International Peace and Security
Nowadays many international or regional organizations are involved in peacemaking, peace-enforcing and peacekeeping activities: United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, African Union, European Union, etc. In fact, they send multinational forces to the various conflict areas. While the expression ‘collective security’ does not occur in the United Nations Charter, it is often used to refer to the system for the maintenance of international peace and security under the UN Charter and the corresponding provisions of regional organizations. According to the UN Charter the United Nations have the primary responsilibility ‘[t]o maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace…’ (Art. 1 (1) UN Charter). If it determines, in accordance with Art. 39 UN Charter, the existence of a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, the UN Security Council may make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken by members of the UN to maintain or restore international peace and security.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research in the field of International Peace and Security. It provides the basic materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's classification index codes 41. International police and 179. International Peace and Security and subject heading (keyword) International Peace and Security are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Benner, T., S. Mergenthaler and P. Rothmann, The New World of UN Peace Operations: Learning to Build Peace?, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Isely, E.R. (ed.), United Nations Peacekeeping in the 21st Century, New York, NY, Nova Science Publishers, 2011.
- Kawamura, N., Y. Murakami and S. Chiba (eds.), Building New Pathways to Peace, Seattle, WA, University of Washington Press, 2011.
- Orakhelashvili, A., Collective Security, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Ángeles Cano Linares, M. de los, Orígenes y fundamentos prácticos del mantenimiento de la paz en Naciones Unidas: las posiciones durante el período de la Guerra Fría, Madrid, Dykinson, 2011.
- Bellamy, A.J. and Paul D. Williams, Providing Peacekeepers : the Politics, Challenges, and Future of United Nations Peacekeeping Contributions, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.
- Gaese, L.-M., Zwangsmaßnahmen des Sicherheitsrates bei völkerrechtskonformem Staatenverhalten?, Hamburg : Kovač, 2013.
- Hehir, A., N. Kuhrt and A. Mumford (eds.), International Law, Security and Ethics: Policy Challenges in the Post-9/11 World, New York, Routledge, 2011.
- Mangala, J. (ed.), New Security Threats and Crises in Africa: Regional and International Perspectives, New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
- Nasu, H., International Law on Peacekeeping: a Study of Article 40 of the UN Charter, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2009.
- Peou, S., Peace and Security in the Asia-Pacific: Theory and Practice, Santa Barbara, CA, Praeger Security International, 2010.
- Tshiyembe, M., Le droit de la sécurité internationale, Paris, l'Harmattan, 2010.
- Winther, D., Regional Maintenance of Peace and Security under International Law : the Distorted Mirrors, London, Routledge, 2014.
- Apostolidis, C., "Le souverain, la regle, l'exeption", Revue ge´ne´rale de droit international public, 117 (2013), No. 4, pp 795-831.
- Carswell, A.J., "Unblocking the UN Security Council : the Uniting for Peace Resolution", Journal of conflict and security law, 18 (2013), No. 3, pp. 453-480.
- Corso, N., "À propos de l'applicabilité du droit de l'occupation militaire aux forces des Nations Unies", Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur internationales und europaisches Recht, 23 (2013), No. 4, pp. 609-638.
- Daillier, P., "Les opérations multinationales consécutives à des conflits armés en vue du rétablissement de la paix", 314 Recueil des cours, The Hague, Hague Academy of International Law, 2005, pp. 233-431.
- Feldman, D., "The Role of Constitutional Principles in Protecting International Peace and Security through International, Supranational and National Legal Institutions", in C. Geiringer and D.R. Knight (eds.), Seeing the World Whole: Essays in Honour of Sir Kenneth Keith, Wellington, Victoria University Press, 2008, pp. 17-47.
- Khan, R., "United Nations Peace-Keeping in Internal Conflicts: Problems and Perspectives", Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, 4 (2000), pp. 543-581.
- Hampson, F.O., "The Evolution of Security in a Globalizing World", in G. Finizio and E. Gallo (eds.) Democracy at the United Nations : UN Reform in the Age of Globalisation, Bruxelles, Lang, 2013, pp. 217-229.
- Schmalenbach, K., "Der Schutz der Zivilbevölkerung durch UN-Friedensmissionen und die Rechtsfolgen bei Mandatsversagen", Archiv des Volkerrechts, 51 (2013), No.2, pp. 170-200.
- Juma, M. (ed.), Compendium of Key Documents relating to Peace and Security in Africa, Pretoria, Pretoria University Law Press, 2006.
- Weijers, H. (ed.), North Atlantic Treaty Organisation: 60th Anniversary : Selected Basic Documents and Background Materials, Nijmegen, Wolf Legal Publishers, 2009.
Periodicals, serial publications
- International Peacekeeping
- Journal of Conflict & Security Law
- Journal of International Peacekeeping
- Vierteljahreszeitschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden (S+F)
1. Guerra e responsabilidade
Keywords: Iraq, Iraq War (2003), Intervention, International responsibility, Use of force, International humanitarian law,
2. Autonomous weapons systems
Keywords: Armed forces, Robots, Autonomous weapon systems, Technology, Legislation, Deterrence, War, International humanitarian law, Compliance, Ethics,
3. Peace from below: Governance and peacebuiliding in Kerio Valley, Kenya
Keywords: Kenya, Peacebuilding, Conflict resolution, Peace process, Non-State actors, Governance,
4. Justice for Darfur
Keywords: International Criminal Court, Sudan, Darfur, Genocide, Transitional justice,
5. Autonomous Weapons Systems: Living a Dignified Life and Dying a Dignified Death
Keywords: Robots, Autonomous weapon systems, Unmanned vehicles, Military use, Death, Human life, Human dignity, Human rights, War, Ethics,
6. Staying in the Loop: Human Supervisory Control of Weapons
Keywords: Autonomous weapon systems, Unmanned vehicles, Military use, International humanitarian law, War, Ethics,
7. The Autonomy of Technological Systems and Responsibilities for their Use
Keywords: Autonomous weapon systems, Unmanned vehicles, Military use, Autonomy, Military technology, International humanitarian law, Laws of war, War, Ethics, Accountability,
8. Human-machine Autonomies
Keywords: Ethics, Autonomy, Artificial intelligence, Unmanned vehicles, Robots, Autonomous weapon systems,
9. Are Autonomous Weapons Systems a Threat to Human Dignity?
Keywords: Autonomous weapon systems, Human dignity, Ethics, Philosophy, War, Autonomy,
10. Der bewaffnete Einsatz der Bundeswehr gegen die Terrororganisation >Islamischer Staat< im Lichte des Staats-, Europa- und Völkerrechts
Keywords: Germany, Armed forces, National defence, Islamic State, Terrorism, Armed forces abroad, National security, Charter of the United Nations (San Francisco, 26 June 1945), Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community (Lisbon, 13 December 2007),
11. The Arms Trade Treaty
Keywords: Arms trade, International instruments, Commentaries, E-books,
12. The Legal Status of Employees of Private Military/Security Companies Participating in U.N. Peacekeeping Operations
Keywords: United Nations, Peacekeeping, Private military companies, Legal status,
13. (K)Ein Grund zur Panik?! Gedanken zum Wesen militärischer Innovation am Beispiel der Unterwasserautonomie
Keywords: Military technology, Innovation, Autonomous weapon systems, Submarines, Navy, War,
14. Die Rezeption der Revolution in Military Affairs und die Ursprünge der Vernetzten Sicherheit im deutschsprachigen Diskurs
Keywords: Germany, War, Armed forces, Security policy, Foreign policy,
15. Engendering Transitional Justice: a Transformative Approach to Building Peace and Attaining Human Rights for Women
Keywords: Post-conflict reconstruction, Gender, Women, Sex crimes, Transitional justice, Peacebuilding,
16. There Is a Crack in Everything: Problematising Masculinities, Peacebuilding and Transitional Justice
Keywords: Gender, Peacebuilding, Transitional justice, Violence, Hegemony,
17. Critical Perspectives on Intervention
Keywords: United States of America, Intervention, Politics, Use of force, International peace and security, International politics,
18. Critical Perspectives on Intervention
Keywords: United States of America, Intervention, Politics, Use of force, International peace and security, International politics,
19. Balancing Self-Defense and Mission Accomplishment in International Intervention
Keywords: United States of America, Syria, Self-defence, Rules of Engagement, Legality, Intervention, Use of force, International peace and security,
20. The Limits of Legality
Keywords: Middle East, Intervention, Legality, Use of force, International peace and security,
21. Method to the Madness of Chairman Kim
Keywords: Korea, North Korea, Nuclear weapons, Weapons of mass destruction, Proliferation, Regional security,
22. A Nuclear South Korea
Keywords: South Korea, North Korea, China, Nuclear weapons, Weapons of mass destruction, International relations,
23. The Indo-Canadian Nuclear Relationship: Possibilities and Challenges
Keywords: Canada, India, Nuclear energy, Proliferation, Cold war, International relations,
24. Environmental Protection as International Security: Conserving the Pentagon's Island Bases in the Asia-Pacific
Keywords: Asia and the Pacific, United States of America, Islands, Military bases, Defence policy, Environmental protection, Nature reserve, International peace and security, Geopolitics,
25. Reframing the anti-Mercenary Norm
Keywords: United States of America, Great Britain, Private military companies, United Nations, Military use, Military policy,
26. Transforming War Supply
Keywords: Great Britain, Outsourcing, Military expenditures, Military use, Military policy, Private military companies,
27. Evaluando la eficiencia de la Justicia Transicional
Keywords: Effectiveness, Transitional justice,
28. Self-Defence as a Circumstance Precluding the Wrongfulness of the Use of Force
Keywords: Charter of the United Nations (San Francisco, 26 June 1945), Self-defence, Use of force, State responsibility, Internationally wrongful acts, Public international law,
Fabre, C., Cosmopolitan Peace, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book articulates a cosmopolitan theory of the principles which ought to regulate belligerents' conduct in the aftermath of war. Throughout, it relies on the fundamental principle that all human beings, wherever they reside, have rights to the freedoms and resources which they need to lead a flourishing life, and that national and political borders are largely irrelevant to the conferral of those rights. With that principle in hand, the book provides a normative defence of restitutive and reparative justice, the punishment of war criminals, the resort to transitional foreign administration as a means to govern war-torn territories, and the deployment of peacekeeping and occupation forces. It also outlines various reconciliatory and commemorative practices which might facilitate the emergence of trust amongst enemies and thereby improve prospects for peace. The book offers analytical arguments and normative conclusions, with many historical and/or contemporary examples.
Dannreuther, R., International Security: the Contemporary Agenda, Cambridge, Polity, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
International Security is a cutting-edge analysis of the key security challenges and developments in the post-Cold War world. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary examples, from the Iraq war to the rise of China, it is an essential guide for students and policy makers seeking to understand the theoretical and empirical debates over the fast-changing nature of international security today.
The book is organized into four main parts. Part 1 provides an analytical framework for the book, identifying the most significant post-Cold War shifts in international security and recent theoretical developments in security studies. Part 2 analyses the root causes for contemporary warfare, the dilemmas and debates over military intervention, and the role played by the UN, NATO and other organizations in maintaining international peace and security. Part 3 assesses the challenges of environmental security, including the threat of resource-based conflict, most notably over oil and water, and the perceived security challenges of international migration. Part 4 discusses the new security challenges posed by international terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and cyber warfare. It explores the strategies and policies adopted by the United States, particularly in the aftermath of 9/11 and assesses the implications of the rise of China and other emerging powers.
Neri, K., L'emploi de la force en mer, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Le droit international contemporain se trouve face à un défi majeur : assurer la sécurité et la liberté des espaces maritimes, alors que l’on y observe une recrudescence des activités illicites ou dangereuses. L’étude s’inscrit dans le cadre de ce défi et tente de cerner la problématique de l’emploi de la force en mer afin de lutter contre ces activités. Dans le contexte du développement et de la mise en oeuvre de pouvoirs de police dans les zones maritimes, l’ouvrage démontre l’ambivalence de la police internationale relative à la mer. Il est caractérisé par une double juxtaposition entre l’objet de l’emploi de la force en mer (activités illicites de personnes privées ou actes illicites des états) et entre les acteurs chargés de lutter contre l’illicite en mer.
Matlary, J.H. and Petersson, M. (eds.), NATO's European Allies: Military Capability and Political Will, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This edited collection asks whether Europe, in a current situation of economic austerity and postmodern political values, can play a key role in regional and global security and defence. Hitherto Europeans have been called upon to rise to the occasion of matching the US with minor contributions, ranging from "showing the flag" to militarily important contributions. But when the US signals that its lead role no longer is automatic, what about the European allies? Can they and will they undertake sharp operations on their own, assuming leading roles? Which of NATO's European allies are able militarily, and willing politically, to undertake "sharp operations" and to actually use force for the purpose of policy? This issue is of key importance for policy as well as for scholarship on NATO. In this volume, the ability and willingness to use force for political purposes amongst NATO's European members are explored, firstly considering the important drivers for the use of force, namely history, political culture, economy and threat perceptions, and then scrutinising the use of force in eight European NATO countries: the UK, France, Germany, Spain, Poland, Hungary, Denmark and Norway.
Tercinet, J., Le maintien de la paix et de la sécurité internationales, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2012.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Ce recueil d’études, hommage de la communauté scientifique et des collègues et amis du professeur Josiane Tercinet, rassemble une sélection de ses publications - chroniques, études de cas et synthèses critiques - consacrées à l’analyse du maintien de la paix et de la sécurité internationales. Il propose une documentation rigoureuse et constitue une contribution scientifique précieuse pour la doctrine du droit et des relations internationales touchant à la sécurité. Résolument ancré dans une approche interdisciplinaire conjuguant harmonieusement le droit du maintien de la paix et la géopolitique, l’ouvrage apporte un éclairage lumineux sur les mutations profondes qui ont affecté le maintien de la paix depuis sa création, qu’il s’agisse de la diversification de ses opérations et de ses acteurs, de la complexification grandissante des modalités de ses interventions et des nécessaires articulations entre leurs différents niveaux, onusien ou non.
European Union in 2017
2016 has been a turbulent year for the European Union and its member states. Brexit, the armed conflict in Syria and Iraq, the refugee crisis, terrorism and the Italian referendum; all topics covered by the Peace Palace Library in several Library Specials and Library blogs.
2017 promises to be a defining moment for the continuation of the ever closing Union. This blog touches upon a couple of developments which can lead to discussion within the European Union and its members.Read more
Interview Sigrid Kaag
This month, we have the honor of interviewing Ms. Sigrid Kaag, a top Dutch diplomat who currently serves as a United Nations Special Coordinator for Lebanon (UNSCOL). Last month, the Dutch Carnegie Foundation awarded Sigrid Kaag the Carnegie Wateler Peace Prize. Before the ceremony took place, we took the opportunity to interview Ms. Kaag to discuss her work at the UN, in particular, the succesful UN-OPCW joint mission Ms. Kaag led to eliminate the chemical weapons programme in Syria. We also discussed the role of international law in her daily work at the UN. Here’s what she had to say.Read more
Defending Europe with an Army?
During the U.S. election campaign Trump threatened to abandon U.S. allies in Europe if they did not spend enough on defense. Apart from undermining the deterrence-effect of NATO, this policy would be disastrous for European security. Fortunately U.S. President Barack Obama has said: “In my conversation with the president-elect he expressed a great interest in maintaining our core strategic relationships and so, one of the messages I will be able to deliver is his commitment to NATO and the transatlantic alliance.” Although president Trump will retain America’s commitment to the NATO alliance, Europe is awake now after dozing in under the U.S. security umbrella.Read more
Peace & Security Salon on Biological and Chemical Weapons
What if a non-state actor like Daesh gets hold of a biological or chemical weapon? Why was the Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in 2013? These and many more topics concerning current threats and future developments of biological and chemical weapons were discussed at the third Peace Palace Library Peace & Security Salon on May 11th.Read more
Peace Weekend Celebrations – International Rule of Law?
This weekend The Hague will celebrate the International Day of Peace, September 21st, with a designated ‘Peace Weekend’.
The celebrations vary from a peace run (with a Peace Palace team) to The Hague Open Doors Event, where the Peace Palace Library, together with the other international organizations of The Hague, will open their doors to the public.Read more
Nuclear Deal, Sanctions, Nuclear Diplomacy
After nearly two years of arduous negotiations a comprehensive agreement on the nuclear program of Iran was signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015. In exchange for reducing Iran’s nuclear activities drastically, the United States and the European Union would lift their nuclear-related sanctions on the Iranian economy. Most countries and international organizations welcomed the agreement. Will U.S. President Obama be remembered as initiator of this ‘historic’ deal? The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is a nuclear agreement signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.Read more
Coalition against Islamic State: Too Many Obstacles?
After weeks of fighting, Islamic State succeeded in taking over the Iraqi city of Ramadi and it currently controls large parts of the al-Anbar province, which borders on Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia. Almost 25,000 residents have fled Ramadi. This week Islamic State also overran Syrian government troops to seize Palmyra (Homs province, Syria), home to the ruins of a 2,000-year-old city that was one of the most important cultural centers of the ancient world.The U.N. human rights office in Geneva said a third of Palmyra’s 200,000 residents may have fled the fighting in the past few days.Read more
Drones Deployed during War raise Various Legal and Ethical Questions
Drones can be used for many different purposes. The use of drones raises various legal and ethical questions ranging from humanitarian to privacy issues. The Peace and Security Salon of 9 April discussed these questions in the context of the deployment of armed drones and robots during wartime. Three specialists each discussed the use of drones from a different background.Read more
Drones and Robots as Means of Modern Warfare
Several aspects of autonomous weapons systems and the deployment of drones during warfare will be discussed during the upcoming Peace and Security Salon: “Drones and Robots as means of modern warfare” which will be held at the Peace Palace Library on Thursday, the 9th of april. The use of drones as a weapons system has increased exponentially in recent years and this has given rise to a significant degree of controversy and a number of specific questions relating to their use. Questions which arise in relation to drones and autonomous weapons systems include whether they are in conformity with or potentially capable of complying with IHL requirements in conditions of contemporary warfare, issues of accountability and responsibility and ethical questions.Read more
Africa's Peacemakers: Nobel Peace Laureates
As Africa and its diaspora commemorate fifty years of post-independence Pan-Africanism, Adekeye Adebajo’s new book ‘Africa’s Peace Makers: Nobel Peace Laureates of African Descent’ provides profound insight into the thirteen prominent individuals of African descent who have won the Nobel Peace Prize since 1950. These laureates have been variously involved in women’s rights, environmental protection, and nuclear disarmament. ‘Africa’s Peacemakers’ reveals how this remarkable collection of individuals has changed the world.Read more
Palestine in the International Criminal Court: impact and consequences!
The year 2014 ended with a cliff-hanger for the Israeli-Palestinian question. Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas signed the Rome Statute on New Year’s eve, a day after a UN resolution mandating Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank failed to pass at the Security Council. As a result, on 6 January 2015, the UN secretary-general confirmed by an official note that Palestine will accede to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on April 1, 2015. In this blog I will explain the meaning of the Palestinian accession, the procedure of preliminary examination by the International Criminal Court and possible consequences for the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.Read more
The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 and the Roadmap to Israeli-Palestinian Permanent Peace!
Between 11 and 18 October the Youth Peace Initiative 2014 took place in The Hague, international City of Peace and Justice. The Youth Peace Initiative 2014 (YPI 2014) has been set up to get Israeli and Palestinian youth involved with the current peace negotiations between their nations. The YPI 2014 participants discussed and deliberated a whole week to achieve consensus on ideas and solutions for the peace process.Read more
Extending the Coalition against Islamic State
Yesterday, Turkey’s parliament has backed a motion that could allow its military to enter Iraq and Syria to join the campaign against Islamic State (IS) militants. While Arab countries including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Bahrain and Qatar have quickly joined the bombing campaign, Washington’s traditional Western allies had been slow to answer the call from U.S. President Barack Obama. France was the first Western country to respond, but this week national parliaments in the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Australia have approved to join the global coalition against Islamic State too.Read more
Modern Technology and Its Potential Role in Peace Building and Conflict Prevention
On August 20, the Hague Institute for Global Justice organized a high level panel on ‘Peace Technologies’ together with the newly established Peace Informatics Lab of Leiden Univeristy. A discussion was held between experts from civil society groups, governmental institutions, academia and the private sector to exchange ideas and examine what role modern technology can play in peace processes or in the prevention of conflicts. The event was an important opportunity to share knowledge in what is considered to be a revolutionary field. This blog will provide a brief summary of this event as well as give some background information on this particular subject.Read more
Hague Academy Model United Nations on Drone Warfare and International Law
Directed energy weapons, drones, self targeting bullets, mobile tactical high energy lasers, military robots, spy weapons, weapons undetectable under an x-ray scan, remote controlled insect armies, self driving tanks, robotic mules, thermal camouflage, surveillance technologies and autonomous unmanned systems are some examples of the high tech weapons and military technology that are now used during warfare. The use of this state of the art military technology raises serious ethical and legal questions: (when) is the use of drones acceptable?Read more
Interview: Dr. Christian Noack
This month, our first time guest editor and colleague, Ms. Anna Duszczyk, invited Dr. Christian Noack from the University of Amsterdam, for an in-depth interview on the current crisis in Ukraine. Dr. Noack is an expert on Eastern European History, Media Studies and Slavonic Studies. In this interview, he will discuss his views on the current political situation in Ukraine and the role of Russia and the European Union in the crisis.Read more
Nuclear security: Dangers and Achievements
Nuclear security is generally accepted to mean “the prevention of, detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities”. In short it is about preventing terrorists from acquiring radioactive material or attacking nuclear facilities. Since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, nuclear security concerns have been heightened, but how real is the danger and what are the legal instruments to combat nuclear terrorism?Read more
A Justification for Russia’s Intervention?
In the last week Russian military forces have occupied Crimea, the Ukrainian Black Sea peninsula where the majority of the population is ethnic Russian and the Russian Black Sea Fleet is deployed in the city of Sevastopol. In the Russian constitution a few articles describe circumstances where a primacy of Russian constitutional law above international law may occur. How does Russia legally justify its intervention? Guest Blog by Anna K. Duszczyk.Read more
Nuclear Security Summit 2014: Preventing Nuclear Terrorism Around the Globe
On 24 and 25 March 2014 the Third Nuclear Security Summit will take place here in The Hague. Nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to international peace and security. Even though the chance of a terrorist nuclear attack is small, the consequences would be enormous. The Nuclear Security Summit aims to enhance international cooperation in order to combat nuclear terrorist threats by preventing the illicit acquisition of nuclear material by non-state actors such as smugglers and terrorist groups.Read more
Open Season for Whistleblowers? Snowden and the right to privacy
One of the best known whistleblowers at the moment is Edward Snowden. Snowden gave certain selected NSA documents to the Guardian and the Washington Post because “I can’t in good conscience allow the U.S. government to destroy privacy, internet freedom and basic liberties for people around the world with this massive surveillance machine they’re secretly building”.Read more
ARGO and the Follow-Up: Iran and the United States
33 Years after the event, Hollywood has turned its attention to an episode that traumatized the United States for months: the seizure of the American Embassy in Tehran. As the US Embassy falls to a group of Islamist students and militants in support of the Iranian revolution and in retaliation for the USA’s sheltering of the recently deposed Shah, six diplomats slip out and seek sanctuary in the Canadian’s ambassador’s residence. It is up to the CIA’s Tony Mendez (Ben Affleck) to extract them from the country before they are discovered by the Revolutionary Guards. The plan? Create a fake movie, called Argo, and pretend they’re the crew.Read more
Colombia: At Last Peace with the FARC?
Columbia’s fourth attempt at peace with the Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (FARC) started formally last month in Oslo and will continue the 15th of November in Havana, Cuba. The earlier attempts- starting in 1984, 1990 and 1998- to end one of Latin America’s longest and bloodiest armed conflict all failed. Why would the outcome of the peace talks this time be different?Read more
The Legality of Drone Attacks
According to a recent report by Stanford and New York Universities’ law schools (Living Under Drones), the current US drone strike policy is counterproductive, has injured and killed civilians and undermines respect for international law. This blog explores briefly both the ius ad bellum and ius in bello implications of drone attacks.Read more
The Body Counts : Civilian Casualties in War
Throughout the post Cold War period there has been a widespread view that war and armed conflict have changed radically since the First World War to the point where some 80-90% of war victims are now civilians. Many modern wars have been accompanied by significant depopulations, along with destruction of infrastructure and resources.Read more
Ivory Coast : UNOCI mandat prolonged until 30 June 2011
At 20 December 2010 the United Nations Security Council (SC/10132) extended the mission in Cote d’Ivoire until 30 June 2011, strongly condemned attempts to usurp the will of the people and urged respect for the election outcome : Alassane Ouattara, a former prime minister, banker and leader of the opposition, has been recognized as the winner of November’s election by the United Nations, the African Union, the United States and the European Union. The incumbent president, Laurent Gbagbo has resisted repeated calls for him to cede the office.Read more
The Nobel Peace Prize 2010: Liu Xiaobo
Foto scanpize reuters handout The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2010 to Liu Xiaobo for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China. The Norwegian Nobel Committee has long held the view that human rights and peace are closely linked. Human rights are essential for […]Read more
Cyberwar: From Fiction to Fact
Computers rather than missiles could pose the biggest security threat of the future with nations able to cripple rivals by using cyberwarfare. Computer strikes could damage a country’s infrastructure as well as defence equipment, cutting off communications, power supplies and military command systems. Major interference on a large scale can be generated by computer viruses. A computer hacker can launch an attack by infiltrating databases and destroying critical data in any industry, company or government organization. Imagine the devastation of a deliberate power outage or shortage in the water supply. We’ve seen the dire results when this occurs because of a natural disaster. Such conflict has the ability to completely incapacitate an economy. The use of computers and internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace, is becoming increasingly more sophisticated.Read more
Military coup in Honduras: Zelaya going for president again? No (update)
The Organization of American States (OAS) suspended Honduras on Saturday after the Supreme Court of Honduras has rejected to reinstate President Manuel Zelaya.
The plane was kept from landing at the main Honduras airport Sunday because the runway was blocked by groups of soldiers with military vehicles, some of them lined up against a crowd of thousands outside. His Venezuelan pilots circled around the airport and decided not to risk a crash.
Honduran coup leaders had three days to restore deposed President Manuel Zelaya to power, the Organization of American States (OAS) said Wednesday, before Honduras risks being suspended from the group.Read more
North Korea Confirms Nuclear Test
North Korea has conducted its second nuclear test, the country’s state news agency KCNA announced today. The nuclear test was expected. Earlier this year North Korea conducted a failed intercontinental missile test.Read more
International Conference on Afghanistan, The Hague, 31 March 2009
On 31 March 2009, the Dutch government is hosting the ´International Conference on Afghanistan: a Comprehensive Strategy in a Regional Context´ at the World Forum in The Hague. Building on the achievements of previous Conferences in Bonn, London and Paris, this Conference should reaffirm the solid and long-term commitment of the international community to supporting […]Read more
UNHCR concerned about displaced Congolese and continuing LRA attacks
On 13 January 2009 the U.N. refugee agency UNHCR published a news story about the humanitarian situation in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The UNHCR estimated that 537 people had been killed in LRA attacks since September in Oriental Province, which borders Uganda and South Sudan.
On the same day, Joe Bavier of Reuters reported UN-“officials said the security and humanitarian situation in Democratic Republic of Congo’s Oriental Province had sharply deteriorated since the military operation started on December 14. Uganda, Congo and South Sudan launched the joint offensive against the Ugandan rebel Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in Congo’s Garamba National Park.”Read more
New Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) to be signed on December 3, 2008
Cluster Bomb Tour Bus takes on Eastern Europe On Wednesday, 1st October an eight-week campaign trail through Europe was launched to convince all governments to sign a groundbreaking treaty banning cluster bombs, in Oslo on December 3, 2008. Beginning in Belgrade, Serbia and ending at the signing ceremony in Norway, the Ban Bus will rally […]Read more
Peace and Justice!
On Thursday, 31 July, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1828 (2008) renewing the mandate of UNAMID, the UN-African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur, for another year (resolution [PDF] and meeting record S/PV.5947 [PDF]).Read more
United Nations Sanctions Against Zimbabwe Leadership Vetoed
A United States-led attempt to impose United Nations (UN) sanctions against Zimbabwe failed when on Friday, 11 July, China and Russia, both permanent members of the UN Security Council, voted against a draft resolution that would have instituted a travel ban and asset freeze against President Robert Mugabe and thirteen senior government/security officials in connection with the election violence in Zimbabwe.Read more
More Research guides on War, Peace and Security
- International Humanitarian Law
- Use of Force
- War and Peace
- World War I
- World War II