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European Union

  • Wake up call for Europe

    June 30, 2016

    Last Thursday, June 23, the British people voted to leave the European Union in an unprecedented referendum about membership of the European Union. According to the official result 51.9% of the registered voters choose to leave against 48.1% who wanted the United Kingdom to remain a member of the European Union. This blog will assess certain aspects of the outcome of the referendum and will try to clarify what the next steps of the so-called Brexit are.

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  • Brexit: Countdown to a Possible Withdrawal Procedure

    June 16, 2016

    On June 23, the United Kingdom will vote “in” or “out” on its membership in the European Union. What is the procedure of withdrawal and the Treaty Article which governs it all if the U.K. does indeed vote for a “Brexit” from the EU? Article 50 of the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union outlines the procedural steps for a Member State wishing to withdraw from the EU. This provision was introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon (in force 1 December 2009). The treaty foresees two options in which withdrawal can occur. The first option is the conclusion of a withdrawal agreement. The second option is that no agreement is reached.

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  • Vessel-Source Air Pollution Remains Global ‘Blindspot’

    June 2, 2016

    Shipping is considered to be a significant source of global air pollution, both for conventional pollutants and greenhouse gases. Sulphur and black carbon, also called soot, are released in the air in large quantities because large (container and cruise) ships use heavy bunker oil. This is oil from the waste well of the oil industry, the cheapest and dirtiest thing you can get. Seventeen containerships emit as much sulfur as all the cars on the planet in one year. And one cruise ship emits a day as much soot as one million cars.

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  • Brexit New Titles

    Selective Bibliography Economic Abeyratne, R., “Brexit and Air Transport Economics in the United Kingdom”, German journal of air and space law: Vierteljahresschrift des Instituts für Luft- und Weltraumrecht der Universität Köln, 66 (2017), No. 2, pp. 212-227. Adlung, R., “Brexit from a WTO/GATS Perspective: Towards an Easy Divorce?”, Journal of world trade: law, economics, public […]

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  • Dutch Referendum on the EU’s Association Agreement with Ukraine

    March 31, 2016

    Today, Wednesday April 6th, citizens in the Netherlands can cast their votes in an unprecedented advisory referendum. The question put to a vote is whether the Dutch government should ratify the European Union’s Association Agreement with Ukraine or not. This blog provides some background of the EU’s Association Agreement with Ukraine and the lead up to today’s referendum.

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  • Book Launch: From Common Market to Common Democracy

    March 31, 2016

    Our esteemed guest blogger Jaap Hoeksma, philosopher of law, director of Euroknow and creator of the Boardgame Eurocracy, has presented his new book From Common Market to Common Democracy: A Theory of Democratic Integration in the Peace Palace Library during a special book launch ceremony. The monograph is a small book with a relatively long history. It has been triggered by the reactions to Hoeksma’s finding that the Lisbon Treaty construes the European Union as a democracy without, however, turning the Union into a State. In order to submit his ideas to academic scrutiny, Hoeksma initiated a scientific meeting in the Peace Palace some time ago with a view to establish whether the European Union may be regarded as a new phenomenon in International Law, and, if so, how this novel entity can be described. In a series of blogs on our website Jaap Hoeksma explored the intricacies of the Westphalian system of International Relations.

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  • Launching a New Article 1 Treaty on European Union

    March 4, 2016

    As the late Umberto Eco already suggested, a library is not merely a collection of books, but also forms an intellectual meeting place. In the past scholars used to meet each other at the lender’s desk or in the reading room. Thanks to the digital innovations of the last decades, the Peace Palace Library blogs have become a breeding place for innovative ideas in the field of International and European Law. Thousands of visitors of the PPL-website are using the opportunity to read the weekly blogs and to contribute to development of new approaches and, indeed, of paradigm shifts.

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  • From Common Market to Common Democracy

    Beyond Ever Closer Union

    March 4, 2016

    Presentation new article 1 TEU in Peace Palace Library on 4 March 2016 at 16.00 hours. In the wake of the meeting of the European Council, during which the conditions for the continuation of the British membership of the EU have been negotiated, the Dutch philosopher of law Jaap Hoeksma will be presenting an alternative for the disputed term ‘ever closer union’.

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  • From Common Market to Common Democracy

    From Common Market to Common Democracy

    February 5, 2016

    Almost twenty five years after its foundation in 1992 the EU has established itself as a new polity in international law with an own and distinct model of governance. Contrary to the expectations of the signatories of the Maastricht Treaty the EU has neither become a state nor a free trade zone. The EU is not a State because sovereignty in the polity remains with the member States. According to the EU Court of Justice the EU is even ‘by its very nature precluded from being regarded as a State’.

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  • Enforcing the Rule of Law: The Case of Poland

    Enforcing the Rule of Law: The Case of Poland

    January 22, 2016

    After the Law and Justice Party (PiS) took control over the presidency in May 2015 and won a clear majority in Poland’s last parliamentary elections in October 2015, the new conservative PiS government quickly expanded its control over the media and judiciary. They did so by introducing controversial amendments to laws, which were first passed through the Sejm: the Polish Parliament and then approved by the Senate and Poland’s new President Duda.

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