsurgency
Keywords: Counterinsurgency, Intervention, War,
20. A Struggle for Control and Influence
Keywords: Counterinsurgency, Intervention, Liberalism, Autonomy,
21. Ethnographic Intelligence: the Human Terrain System and its Enduring Legacy
Keywords: United States of America, Counterinsurgency, Intervention, Ethnography, Social science,
22. Grey's Anatomy Goes South: Biometrics, Racism, and Counterinsurgency in the Colonial Present
Keywords: Counterinsurgency, Intervention, Identification, Racism,
23. The Peacebuilding-Couterinsurgency Nexus in the Occupied Palestinian Territory
Keywords: Occupied Arab territories, Intervention, Counterinsurgency, Peacebuilding, Arab-Israeli conflict,
24. Counterinsurgent Warfare and the Decentering of Sovereignty in Somalia
Keywords: Somalia, Intervention, Counterinsurgency, Arab-Israeli conflict, Sovereignty, Local government,
25. The New Path to Peace: Cultivating Masuclinities in Southern Thai Counterinsurgency
Keywords: Thailand, Counterinsurgency, Muslims, Ethnography,
26. Countering Criminal Insurgencies: Fighting Gangs and Building Resilient Communities in Post-War Guatemala
Keywords: Guatemala, Counterinsurgency, Intervention, Organized crime, Law enforcement,
27. The Locals Strike Back: the Anbar Awakening in Iraq and the Rise of Islamic State
Keywords: Iraq, Counterinsurgency, Intervention, Local government,
28. Western Strategic Thought and the Devaluation of Counterinsurgency
Keywords: West, Intervention, Counterinsurgency, Doctrines,
29. Biological Weapons Convention 8th Review Conference outcome: below expectations
Keywords: Arms control, Disarmament, On-site verification, Inspection,
30. Conflict Resolution in the Extractives: A Consideration of Traditional Conflict Resolution Paradigms in Post-Colonial Africa
Keywords: Africa, Diamonds, Minerals, Armed conflicts, Conflict resolution,
31. Targeting the Conflict Minerals Trade: Corporate Social Responsibility Governance and the Multilateral System
Keywords: Diamonds, Minerals, Armed conflicts, Corporate responsibility, Multilateralism,
32. Challenges to the Protection of Children's Human Rights and the Perpetuated Marginalization of Children in Transitional Justice
Keywords: Transitional justice, Children, Human rights, Protection,
33. Intermestic security challenges: Managing transnational bonds
Keywords: Minorities, International relations, Ethnicity, Ideology, Diaspora, National security,
34. How to become a first mover?
Keywords: Israel, United States of America, Unmanned vehicles, Military technology, Innovation,
35. Realism, critical theory, and the politics of peace and security: Lessons from anti-base protests on Jeju Island
Keywords: South Korea, Military bases, National security, Peace, Pacifism, International relations theory,
36. Broken Promises or Fading Memories: The Question of Unilateral Acts and Promises under International Law in the Context of NATO Enlargement
Keywords: United States of America, Russian Federation, Germany, Reunification, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Accession, Unilateralism,
37. This Ain't a Scene, It's an Arms Race: NATO and the Use of Nuclear Weapons to Maintain the Commitment to Collective Self Defense
Keywords: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Collective security, Nuclear weapons, Self-defence,
38. “Don’t Do as I Do”—The US Response to Russian and Chinese Cyber Espionage and Public International Law
Keywords: China, Russian Federation, United States of America, Espionage, Computer-related crime,
39. The Peace vs. Justice Puzzle and the Syrian Crisis
Keywords: Syria, Civil wars, Peace process, Criminal justice, Accountability,
40. The Conspicuous Absence of Class and Privilege in the Study of Resistance in Peacebuilding Contexts
Keywords: Peacebuilding, Resistance,
41. Social Capital Made Explicit: The Role of Norms, Networks, and Trust in Reintegrating Ex-combatants and Peacebuilding in Liberia
Keywords: Liberia, Disarmament, Integration, Peacebuilding, Social conditions,
42. High Risk or Low Risk: Screening for Violent Extremists in DDR Programmes
Keywords: Post-conflict reconstruction, Disarmament, Integration, Political extremism, Risk assessment,
43. The Spatial Concentration of Peacekeeping Personnel and Public Health During Intrastate Conflicts
Keywords: Civil wars, Peacekeeping, Population, Health,
44. Peacekeeping's Digital Economy: The Role of Communication Technologies in Post-conflict Economic Growth
Keywords: Central African Republic, Peacekeeping, Information and communication technology, Economic development,
45. Information Processing Challenges in Peacekeeping Operations: A Case Study on Peacekeeping Information Collection Efforts in Mali
Hathaway, O.A. and S.J. Shapiro, The Internationalists and Their Plan to Outlaw War, London, Allen Lane, 2017.View this title in our link resolver PlinkletA bold and provocative history of the men who fought to outlaw war and how an often overlooked treaty signed in 1928 was among the most transformative events in modern history. On a hot summer afternoon in 1928, the leaders of the world assembled in Paris to outlaw war. Within the year, the treaty signed that day, known as the Peace Pact, had been ratified by nearly every state in the world. War, for the first time in history, had become illegal the world over. But the promise of that summer day was fleeting. Within a decade of its signing, each state that had gathered in Paris to renounce war was at war. And in the century that followed, the Peace Pact was dismissed as an act of folly and an unmistakable failure. This book argues that that understanding is inaccurate, and that the Peace Pact ushered in a sustained march toward peace that lasts to this day. The Internationalists tells the story of the Peace Pact by placing it in the long history of international law from the seventeenth century through the present, tracing this rich history through a fascinating and diverse array of lawyers, politicians and intellectuals—Hugo Grotius, Nishi Amane, Salmon Levinson, James Shotwell, Sumner Welles, Carl Schmitt, Hersch Lauterpacht, and Sayyid Qutb. It tells of a centuries-long struggle of ideas over the role of war in a just world order. It details the brutal world of conflict the Peace Pact helped extinguish, and the subsequent era where tariffs and sanctions take the place of tanks and gunships. The Internationalists examines with renewed appreciation an international system that has outlawed wars of aggression and brought unprecedented stability to the world map. Accessible and gripping, this book will change the way we view the history of the twentieth century—and how we must work together to protect the global order the internationalists fought to make possible.
Ganser, D., Illegale Kriege: wie die NATO-Länder die UNO sabotieren: eine Chronik von Kuba bis Syrien, Zürich, Orell Füssli Verlag, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Wahre Männer müssen kämpfen und „ihre“ Frauen beschützen. Solche Ideale haben in Krisen- und Konfliktzeiten Hochkonjunktur. Dieses Buch zeigt wie es gelingt, Männlichkeitsvorstellungen zu schaffen, die sich von Nationalismus, Gewalt und Sexismus abgrenzen und die sich nicht im „luftleeren Raum“ bewegen. Die Autorin untersucht dies anhand von zivilgesellschaftlichen Friedensprojekten in Bosnien-Herzegowina, Serbien und Kroatien. Männlichkeitsideale sind nicht nur für Friedens- und Konflikttheorien relevant, sondern auch für die Praxis des Peacebuilding. Die Autorin legt gender- bzw. männlichkeitsorientierte Gütekriterien vor. Sie erprobt ein Modell der Evaluation von Friedensarbeit, das über eine reine Orientierung an Wirkungen hinausgeht.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Peace, Right to, International Protection, by D.L. Tehindrazanarivelo and R. Kolb.
- Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Collective Security, by E. de Wet and M. Wood.
Language of Peace is a research tool providing access to around 1000 peace agreements concluded in the post-WWII era, categorized article by article according to the issues they address, from ceasefires through human rights to power sharing. Through this innovative tool, users can search agreements according to 226 issues, organized under 26 main issue headings, and refine their results through a number of filters, such as parties/witnesses, region, date range and conflict type, or make use of the word search function. Search results can subsequently be bookmarked and exported in either PDF or DOCX format. Furthermore, in order to provide information about the broader context of provisions on a particular issue, Language of Peace is linked to the UN Peacemaker database, which contains full text PDF documents of the agreements. Language of Peace was developed as part of the Legal Tools for Peace-Making project at the University of Cambridge, in collaboration with the United Nations Department of Political Affairs; the website was designed and developed by PASTPRESENTFUTURE. The project is funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council.
UN Peacemaker is an online mediation support tool developed by the Mediation Support Unit (MSU) in the Policy and Mediation Division of the Department of Political Affairs (DPA). Intended for peacemaking professionals, it includes an extensive database of peace agreements, guidance material and information on the UN’s mediation support services. UN Peacemaker is part of the UN’s overall effort to provide advice and support to the Secretary-General and his Representatives in their efforts to resolve international disputes and internal conflicts. It is also intended to be useful to UN partners actively engaged in peacemaking efforts, including Member States, regional organisations, civil society, non-governmental organisations and national mediators.
Perspectives on Mass Violence: Peace and Conflict Studies and Genocide Studies Compared
This week’s compelling guest blog compares the fields of Conflict Studies with Genocide Studies, its intriguing differences and similarities and the general lack of cross-pollination between them, even though they both deal with questions of collective violence and individual participation in violence. The author, Kjell Anderson, is a jurist and social scientist and works in both fields of Conflict Studies and Genocide studies.Read more
What are Peace Museums? Lecture by Joyce Apsel
What are Peace Museums? How are they distinct from War Museums? Is there overlap?
Location: Peace Palace Library. Date: 2 March 2018. Time: 16:45 – 18:00 (CET)
Dr Joyce Apsel is Professor of Liberal Studies and lectures on International Human Rights, Human Rights & the Environment, Global Violence at New York University. She is also President of the Institute for the Study of Genocide. In her talk Joyce Apsel will provide images from a range of peace museums and discuss the images, narratives and education which promote cultures of peace.Read more
U.S. Nuclear Strategy
30 January 2018, U.S. President Trump, during his State of the Union speech, called for a nuclear arsenal “so strong and powerful that it will deter any acts of aggression.”
The President made clear that his first priority is to protect the United States, allies, and partners. The 2018 Nuclear Posture Review (2018 NPR) lays out important policy changes with regard to U.S. nuclear weapons. The renewal of its nuclear forces will have huge implications for the security of the country and its allies, its public finances and the salience of nuclear weapons in global politics. While the United States has continued to reduce the number and salience of nuclear weapons, others, including Russia and China, have moved in the opposite direction.Read more
Jerusalem and International Law: A Bibliographic Overview
US President Donald Trump’s pledge to declare Jerusalem as the capital of Israel has caused considerable controversy across the world. If the United States moved the embassy to Jerusalem, it would mean that the US effectively recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. That would overturn 70 years of international consensus, and, many argue, would effectively signal the end of moves to achieve peace between Israelis and Palestinians. We have created a bibliographic overview on this topic intended as a starting point for research.Read more
From Classic Wars to Hybrid Warfare
Thinking about wars people used to see battlefields with tanks, trenches, armies with conventional weapons, uniformed soldiers under strict hierarchical military command structure (‘Befehl ist Befehl’). Wars between nation-states were waged conform international (humantarian) law (Geneva Conventions 1949), in line with Clausewitz’s military theories. However, the concept of warfare is changing rapidly. The war of the Western coalition against Islamic State for instance, is an asymmetrical conflict. If all the jihadi’s would be competing with all Western allied forces on one battlefield, the battle would be over in no time. That’s why Islamic State uses insurgency and hit and run guerrilla-tactics, avoiding army-to-army confrontations.Read more
Are Syria and Iraq the Middle Eastern Bloodlands?
Deir az-Zor is a sleepy town on the banks of the Euphrates in the Syrian desert, and did not ring much of a bell for most non-Syrians. Except for Armenians. During the 1915 Armenian Genocide, the Ottoman government deported hundreds of thousands of Ottoman Armenians to Deir az-Zor, where they were left to die or were killed outright. A German diplomat who was stationed in that area wrote that the Armenians were “slaughtered like sheep”. To the casual observer this looked allegorical or even hyperbolical, in any case unreal, removed far away in geography, time, and culture. Until recent times, when ISIS videos surfaced online. And again the desert soil of Deir az-Zor shone red with blood, and once more the word ‘Deir az-Zor’ served as a symbol of bloodshed.Read more
The Raid on the Medway, 1667: Forcing Peace at Breda
350 Years ago, the Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark-Norway. It brought a hasty end to the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667) in favour of the Dutch. It was a typical quick uti possidetis treaty. In the latter stages of the war, the Dutch had prevailed. Lieutenant-Admiral-General Michiel de Ruyter virtually controlled the seas around the south coast of England. His presence encouraged English commissioners to sue for peace quickly. Negotiations, which had been long protracted, and had actually begun in Breda before the raid, took only ten days to conclude after resumption of talks.Read more
European Union in 2017
2016 has been a turbulent year for the European Union and its member states. Brexit, the armed conflict in Syria and Iraq, the refugee crisis, terrorism and the Italian referendum; all topics covered by the Peace Palace Library in several Library Specials and Library blogs.
2017 promises to be a defining moment for the continuation of the ever closing Union. This blog touches upon a couple of developments which can lead to discussion within the European Union and its members.Read more
The Declaration of Christmas Peace
A Declaration of Christmas Peace is announced in several Finnish cities on Christmas Eve. The oldest and most popular event is held at noon at the Old Great Square of the former Finnish capital Turku, where the declaration has been read since the 1320s. The Declaration of Christmas Peace is a tradition which launches the Christmas celebrations and in a way marks the official start of Christmas. The exact wording used during the first few centuries of the tradition has been lost over time, but the main contents of the declaration remain the same: the declaration is read out loud to remind people that Christmas Peace has begun, to advise people to spend the festive period in harmony, to threaten offenders with harsh punishments, and to wish all a merry Christmas!Read more
Interview Sigrid Kaag
This month, we have the honor of interviewing Ms. Sigrid Kaag, a top Dutch diplomat who currently serves as a United Nations Special Coordinator for Lebanon (UNSCOL). Last month, the Dutch Carnegie Foundation awarded Sigrid Kaag the Carnegie Wateler Peace Prize. Before the ceremony took place, we took the opportunity to interview Ms. Kaag to discuss her work at the UN, in particular, the succesful UN-OPCW joint mission Ms. Kaag led to eliminate the chemical weapons programme in Syria. We also discussed the role of international law in her daily work at the UN. Here’s what she had to say.Read more
Defending Europe with an Army?
During the U.S. election campaign Trump threatened to abandon U.S. allies in Europe if they did not spend enough on defense. Apart from undermining the deterrence-effect of NATO, this policy would be disastrous for European security. Fortunately U.S. President Barack Obama has said: “In my conversation with the president-elect he expressed a great interest in maintaining our core strategic relationships and so, one of the messages I will be able to deliver is his commitment to NATO and the transatlantic alliance.” Although president Trump will retain America’s commitment to the NATO alliance, Europe is awake now after dozing in under the U.S. security umbrella.Read more
Peace & Security Salon on Biological and Chemical Weapons
What if a non-state actor like Daesh gets hold of a biological or chemical weapon? Why was the Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in 2013? These and many more topics concerning current threats and future developments of biological and chemical weapons were discussed at the third Peace Palace Library Peace & Security Salon on May 11th.Read more
Peace Weekend Celebrations – International Rule of Law?
This weekend The Hague will celebrate the International Day of Peace, September 21st, with a designated ‘Peace Weekend’.
The celebrations vary from a peace run (with a Peace Palace team) to The Hague Open Doors Event, where the Peace Palace Library, together with the other international organizations of The Hague, will open their doors to the public.Read more
Nuclear Deal, Sanctions, Nuclear Diplomacy
After nearly two years of arduous negotiations a comprehensive agreement on the nuclear program of Iran was signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015. In exchange for reducing Iran’s nuclear activities drastically, the United States and the European Union would lift their nuclear-related sanctions on the Iranian economy. Most countries and international organizations welcomed the agreement. Will U.S. President Obama be remembered as initiator of this ‘historic’ deal? The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is a nuclear agreement signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.Read more
Coalition against Islamic State: Too Many Obstacles?
After weeks of fighting, Islamic State succeeded in taking over the Iraqi city of Ramadi and it currently controls large parts of the al-Anbar province, which borders on Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia. Almost 25,000 residents have fled Ramadi. This week Islamic State also overran Syrian government troops to seize Palmyra (Homs province, Syria), home to the ruins of a 2,000-year-old city that was one of the most important cultural centers of the ancient world.The U.N. human rights office in Geneva said a third of Palmyra’s 200,000 residents may have fled the fighting in the past few days.Read more
Drones Deployed during War raise Various Legal and Ethical Questions
Drones can be used for many different purposes. The use of drones raises various legal and ethical questions ranging from humanitarian to privacy issues. The Peace and Security Salon of 9 April discussed these questions in the context of the deployment of armed drones and robots during wartime. Three specialists each discussed the use of drones from a different background.Read more
Drones and Robots as Means of Modern Warfare
Several aspects of autonomous weapons systems and the deployment of drones during warfare will be discussed during the upcoming Peace and Security Salon: “Drones and Robots as means of modern warfare” which will be held at the Peace Palace Library on Thursday, the 9th of april. The use of drones as a weapons system has increased exponentially in recent years and this has given rise to a significant degree of controversy and a number of specific questions relating to their use. Questions which arise in relation to drones and autonomous weapons systems include whether they are in conformity with or potentially capable of complying with IHL requirements in conditions of contemporary warfare, issues of accountability and responsibility and ethical questions.Read more
Africa's Peacemakers: Nobel Peace Laureates
As Africa and its diaspora commemorate fifty years of post-independence Pan-Africanism, Adekeye Adebajo’s new book ‘Africa’s Peace Makers: Nobel Peace Laureates of African Descent’ provides profound insight into the thirteen prominent individuals of African descent who have won the Nobel Peace Prize since 1950. These laureates have been variously involved in women’s rights, environmental protection, and nuclear disarmament. ‘Africa’s Peacemakers’ reveals how this remarkable collection of individuals has changed the world.Read more
Palestine in the International Criminal Court: impact and consequences!
The year 2014 ended with a cliff-hanger for the Israeli-Palestinian question. Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas signed the Rome Statute on New Year’s eve, a day after a UN resolution mandating Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank failed to pass at the Security Council. As a result, on 6 January 2015, the UN secretary-general confirmed by an official note that Palestine will accede to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on April 1, 2015. In this blog I will explain the meaning of the Palestinian accession, the procedure of preliminary examination by the International Criminal Court and possible consequences for the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.Read more
The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 and the Roadmap to Israeli-Palestinian Permanent Peace!
Between 11 and 18 October the Youth Peace Initiative 2014 took place in The Hague, international City of Peace and Justice. The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 (YPI 2014) has been set up to get Israeli and Palestinian youth involved with the current peace negotiations between their nations. The YPI 2014 participants discussed and deliberated a whole week to achieve consensus on ideas and solutions for the peace process.Read more
Extending the Coalition against Islamic State
Yesterday, Turkey’s parliament has backed a motion that could allow its military to enter Iraq and Syria to join the campaign against Islamic State (IS) militants. While Arab countries including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Bahrain and Qatar have quickly joined the bombing campaign, Washington’s traditional Western allies had been slow to answer the call from U.S. President Barack Obama. France was the first Western country to respond, but this week national parliaments in the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Australia have approved to join the global coalition against Islamic State too.Read more
Modern Technology and Its Potential Role in Peace Building and Conflict Prevention
On August 20, the Hague Institute for Global Justice organized a high level panel on ‘Peace Technologies’ together with the newly established Peace Informatics Lab of Leiden Univeristy. A discussion was held between experts from civil society groups, governmental institutions, academia and the private sector to exchange ideas and examine what role modern technology can play in peace processes or in the prevention of conflicts. The event was an important opportunity to share knowledge in what is considered to be a revolutionary field. This blog will provide a brief summary of this event as well as give some background information on this particular subject.Read more
Hague Academy Model United Nations on Drone Warfare and International Law
Directed energy weapons, drones, self targeting bullets, mobile tactical high energy lasers, military robots, spy weapons, weapons undetectable under an x-ray scan, remote controlled insect armies, self driving tanks, robotic mules, thermal camouflage, surveillance technologies and autonomous unmanned systems are some examples of the high tech weapons and military technology that are now used during warfare. The use of this state of the art military technology raises serious ethical and legal questions: (when) is the use of drones acceptable?Read more
Interview: Dr. Christian Noack
This month, our first time guest editor and colleague, Ms. Anna Duszczyk, invited Dr. Christian Noack from the University of Amsterdam, for an in-depth interview on the current crisis in Ukraine. Dr. Noack is an expert on Eastern European History, Media Studies and Slavonic Studies. In this interview, he will discuss his views on the current political situation in Ukraine and the role of Russia and the European Union in the crisis.Read more
Nuclear security: Dangers and Achievements
Nuclear security is generally accepted to mean “the prevention of, detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities”. In short it is about preventing terrorists from acquiring radioactive material or attacking nuclear facilities. Since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, nuclear security concerns have been heightened, but how real is the danger and what are the legal instruments to combat nuclear terrorism?Read more
A Justification for Russia’s Intervention?
In the last week Russian military forces have occupied Crimea, the Ukrainian Black Sea peninsula where the majority of the population is ethnic Russian and the Russian Black Sea Fleet is deployed in the city of Sevastopol. In the Russian constitution a few articles describe circumstances where a primacy of Russian constitutional law above international law may occur. How does Russia legally justify its intervention? Guest Blog by Anna K. Duszczyk.Read more
Nuclear Security Summit 2014: Preventing Nuclear Terrorism Around the Globe
On 24 and 25 March 2014 the Third Nuclear Security Summit will take place here in The Hague. Nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to international peace and security. Even though the chance of a terrorist nuclear attack is small, the consequences would be enormous. The Nuclear Security Summit aims to enhance international cooperation in order to combat nuclear terrorist threats by preventing the illicit acquisition of nuclear material by non-state actors such as smugglers and terrorist groups.Read more
Open Season for Whistleblowers? Snowden and the right to privacy
One of the best known whistleblowers at the moment is Edward Snowden. Snowden gave certain selected NSA documents to the Guardian and the Washington Post because “I can’t in good conscience allow the U.S. government to destroy privacy, internet freedom and basic liberties for people around the world with this massive surveillance machine they’re secretly building”.Read more
ARGO and the Follow-Up: Iran and the United States
33 Years after the event, Hollywood has turned its attention to an episode that traumatized the United States for months: the seizure of the American Embassy in Tehran. As the US Embassy falls to a group of Islamist students and militants in support of the Iranian revolution and in retaliation for the USA’s sheltering of the recently deposed Shah, six diplomats slip out and seek sanctuary in the Canadian’s ambassador’s residence. It is up to the CIA’s Tony Mendez (Ben Affleck) to extract them from the country before they are discovered by the Revolutionary Guards. The plan? Create a fake movie, called Argo, and pretend they’re the crew.Read more
Colombia: At Last Peace with the FARC?
Columbia’s fourth attempt at peace with the Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (FARC) started formally last month in Oslo and will continue the 15th of November in Havana, Cuba. The earlier attempts- starting in 1984, 1990 and 1998- to end one of Latin America’s longest and bloodiest armed conflict all failed. Why would the outcome of the peace talks this time be different?Read more
The Legality of Drone Attacks
According to a recent report by Stanford and New York Universities’ law schools (Living Under Drones), the current US drone strike policy is counterproductive, has injured and killed civilians and undermines respect for international law. This blog explores briefly both the ius ad bellum and ius in bello implications of drone attacks.Read more
The Body Counts : Civilian Casualties in War
Throughout the post Cold War period there has been a widespread view that war and armed conflict have changed radically since the First World War to the point where some 80-90% of war victims are now civilians. Many modern wars have been accompanied by significant depopulations, along with destruction of infrastructure and resources.Read more
Ivory Coast : UNOCI mandat prolonged until 30 June 2011
At 20 December 2010 the United Nations Security Council (SC/10132) extended the mission in Cote d’Ivoire until 30 June 2011, strongly condemned attempts to usurp the will of the people and urged respect for the election outcome : Alassane Ouattara, a former prime minister, banker and leader of the opposition, has been recognized as the winner of November’s election by the United Nations, the African Union, the United States and the European Union. The incumbent president, Laurent Gbagbo has resisted repeated calls for him to cede the office.Read more
The Nobel Peace Prize 2010: Liu Xiaobo
Foto scanpize reuters handout The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2010 to Liu Xiaobo for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China. The Norwegian Nobel Committee has long held the view that human rights and peace are closely linked. Human rights are essential for […]Read more
Cyberwar: From Fiction to Fact
Computers rather than missiles could pose the biggest security threat of the future with nations able to cripple rivals by using cyberwarfare. Computer strikes could damage a country’s infrastructure as well as defence equipment, cutting off communications, power supplies and military command systems. Major interference on a large scale can be generated by computer viruses. A computer hacker can launch an attack by infiltrating databases and destroying critical data in any industry, company or government organization. Imagine the devastation of a deliberate power outage or shortage in the water supply. We’ve seen the dire results when this occurs because of a natural disaster. Such conflict has the ability to completely incapacitate an economy. The use of computers and internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace, is becoming increasingly more sophisticated.Read more
Military coup in Honduras: Zelaya going for president again? No (update)
The Organization of American States (OAS) suspended Honduras on Saturday after the Supreme Court of Honduras has rejected to reinstate President Manuel Zelaya.
The plane was kept from landing at the main Honduras airport Sunday because the runway was blocked by groups of soldiers with military vehicles, some of them lined up against a crowd of thousands outside. His Venezuelan pilots circled around the airport and decided not to risk a crash.
Honduran coup leaders had three days to restore deposed President Manuel Zelaya to power, the Organization of American States (OAS) said Wednesday, before Honduras risks being suspended from the group.Read more
North Korea Confirms Nuclear Test
North Korea has conducted its second nuclear test, the country’s state news agency KCNA announced today. The nuclear test was expected. Earlier this year North Korea conducted a failed intercontinental missile test.Read more
International Conference on Afghanistan, The Hague, 31 March 2009
On 31 March 2009, the Dutch government is hosting the ´International Conference on Afghanistan: a Comprehensive Strategy in a Regional Context´ at the World Forum in The Hague. Building on the achievements of previous Conferences in Bonn, London and Paris, this Conference should reaffirm the solid and long-term commitment of the international community to supporting […]Read more
UNHCR concerned about displaced Congolese and continuing LRA attacks
On 13 January 2009 the U.N. refugee agency UNHCR published a news story about the humanitarian situation in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The UNHCR estimated that 537 people had been killed in LRA attacks since September in Oriental Province, which borders Uganda and South Sudan.
On the same day, Joe Bavier of Reuters reported UN-“officials said the security and humanitarian situation in Democratic Republic of Congo’s Oriental Province had sharply deteriorated since the military operation started on December 14. Uganda, Congo and South Sudan launched the joint offensive against the Ugandan rebel Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in Congo’s Garamba National Park.”Read more
New Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) to be signed on December 3, 2008
Cluster Bomb Tour Bus takes on Eastern Europe On Wednesday, 1st October an eight-week campaign trail through Europe was launched to convince all governments to sign a groundbreaking treaty banning cluster bombs, in Oslo on December 3, 2008. Beginning in Belgrade, Serbia and ending at the signing ceremony in Norway, the Ban Bus will rally […]Read more
Peace and Justice!
On Thursday, 31 July, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1828 (2008) renewing the mandate of UNAMID, the UN-African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur, for another year (resolution [PDF] and meeting record S/PV.5947 [PDF]).Read more
United Nations Sanctions Against Zimbabwe Leadership Vetoed
A United States-led attempt to impose United Nations (UN) sanctions against Zimbabwe failed when on Friday, 11 July, China and Russia, both permanent members of the UN Security Council, voted against a draft resolution that would have instituted a travel ban and asset freeze against President Robert Mugabe and thirteen senior government/security officials in connection with the election violence in Zimbabwe.Read more