Use of Force
Cornerstone to the prohibition of the resort to war - nowadays a principle of international law - is the General Treaty for the Renunciation of War or Kellogg Briand Pact (1928). This treaty entered into force at 24 July 1929 and is still in force and widely accepted. Although the League of Nations system did not prohibit war or the Use of Force but restricted it to tolerable levels, article 2(4) of the UN-Charter prohibits the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconstistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
In case of aggression by one nation-State against another, the United Nations Security Council is authorized under Chapter VII of the UN Charter to allow member states to take all necessary measures to maintain international peace and security. Some examples of Use of Force short of war: economic sanctions, boycott, pacific blockade, embargo, retorsion and reprisals.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on the Use of Force. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's systematic classification → Peace and security: Use of force, self-defense and subject heading (keyword) Use of Force are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Brownlie, I., International Law and the Use of Force by States, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1963.
- Dinstein, Y., War, Aggression and Self-Defence, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2012.
- Gray, C., International Law and the Use of Force, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008.
- O'Connell, M.E., International Law and the Use of Force: Cases and Materials, New York, NY, Foundation Press, Thomson West, 2009.
- Brownlie, I., International Law and the Use of Force by States, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1963.
- Cannizzarro, E. and P. Palchetti, Customary International Law on the Use of Force: a Methodological Approach, Leyden, Nijhoff, 2005.
- Corten, O., The Law against War: the Prohibition on the Use of Force in Contemporary International Law, Oxford, Hart, 2010.
- Helmke, B., Under Attack: Challenges to the Rules Governing the International Use of Force, Farnham, Ashgate, 2010.
- Hudson, K.A., Justice, Intervention, and Force in International Relations: Reassessing Just War Theory in the 21st Century, London, Routledge, 2009.
- Labrecque, G., Les Différends territoriaux en Europe: jurisprudence de la Cour Internationale de Justice, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2009.
- O'Connell, M.E., International Law and the Use of Force: Cases and Materials, New York, NY, Foundation Press/Thomson West, 2009.
- Westra, J., International Law and the Use of Armed Force: the UN Charter and the Major Powers, London, Routledge, 2007.
- Bethlehem, D., "Self-Defense Against an Imminent or Actual Armed Attack by Nonstate Actors", American Journal of International Law, 106 (2012), No. 4, pp. 769-777.
- Bianchi, A., "The International Regulation of the Use of Force: the Politics of Interpretative Method" in L. van den Herik and N. Schrijver (eds.), Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Fragmented International Legal Order: Meeting the Challenges, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013, pp. 283-316.
- Gray, C.D., "The Use of Force for Humanitarian Purposes", in N.D. White and C. Henderson (eds.), Research Handbook on International Conflict and Security Law: "Jus ad bellum, jus in bello", and "Jus post bellum", Cheltenham, Elgar, 2013, pp. 229-255.
- Gray, C.D., "The International Court of Justice and the Use of Force", in C. J. Tams and J. Sloan (eds.), The Development of International Law by the International Court of Justice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 237-261.
- Green, J.A., "Questioning the Peremptory Status of the Prohibition of the Use of Force", Michigan Journal of International Law, 32 (2011), No. 3, pp. 215-257.
- Helmersen, S.T., "The Prohibition of the Use of Force as Jus Cogens: Explaining Apparent Derogations", Netherlands International Law Review, 61 (2014), No.2, pp. 167-193.
- Kreß, C., "Major Post-Westphalian Shifts and Some Important Neo-Westphalian Hesitations in the State Practice on the International Law on the Use of Force", Journal on the Use of Force and International Law, 1 (2014), No.1, pp. 11-54.
- O'Connel, M.E., "The Prohibition of the Use of Force", in N.D. White and C. Henderson (eds.), Research Handbook on International Conflict and Security Law: "Jus ad bellum, jus in bello", and "Jus post bellum", Cheltenham, Elgar, 2013, pp. 89-119.
- Ruys, T., "The Meaning of "Force" and the Boundaries of the Jus Ad Bellum: Are "Minimal" Uses of Force Excluded from UN Charter Article 2(4)?", American Journal of International Law, 108 (2014), No. 2, pp. 159-210.
- Sayapin, S., "International Law, the Use of Force and the Crime of Aggression: from the Charter of the United Nations to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court", Asian Yearbook of International Law, 15 (2012), pp. 3-41.
- Slager, K., "Legality, Legitimacy and Anticipatory Self-Defence: Considering an Israeli Preemptive Strike on Iran's Nuclear Program", North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, 38 (2012), No. 1, pp. 267-325.
- Tronchetti, F., "The Right of Self-Defence in Outer Space : an Appraisal, Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht, 63 (2014), No. 1, pp. 92-120.
- Waxman, M.C., "Cyber-Attacks and the Use of Force: Back to the Future of Article 2(4)", Yale Journal of International Law, 36 (2011), No. 2, pp. 421-459.
- Webb, P., "Use of Force and the Emerging International Judicial System", in A. Byrnes, M. Hayashi and C. Michaelsen (eds.), International Law in the New Age of Globalization, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2013, pp. 121-143.
- Chapter VII United Nations Charter
- Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928Scott, S.V., A.J. Billingsley and C. Michaelsen, International Law and the Use of Force: a Documentary and Reference Guide, Santa Barbara, CA, Praeger Security International, 2010.
- Schmitt, M.N. (ed.), Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Systematic classification → Peace and Security, Intervention, Use of Force
1. Somali Pirates as Agents of Change in International Law-making and Organisation
Keywords: Somalia, Piracy, Protection, International co-operation, Use of force, Law enforcement, Soft law, Transnational crime,
2. al-Umam al-Muttaḥida wa-al-taḍḥiyya bi-al-amn al-insānī fī al-ʻIrāq
Keywords: Iraq, United States of America, Hegemony, Use of force, United Nations, Human security, Security Council, Occupation, Resistance,
Cryer, R. and C. Henderson (eds.), Law on the Use of Force and Armed Conflict, London, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This comprehensive four-volume compilation presents seminal works from leading authors on the use of force and armed conflict, beginning with detailed analysis of the prohibition of forcible intervention, including interpretation of the rule and notable exceptions to it. In addition, the collection offers a wealth of important material on the law of armed conflict in connection with its foundations, applicability, sources, substance, practical application, and implementation. Together with an original introduction by the editors, the collection provides a thorough grounding in the law relating to the initial use of force and subsequent armed conflict, and is an essential source of reference for practitioners, academics and students alike.
Maslen, S.K. and S. Connolly, Police Use of Force under International Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Policing is commonly thought to be governed by domestic legal systems and not international law. However, various international legal standards are shown to have an impact in situations where police use force. Police Use of Force under International Law explores this tension in detail for the first time. It critically reviews the use of force by law enforcement agencies in a range of scenarios: against detainees, during protests, and in the context of counterterrorism and counterpiracy operations. Key trends, such as the growing use of private security services, are also considered. This book provides a human rights framework for police weaponry and protection of at-risk groups based on critical jurisprudence from the last twenty years. With pertinent case law and case studies to illustrate the key principles of the use of force, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in policing, human rights, state use of force or criminology.
Fitzsimmons, S., Private Security Companies during the Iraq War: Military Performance and the Use of Deadly Force, London, Routledge, 2017.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
This book explores the use of deadly force by private security companies during the Iraq War. The work focuses on and compares the activities of the US companies Blackwater and Dyncorp. Despite sharing several important characteristics, such as working for the same client (the US State Department) during the same time period, the employees of Blackwater fired their weapons far more often, and killed and seriously injured far more people in Iraq than their counterparts in DynCorp. In order to explain this disparity, the book undertakes the most comprehensive analysis ever attempted on the use of violence by the employees of these firms. Based on extensive empirical research, it offers a credible explanation for this difference: Blackwater maintained a relatively bellicose military culture that placed strong emphasis on norms encouraging its personnel to exercise personal initiative, proactive use of force, and an exclusive approach to security, which, together, motivated its personnel to use violence quite freely against anyone they suspected of posing a threat. Specifically, Blackwater’s military culture motivated its personnel to fire upon suspected threats more quickly, at greater distances, and with a greater quantity of bullets, and to more readily abandon the people they shot at when compared to DynCorp’s personnel, who maintained a military culture that encouraged far less violent behaviour. Utilizing the Private Security Company Violent Incident Dataset (PSCVID), created by the author in 2012, the book draws upon data on hundreds of violent incidents involving private security personnel in Iraq to identify trends in the behaviour exhibited by the employees of different firms. Based on this rich and original empirical data, the book provides the definitive study of contemporary private security personnel in the Iraq War.
Ohlin, J.D. and L. May, Necessity in International Law, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Necessity is a notoriously dangerous and slippery concept-dangerous because it contemplates virtually unrestrained killing in warfare and slippery when used in conflicting ways in different areas of international law. Jens David Ohlin and Larry May untangle these confusing strands and perform a descriptive mapping of the ways that necessity operates in legal and philosophical arguments in jus ad bellum, jus in bello, human rights, and criminal law. Although the term "necessity" is ever-present in discussions regarding the law and ethics of killing, its meaning changes subtly depending on the context. It is sometimes an exception, at other times a constraint on government action, and most frequently a broad license in war that countenances the wholesale killing of enemy soldiers in battle. Is this legal status quo in war morally acceptable? Ohlin and May offer a normative and philosophical critique of international law's prevailing notion of jus in bello necessity and suggest ways that killing in warfare could be made more humane-not just against civilians but soldiers as well. Along the way, the authors apply their analysis to modern asymmetric conflicts with non-state actors and the military techniques most likely to be used against them. Presenting a rich tapestry of arguments from both contemporary and historical Just War theory, Necessity in International Law is the first full-length study of necessity as a legal and philosophical concept in international affairs.
Due-Gundersen, N., The Privatization of Warfare and Inherently Governmental Functions: Private Military Companies in Iraq and the State Monopoly of Regulated Force, Cambridge; Antwerp; Portland, Intersentia, 2016.View this title in our link resolver Plinklet
Since the 2003 U.S. led invasion of Iraq, the private military sector has seen the largest growth of profit for decades. As Iraq continues to be the focal point of private military clients, staff and related actors, the recurring issue of legitimacy must be addressed. While many texts focus only on existing or proposed legislation, this book analyses the public perception of private military companies (PMCs) and, of wider significance, how their use by states affects how the general public perceives state legitimacy of monopolizing force. Furthermore, this book provides a timely overview of how the energy sector and PMCs are challenging the established sovereignty of politically fragmented oil states, illustrating how energy firms may become as culpable as states in their partnerships with the private military sector and subsequent political ramifications.
Coalition against Islamic State: Too Many Obstacles?
After weeks of fighting, Islamic State succeeded in taking over the Iraqi city of Ramadi and it currently controls large parts of the al-Anbar province, which borders on Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia. Almost 25,000 residents have fled Ramadi. This week Islamic State also overran Syrian government troops to seize Palmyra (Homs province, Syria), home to the ruins of a 2,000-year-old city that was one of the most important cultural centers of the ancient world.The U.N. human rights office in Geneva said a third of Palmyra’s 200,000 residents may have fled the fighting in the past few days.Read more
Drones Deployed during War raise Various Legal and Ethical Questions
Drones can be used for many different purposes. The use of drones raises various legal and ethical questions ranging from humanitarian to privacy issues. The Peace and Security Salon of 9 April discussed these questions in the context of the deployment of armed drones and robots during wartime. Three specialists each discussed the use of drones from a different background.Read more
Drones and Robots as Means of Modern Warfare
Several aspects of autonomous weapons systems and the deployment of drones during warfare will be discussed during the upcoming Peace and Security Salon: “Drones and Robots as means of modern warfare” which will be held at the Peace Palace Library on Thursday, the 9th of april. The use of drones as a weapons system has increased exponentially in recent years and this has given rise to a significant degree of controversy and a number of specific questions relating to their use. Questions which arise in relation to drones and autonomous weapons systems include whether they are in conformity with or potentially capable of complying with IHL requirements in conditions of contemporary warfare, issues of accountability and responsibility and ethical questions.Read more
Extending the Coalition against Islamic State
Yesterday, Turkey’s parliament has backed a motion that could allow its military to enter Iraq and Syria to join the campaign against Islamic State (IS) militants. While Arab countries including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Bahrain and Qatar have quickly joined the bombing campaign, Washington’s traditional Western allies had been slow to answer the call from U.S. President Barack Obama. France was the first Western country to respond, but this week national parliaments in the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Australia have approved to join the global coalition against Islamic State too.Read more
ICC to Investigate War Crimes in Gaza?
On July 23, Navi Pillay, the U.N.’s High Commissioner for Human Rights, suggested that attacks on civilians by both Israel and Hamas may have violated international law “in a manner that could amount to war crimes.” Senior British lawyers have written to the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague, urging it to investigate “crimes” committed in Gaza, including the destruction of homes, hospitals and schools. The lawyers say that it is within the ICC’s jurisdiction to act because the government of Palestine made a declaration in 2009 accepting the court’s role and the UN has since acknowledged Palestine as a non-member observer state.Read more
Hague Academy Model United Nations on Drone Warfare and International Law
Directed energy weapons, drones, self targeting bullets, mobile tactical high energy lasers, military robots, spy weapons, weapons undetectable under an x-ray scan, remote controlled insect armies, self driving tanks, robotic mules, thermal camouflage, surveillance technologies and autonomous unmanned systems are some examples of the high tech weapons and military technology that are now used during warfare. The use of this state of the art military technology raises serious ethical and legal questions: (when) is the use of drones acceptable?Read more
Hamas versus Israel : Gaza dangerzone again
The military leader of the Palestinian militant group Hamas, Ahmed Jabari, has been assassinated in an Israeli air strike in Gaza. Who is the initial aggressor in this particular case? Peace negotiations with Hamas resulted in a ceasefire on November 21, at 9 pm., which has been respected so far.
Both parties claim the victory.Read more
The Legality of Drone Attacks
According to a recent report by Stanford and New York Universities’ law schools (Living Under Drones), the current US drone strike policy is counterproductive, has injured and killed civilians and undermines respect for international law. This blog explores briefly both the ius ad bellum and ius in bello implications of drone attacks.Read more
Conference about ICJ's judgment in the case between Nicaragua and the USA
In 1986, the International Court of Justice issued its judgment on the merits in a dispute between Nicaragua and the United States of America. Twenty-five years later, members of the legal teams of both Nicaragua and the United States faced each other once again in the Peace Palace.Read more
Georgia on his mind. From R2P toR2I?
Russia always maintained that its intervention in Georgia was justified by the principle of “responsibility to protect” (R2P).Read more
Russian President Medvedev, also supreme military commander, introduced an amendment to the Russian defense Law to allow Russian armed forces to intervene beyond Russian borders.
UN report accuses Israel of recklessness in Gaza
A U.N. inquiry accused Israel on Tuesday 5 May of gross negligence and recklessness in attacks on U.N. property in the Gaza strip during fighting between the Jewish state and Palestinian militants in January (see the article of Patrick Worsnip in Reuters).Read more
An article of the Guardian by Ed Pilkington (New York) and Rory McCarthy in (Jerusalem) at Tuesday 5 May 2009 reports that: “The summary of the UN report, commissioned by the UN secretary general, Ban Ki-moon, censured the Israeli government for causing death, injuries and damage to UN property in seven incidents involving action by the Israeli Defence Force (IDF).
More Research guides on War, Peace and Security
- International Humanitarian Law
- International Peace and Security
- War and Peace
- World War I
- World War II