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Peace treaties (1919-1920) @fr

  • Treaty of Versailles Centennial

    juin 28, 2019

    Today, 28 june 2019, is the Centennial of the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. Signed on 28 June 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles Palace, the Treaty was the most important of the peace treaties that brought an end to World War I. To mark this anniversary, the Peace Palace Library has put together a collection of books exploring the background and aftermath of the Versailles Treaty. This collection will be published on the website and social media.

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  • Treaty of Versailles Centennial: Mandates

    juin 27, 2019

    The mandate system was created in the aftermath of World War I to resolve the question of jurisdiction over the colonial territories detached from Germany and the Ottoman Empire. Article 119 of the Versailles required Germany to renounce sovereignty over former colonies and Article 22 converted the territories into League of Nations mandates under the control of Allied states. Togoland and German Kamerun (Cameroon) were transferred to France. Ruanda and Urundi were allocated to Belgium, whereas German South-West Africa went to South Africa and the United Kingdom obtained German East Africa.

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  • Treaty of Versailles Centennial: Territorial Changes

    juin 20, 2019

    The Versailles Treaty stripped Germany of 65,000 km2 of territory and circa 7 million people. It also required Germany to give up the gains made in the East. In Western Europe Germany was required to recognize Belgian sovereignty over Moresnet and cede control of the Eupen-Malmedy area. To compensate for the destruction of French coal mines, Germany was to cede the output of the Saar coalmines to France and control of the Saar to the League of Nations for 15 years; a plebiscite would then be held to decide sovereignty. The treaty “restored” the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine to France. The sovereignty of Schleswig-Holstein was to be resolved by a plebiscite to be held at a future time.

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  • Treaty of Versailles Centennial: Wilson’s Fourteen Points

    juin 18, 2019

    Wilson’s Fourteen Points had helped win the hearts and minds of many as the war ended; these included Americans and Europeans generally, as well as Germany, its allies and the former subjects of the Ottoman Empire specifically. Wilson felt it was his duty and obligation to the people of the world to be a prominent figure at the peace negotiations. High hopes and expectations were placed on him to deliver what he had promised for the post-war era. In doing so, Wilson ultimately began to lead the foreign policy of the United States toward interventionism, a move strongly resisted in some domestic circles.

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  • Treaty of Versailles Centennial: British Aims in Paris

    juin 17, 2019

    During the Paris Peace Conference and for the most of the period after 1919, the aims, interests, and policies of Britain differed fundamentally from those of France. Neither of the two countries was able to pursue unhampered the course it laid out for itself. Great Britain had suffered huge casualties but little land devastation during the war. However, the British wartime coalition was re-elected at the end of 1918, with a policy of squeezing the German “’til the pips squeak”. Public opinion favoured a “just peace”, which would force Germany to pay reparations and be unable to repeat the aggression of 1914, although those of a “liberal and advanced opinion” shared Wilson’s ideal of a peace of reconciliation.

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  • Treaty of Versailles Centennial: French Aims in Paris

    juin 14, 2019

    What war aims did the French have during World War I and how did they negotiate the treaties that ended this war? In 1917 the Comité d’études was created by Aristide Briand to assist the French Government in formulating these aims. The work of this Comité resulted in an impressive report of around 1500 pages: maps, statistics, tracing the borders of the Alsace, the Saar Region, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans, etc. At the Paris Peace Conference, the French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau, controlled his delegation and his chief goal was to weaken Germany militarily, strategically and economically.

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  • Treaty of Versailles Centennial: Negotiations in Paris

    juin 13, 2019

    This year is the Centennial of the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. Signed on 28 June 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles Palace, the Treaty was the most important of the peace treaties that brought an end to World War I. To mark this anniversary, the Peace Palace Library has put together a collection of books exploring the background and aftermath of the Versailles Treaty. This collection will be published on the website and social media.

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  • Book Launch ‘The Art of Making Peace’

    avril 12, 2017

    On Monday, March 20, the Peace Palace Library and the Carnegie Foundation organized the first book launch of this year. ‘ The Art of Making Peace; Lessons learned from the Peace Treaties’ holds special meaning to us as it is a reflection of an international conference that took place during the Peace Palace Centenary in 2013. The volume offers critical reflections by the leading experts of this conference on important peace agreements such as the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, the mother of all peace treaties, as well as some more recent examples such as the Dayton Peace Agreement and the Sudan Agreement. In addition, the situations which arose in relation to the wars between Iran and Iraq and between Kuwait and Iraq are also discussed.

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  • Kaiser Wilhelm II

    A Supreme Offence against International Morality and the Sanctity of Treaties: William II of Hohenzollern and the Treaty of Versailles

    juin 27, 2014

    Early during World War I, jurists and statesmen in both France and Great-Britain, such as Larnaude and Lapradelle, had advocated the German Emperor William II to be arrested and brought to trial. The principle that military officers should be held personally responsible for orders in violation of the laws and customs of war, if pushed to its logical limits, would render commanders-in-chief, that is heads of State, liable for illegal acts for which they are responsible, directly or indirectly. And in Germany, there was one commander-in-chief: the Emperor William II.

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  • First World War Centenary

    First World War Centenary

    juin 27, 2014

    The Peace Palace Library will commemorate the First World War Centenary with a series of blogs and items on the website. The Library’s collection on the Great War is focused on aspects of international law: the laws of war, the Paris Peace Conference, the peace treaties of 1919-1920, the war reparations and the politics of its memory. For that purpose, an extensive Research Guide on the topic has been prepared as a starting point for research in the Library. On display right now in our Reading Room showcase the most recent publications on the topic.

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