Peace Palace Library
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Research guide Use of Force

Use of Force | Research Guide International law

The UN-Charter prohibits the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconstistent with the purposes of the United Nations. In case of aggression by one nation-State against another, the United Nations Security Council is authorized under Chapter VII of the UN Charter to allow member states to take all necessary measures to maintain international peace and security. Some examples of Use of Force short of war : economic sanctions, boycott, pacific blockade, embargo, retorsion and reprisals.

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Library blog The Raid on the Medway, 1667: Forcing Peace at Breda

350 Years ago, the Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark-Norway. It brought a hasty end to the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667) in favour of the Dutch. It was a typical quick uti possidetis treaty. In the latter stages of the war, the Dutch had prevailed. Lieutenant-Admiral-General Michiel de Ruyter virtually controlled the seas around the south coast of England. His presence encouraged English commissioners to sue for peace quickly. Negotiations, which had been long protracted, and had actually begun in Breda before the raid, took only ten days to conclude after resumption of talks.

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News and events Raising the Peace Flag

On Wednesday, 21 June 2017 at 1:30 pm, the Pro Concordia Labor Flag will be raised at the Visitor’s Centre of the Peace Palace to commemorate the 103rd anniversary of the death of Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914). To attend this event registration is required. Please register by sending an email to
Peace Palace Library

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Women’s Rights and Gender Equality


Women’s rights are the fundamental human rights that were enshrined by the United Nations for every human being on the planet nearly 70 years ago. These rights include the right to live free from violence, slavery, and discrimination; to be educated; to own property; to vote; and to earn a fair and equal wage. Gender equality is achieved when women and men enjoy the same rights and opportunities across all sectors of society, including economic participation and decision-making, and when the different behaviours, aspirations and needs of women and men are equally valued and favoured.

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Kosovo Specialist Chambers & Specialist Prosecutor’s Office

The ‘Kosovo Specialist Chambers & Specialist Prosecutor’s Office’ (hereinafter the Specialist Chambers) are tasked with the prosecution of individuals for crimes against humanity, war crimes and other crimes under Kosovo law which occurred between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2000 in Kosovo. It is the fourth iteration of an internationalized mechanism in the Kosovo criminal justice system.

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Peace Palace Library showcase

  • 523 F 32

  • S 2539 d.9

  • Andres Sáenz de Santa Maria, P. & R. Rodriguez Magdaleno, Derecho Internacional Público: Textos y Materiales, Cizur Menor (Navarra), Civitas/Thomson Reuters, 2016.

  • 523 F 34

  • 521 B 28

  • S 2422 d.39

You can find the showcase in our Reading Room.